Linux 上 SQL Server 2017 的各版本和支持的功能Editions and supported features of SQL Server 2017 on Linux

适用于:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server(所有支持的版本)yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions) - Linux适用于:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server(所有支持的版本)yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions) - Linux

本文详细介绍 Linux 上的 SQL Server 2017 的不同版本支持的功能。This article provides details of features supported by the various editions of SQL Server 2017 on Linux. 有关 Windows 上 SQL Server 的版本和支持功能,请参阅 SQL Server 2017 - WindowsFor editions and supported features of SQL Server on Windows, see SQL Server 2017 - Windows.

根据应用程序的需要,安装要求会有所不同。Installation requirements vary based on your application needs. 不同版本的 SQL ServerSQL Server 能够满足单位和个人独特的性能、运行时以及价格要求。The different editions of SQL ServerSQL Server accommodate the unique performance, runtime, and price requirements of organizations and individuals. 安装哪些 SQL ServerSQL Server 组件还取决于您的具体需要。The SQL ServerSQL Server components that you install also depend on your specific requirements. 下面各节将帮助您了解如何在 SQL ServerSQL Server的不同版本和可用组件中做出最佳选择。The following sections help you understand how to make the best choice among the editions and components available in SQL ServerSQL Server.

有关最新的发布说明和新增功能的信息,请参阅以下内容:For the latest release notes and what's new information, see the following:

有关 Linux 上不可用的 SQL Server 功能的列表,请参阅不支持的功能和服务For a list of SQL Server features not available on Linux, see Unsupported features and services.

试用 SQL Server!Try SQL Server!

下载 SQL Server 2017Download SQL Server 2017

SQL ServerSQL Server 版本editions

下表介绍 SQL ServerSQL Server的各个版本。The following table describes the editions of SQL ServerSQL Server.

SQL ServerSQL Server 版本edition 定义Definition
EnterpriseEnterprise 作为高级版本,SQL ServerSQL Server Enterprise 版提供了全面的高端数据中心功能,性能极为快捷,可为关键任务工作负荷提供较高服务级别。The premium offering, SQL ServerSQL Server Enterprise edition delivers comprehensive high-end datacenter capabilities with blazing-fast performance enabling high service levels for mission-critical workloads.
StandardStandard SQL ServerSQL Server Standard 版提供了基本数据管理,使部门和小型组织能够顺利运行其应用程序并支持将常用开发工具用于本地和云部署,有助于以最少的 IT 资源获得高效的数据库管理。Standard edition delivers basic data management for departments and small organizations to run their applications and supports common development tools for on-premises and cloud - enabling effective database management with minimal IT resources.
WebWeb 对于为从小规模至大规模 Web 资产提供可伸缩性、经济性和可管理性功能的 Web 宿主和 Web VAP 来说,SQL ServerSQL Server Web 版本是一项总拥有成本较低的选择。SQL ServerSQL Server Web edition is a low total-cost-of-ownership option for Web hosters and Web VAPs to provide scalability, affordability, and manageability capabilities for small to large scale Web properties.
开发人员Developer SQL ServerSQL Server Developer 版支持开发人员基于 SQL ServerSQL Server构建任意类型的应用程序。Developer edition lets developers build any kind of application on top of SQL ServerSQL Server. 它包括 Enterprise 版的所有功能,但有许可限制,只能用作开发和测试系统,而不能用作生产服务器。It includes all the functionality of Enterprise edition, but is licensed for use as a development and test system, not as a production server. SQL ServerSQL Server Developer 是构建和测试应用程序的人员的理想之选。Developer is an ideal choice for people who build and test applications.
Express EditionExpress edition Express 版本是入门级的免费数据库,是学习和构建桌面及小型服务器数据驱动应用程序的理想选择。Express edition is the entry-level, free database and is ideal for learning and building desktop and small server data-driven applications. 它是独立软件供应商、开发人员和热衷于构建客户端应用程序的人员的最佳选择。It is the best choice for independent software vendors, developers, and hobbyists building client applications. 如果您需要使用更高级的数据库功能,则可以将 SQL ServerSQL Server Express 无缝升级到其他更高端的 SQL ServerSQL Server版本。If you need more advanced database features, SQL ServerSQL Server Express can be seamlessly upgraded to other higher end versions of SQL ServerSQL Server.

SQL ServerSQL Server 用于客户端/服务器应用程序Using SQL ServerSQL Server with client/server applications

在运行直接连接到 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例的客户端/服务器应用程序的计算机上,只能安装 SQL ServerSQL Server客户端组件。You can install just the SQL ServerSQL Server client components on a computer that is running client/server applications that connect directly to an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 如果要在数据库服务器上管理 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例,或者打算开发 SQL ServerSQL Server 应用程序,那么客户端组件安装也是一个不错的选择。A client components installation is also a good option if you administer an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server on a database server, or if you plan to develop SQL ServerSQL Server applications.

SQL ServerSQL Server 组件components

Linux 上的 SQL Server 2017 支持 SQL Server 数据库引擎。SQL Server 2017 on Linux supports the SQL Server database engine. 下表介绍了数据库引擎中的功能。The following table describes the features in the database engine.

服务器组件Server components 说明Description
SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine 包括 数据库引擎Database Engine(用于存储、处理和保护数据安全的核心服务)、复制、全文搜索、用于管理关系数据和 XML 数据以及数据库分析集成中的工具。includes the 数据库引擎Database Engine, the core service for storing, processing, and securing data, replication, full-text search, tools for managing relational and XML data, and in database analytics integration.

Developer 版、Enterprise Core 版和 Evaluation 版Developer, Enterprise Core, and Evaluation editions
有关 Developer 版、Enterprise Core 版和 Evaluation 版支持的功能,请参阅下表中列出的 SQL Server Enterprise 版的功能。For features supported by Developer, Enterprise Core, and Evaluation editions, see features listed for the SQL Server Enterprise edition in the following tables.

开发人员版仍然仅支持一个 SQL Server 分布式重播客户端。The Developer edition continues to support only one client for SQL Server Distributed Replay.

规模限制Scale limits

FeatureFeature EnterpriseEnterprise StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
单个实例使用的最大计算能力 - SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine1Maximum compute capacity used by a single instance - SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine1 操作系统支持的最大值Operating system maximum 限制为 4 个插槽或 24 核,取二者中的较小值Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 24 cores 限制为 4 个插槽或 16 核,取二者中的较小值Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 16 cores 限制为 1 个插槽或 4 核,取二者中的较小值Limited to lesser of 1 socket or 4 cores
单个实例使用的最大计算能力 - Analysis ServicesAnalysis ServicesReporting ServicesReporting ServicesMaximum compute capacity used by a single instance - Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services or Reporting ServicesReporting Services 操作系统支持的最大值Operating system maximum 限制为 4 个插槽或 24 核,取二者中的较小值Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 24 cores 限制为 4 个插槽或 16 核,取二者中的较小值Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 16 cores 限制为 1 个插槽或 4 核,取二者中的较小值Limited to lesser of 1 socket or 4 cores
每个 SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine实例的缓冲池的最大内存Maximum memory for buffer pool per instance of SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine 操作系统支持的最大值Operating System Maximum 128 GB128 GB 64 GB64 GB 1410 MB1410 MB
每个 SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine实例的列存储段缓存的最大内存Maximum memory for Columnstore segment cache per instance of SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine 不受限制的内存Unlimited memory 32 GB32 GB 16 GB16 GB 352 MB352 MB
SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine 中每个数据库的最大内存优化数据大小Maximum memory-optimized data size per database in SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine 不受限制的内存Unlimited memory 32 GB32 GB 16 GB16 GB 352 MB352 MB
最大关系数据库大小Maximum relational database size 524 PB524 PB 524 PB524 PB 524 PB524 PB 10 GB10 GB

1 对于具有基于服务器 + 客户端访问许可证 (CAL) 的许可的 Enterprise 版本(不适用于新协议),每个 SQL Server 实例的内核数上限为 20。1 Enterprise edition with Server + Client Access License (CAL) based licensing (not available for new agreements) is limited to a maximum of 20 cores per SQL Server instance. 基于内核的服务器许可模型没有限制。There are no limits under the Core-based Server Licensing model. 有关详细信息,请参阅按 SQL Server 版本划分的计算能力限制For more information, see Compute capacity limits by edition of SQL Server.

RDBMS 高可用性RDBMS high availability

FeatureFeature EnterpriseEnterprise StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
日志传送Log shipping Yes Yes Yes No
备份压缩Backup compression Yes Yes No No
数据库快照Database snapshot Yes No No No
Always On 故障转移群集实例1Always On failover cluster instance1 Yes Yes No No
Always On 可用性组2Always On availability groups2 Yes No No No
基本可用性组3Basic availability groups 3 No Yes No No
最小副本提交可用性组Minimum replica commit availability group Yes Yes No No
无群集的可用性组Clusterless availability group Yes Yes No No
联机页面和文件还原Online page and file restore Yes No No No
联机索引Online indexing Yes No No No
可恢复的联机索引重新生成Resumable online index rebuilds Yes No No No
联机架构更改Online schema change Yes No No No
快速恢复Fast recovery Yes No No No
镜像备份Mirrored backups Yes No No No
热插拔内存和 CPUHot add memory and CPU Yes No No No
加密备份Encrypted backup Yes Yes No No
Azure 的混合备份(URL 的备份)Hybrid backup to Azure (backup to URL) Yes Yes No No

1 在 Enterprise 版本中,节点数是操作系统支持的最大值。1 On Enterprise edition, the number of nodes is the operating system maximum. Standard 版本中支持两个节点。On Standard edition, there is support for two nodes.

2 Enterprise 版本支持最多 8 个辅助副本,包括 2 个同步辅助副本。2 On Enterprise edition, provides support for up to 8 secondary replicas - including 2 synchronous secondary replicas.

3 Standard 版本支持基本可用性组。3 Standard edition supports basic availability groups. 基本可用性组支持两个副本,一个数据库。A basic availability group supports two replicas, with one database. 有关基本可用性组的详细信息,请参阅 可用性组For more information about basic availability groups, see Basic Availability Groups.

RDBMS 可伸缩性和性能RDBMS scalability and performance

FeatureFeature EnterpriseEnterprise StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
列存储 1Columnstore 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes
聚集列存储索引中的大型对象二进制文件Large object binaries in clustered columnstore indexes Yes Yes Yes Yes
联机非聚集列存储索引重新生成Online nonclustered columnstore index rebuild Yes No No No
内存中 OLTP 1In-Memory OLTP 1 Yes Yes Yes Yes
永久性主内存Persistent Main Memory Yes Yes Yes Yes
表和索引分区Table and index partitioning Yes Yes Yes Yes
数据压缩Data compression Yes Yes Yes Yes
Resource GovernorResource Governor Yes No No No
已分区表并行度Partitioned Table Parallelism Yes No No No
NUMA 感知、大型页内存和缓冲区数组分配NUMA Aware and Large Page Memory and Buffer Array Allocation Yes No No No
IO 资源调控IO Resource Governance Yes No No No
延迟持续性Delayed Durability Yes Yes Yes Yes
自动优化Automatic Tuning Yes No No No
批处理模式自适应联接Batch Mode Adaptive Joins Yes No No No
批处理模式内存授予反馈Batch Mode Memory Grant Feedback Yes No No No
多语句表值函数的交错执行Interleaved Execution for Multi-Statement Table Valued Functions Yes Yes Yes Yes
大容量插入改进Bulk insert improvements Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 内存中 OLTP 数据大小和列存储段缓存限制为“规模限制”部分中的版本所指定的内存量。1 In-Memory OLTP data size and Columnstore segment cache are limited to the amount of memory specified by edition in the Scale Limits section. 最大并行度是有限的。The max degrees of parallelism is limited. 对于 Standard 版本,索引生成的进程并行度 (DOP) 限制为 2 DOP,对于 Web 和 Express 版本,索引生成的进程并行度 (DOP) 限制为 1 DOP。The degrees of process parallelism (DOP) for an index build is limited to 2 DOP for the Standard edition and 1 DOP for the Web and Express editions. 这是指在基于磁盘的表和内存优化表上创建的列存储索引。This refers to columnstore indexes created over disk-based tables and memory-optimized tables.

RDBMS 安全性RDBMS security

FeatureFeature EnterpriseEnterprise StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
行级安全性Row-level security Yes Yes Yes Yes
Always EncryptedAlways Encrypted Yes Yes Yes Yes
动态数据掩码Dynamic data masking Yes Yes Yes Yes
基本审核Basic auditing Yes Yes Yes Yes
精细审核Fine grained auditing Yes Yes Yes Yes
透明数据库加密Transparent database encryption Yes No No No
用户定义的角色User-defined roles Yes Yes Yes Yes
包含的数据库Contained databases Yes Yes Yes Yes
备份加密Encryption for backups Yes Yes No No

RDBMS 可管理性RDBMS manageability

FeatureFeature EnterpriseEnterprise StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
专用管理连接Dedicated admin connection Yes Yes Yes 支持(使用跟踪标志)Yes with trace flag
PowerShell 脚本支持PowerShell scripting support Yes Yes Yes Yes
支持数据层应用程序组件操作 - 提取、部署、升级、删除Support for data-tier application component operations - extract, deploy, upgrade, delete Yes Yes Yes Yes
策略自动执行(检查计划和更改)Policy automation (check on schedule and change) Yes Yes Yes No
性能数据收集器Performance data collector Yes Yes Yes No
标准性能报表Standard performance reports Yes Yes Yes No
计划指南和计划指南的计划冻结Plan guides and plan freezing for plan guides Yes Yes Yes No
使用 NOEXPAND 提示的索引视图的直接查询Direct query of indexed views (using NOEXPAND hint) Yes Yes Yes Yes
自动索引视图维护Automatic indexed views maintenance Yes Yes Yes No
分布式分区视图Distributed partitioned views Yes No No No
并行索引操作Parallel indexed operations Yes No No No
查询优化器自动使用索引视图Automatic use of indexed view by query optimizer Yes No No No
并行一致性检查Parallel consistency check Yes No No No
SQL Server 实用工具控制点SQL Server Utility Control Point Yes No No No

ProgrammabilityProgrammability

FeatureFeature EnterpriseEnterprise StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
JSONJSON Yes Yes Yes Yes
查询存储Query Store Yes Yes Yes Yes
临时Temporal Yes Yes Yes Yes
本机 XML 支持Native XML support Yes Yes Yes Yes
XML 索引XML indexing Yes Yes Yes Yes
MERGE 和 UPSERT 功能MERGE & UPSERT capabilities Yes Yes Yes Yes
日期和时间数据类型Date and Time datatypes Yes Yes Yes Yes
国际化支持Internationalization support Yes Yes Yes Yes
全文和语义搜索Full-text and semantic search Yes Yes Yes Yes
查询中的语言规范Specification of language in query Yes Yes Yes Yes
Service Broker(消息传递)Service Broker (messaging) Yes Yes 不支持(仅客户端)No (Client only) 不支持(仅客户端)No (Client only)
Transact-SQL 端点Transact-SQL endpoints Yes Yes Yes No
图形Graph Yes Yes Yes Yes

1 具有多个计算节点的 Scale out 需要一个头节点。1 Scale out with multiple compute nodes requires a head node.

Integration ServicesIntegration Services

有关 SQL ServerSQL Server 各个版本支持的 Integration Services (SSIS) 功能的信息,请参阅 SQL Server 各个版本支持的 Integration Services 功能For info about the Integration Services (SSIS) features supported by the editions of SQL ServerSQL Server, see Integration Services features supported by the editions of SQL Server.

空间和位置服务Spatial and location services

功能名称Feature Name EnterpriseEnterprise StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
空间索引Spatial indexes Yes Yes Yes Yes
平面和大地测量数据类型Planar and geodetic datatypes Yes Yes Yes Yes
高级空间库Advanced spatial libraries Yes Yes Yes Yes
导入/导出业界标准的空间数据格式Import/export of industry-standard spatial data formats Yes Yes Yes Yes

不支持的功能和服务Unsupported features & services

Linux 上的 SQL Server 2017 目前不支持以下功能和服务。The following features and services are not available SQL Server 2017 on Linux. 随着时间的推移,对这些功能的支持将越来越多。The support of these features will be increasingly enabled over time.

区域Area 不支持的功能或服务Unsupported feature or service
数据库引擎Database engine 合并复制Merge replication
  Stretch DBStretch DB
  PolyBasePolyBase
  具有第三方连接的分布式查询Distributed query with 3rd-party connections
  SQL ServerSQL Server 之外的数据源的链接服务器Linked Servers to data sources other than SQL ServerSQL Server
  系统扩展存储过程(XP_CMDSHELL 等)System extended stored procedures (XP_CMDSHELL, etc.)
  FileTable 和文件流Filetable, FILESTREAM
  带有 EXTERNAL_ACCESS 或 UNSAFE 权限集的 CLR 程序集CLR assemblies with the EXTERNAL_ACCESS or UNSAFE permission set
  缓冲池扩展Buffer Pool Extension
  备份到 URL - 页 blob 1Backup to URL - page blob 1
SQL Server 代理SQL Server Agent 子系统:CmdExec、PowerShell、队列读取器、SSIS、SSAS、SSRSSubsystems: CmdExec, PowerShell, Queue Reader, SSIS, SSAS, SSRS
  警报Alerts
  日志读取器代理Log Reader Agent
  托管备份Managed Backup
高可用性High Availability 数据库镜像Database mirroring
安全性Security 可扩展的密钥管理Extensible Key Management
  链接服务器的 AD 身份验证AD Authentication for Linked Servers
  可用性组 (AG) 的 AD 身份验证AD Authentication for Availability Groups (AGs)
服务Services SQL Server BrowserSQL Server Browser
  SQL Server R ServicesSQL Server R services
  StreamInsightStreamInsight
  Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services
  Reporting ServicesReporting Services
  “数据库引擎服务”Data Quality Services
  Master Data ServicesMaster Data Services

1 备份到 URL 支持块 blob,通过共享访问签名实现。1 Backup to URL is supported for block blobs, using the Shared Access Signature.

后续步骤Next steps

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安装 SQL ServerInstallation for SQL Server
SQL Server 的产品规格Product Specifications for SQL Server