什么是 Server Core 2008?What is Server Core 2008?

适用于:Windows Server 2008Applies To: Windows Server 2008

备注

此信息适用于 Windows Server 2008。This information applies to Windows Server 2008. 有关 Windows Server 中的 Server Core 的信息,请参阅什么是 Windows Server 中的 Server Core 安装For information about Server Core in Windows Server, see What is the Server Core Installation in Windows Server.

服务器核心选项是新的最小安装选项,当您要部署 Windows Server 2008 Standard、 Enterprise 或 Datacenter edition 时才可用。The Server Core option is a new minimal installation option that is available when you are deploying the Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter edition of Windows Server 2008. 服务器核心提供支持将安装仅某些服务器角色的 Windows Server 2008 的最小安装更高版本中这一章所述。Server Core provides you with a minimal installation of Windows Server 2008 that supports installing only certain server roles, as described later in this chapter. 与之相比,Windows Server 2008,支持将安装所有可用的服务器角色还其他 Microsoft 或第三方服务器应用程序,如 Microsoft Exchange Server 或 SAP 的完全安装选项。Contrast this with the Full installation option for Windows Server 2008, which supports installing all available server roles and also other Microsoft or third-party server applications, such as Microsoft Exchange Server or SAP.

在继续之前,短语"安装选项"要求加以解释。Before we go any further, the phrase "installation option" needs to be explained. 通常情况下,当你购买一份 Windows Server 2008,你购买的许可证可以使用特定版本或库存单位 (Sku)。Normally, when you purchase a copy of Windows Server 2008, you purchase a license to use certain editions or stock-keeping units (SKUs). 表 1-1 列出了可用的各种 Windows Server 2008 版本。Table 1-1 lists the various editions of Windows Server 2008 that are available. 此表还指示了每个版本可用 (完整、 服务器核心或两者) 的安装选项。The table also indicates which installation options (Full, Server Core, or both) are available for each edition.

表 1-1 Windows Server 2008 版本和它们对安装选项的支持Table 1-1 Windows Server 2008 editions and their support for installation options

版本Edition 完全Full 服务器核心Server Core
Windows Server 2008 标准版 (x86 和 x64)Windows Server 2008 Standard (x86 and x64) XX XX
Windows Server 2008 企业版 (x86 和 x64)Windows Server 2008 Enterprise (x86 and x64) XX XX
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter (x86 和 x64)Windows Server 2008 Datacenter (x86 and x64) XX XX
Windows Web Server 2008 (x86 和 x64)Windows Web Server 2008 (x86 and x64) XX XX
Windows Server 2008 For itanium-based systemsWindows Server 2008 For Itanium-based systems XX
Windows HPC Server 2008 (仅限 x64)Windows HPC Server 2008 (x64 only) XX
Windows Server 2008 标准版不带 HYPER-V (x86 和 x64)Windows Server 2008 Standard without Hyper-V (x86 and x64) XX XX
不带 HYPER-V (x86 和 x64) 的 Windows Server 2008 企业版Windows Server 2008 Enterprise without Hyper-V (x86 and x64) XX XX
Windows Server 2008 标准版不带 HYPER-V (x86 和 x64)Windows Server 2008 Standard without Hyper-V (x86 and x64) XX XX

若要了解什么"安装选项"是,请让我们假设你已购买批量许可证,可用于安装 Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition 的副本。To understand what an "installation option" is, let's say you've purchased a volume license that lets you install a copy of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition. 您将在批量许可的媒体插入到系统并开始安装过程中,您将看到的屏幕之一所示在图 1-1,显示您使用选择的版本和安装选项。When you insert your volume-licensed media into a system and begin the installation process, one of the screens you'll see, as shown in Figure 1-1, presents you with a choice of editions and installation options.

选择要安装的服务器核心安装选项

图 1-1选择要安装的服务器核心安装选项Figure 1-1 Selecting a Server Core installation option to install

在图 1-1,您的批量许可证 (或产品密钥,零售媒体) 提供可以选择之间的两个安装选项: 第二个选项 (完整安装的 Windows Server 2008 Enterprise) 和第五个选项 (服务器核心安装的 WindowsServer 2008 企业版),后者选择在此示例中。In Figure 1-1, your volume license (or product key, for retail media) gives you two installation options you can choose between: the second option (a Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise) and the fifth option (a Server Core Installation of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise), with the latter selected in this example.

完全与。服务器核心Full vs. Server Core

Microsoft Windows 平台的早期阶段,Windows 服务器都实质上是"everything"包括所有类型的功能,其中一些您可能永远不会实际在环境中使用网络的服务器。Since the early days of the Microsoft Windows platform, Windows servers were essentially "everything" servers that included all kinds of features, some of which you might never actually use in your networking environment. 例如,在系统上安装 Windows Server 2003,路由和远程访问服务 (RRAS) 的二进制文件已在服务器上安装即使你有此服务不需要 (尽管你仍必须配置和启用 RRAS 并将它将开始工作前)。For instance, when you installed Windows Server 2003 on a system, the binaries for Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) were installed on your server even if you had no need for this service (although you still had to configure and enable RRAS before it would work). Windows Server 2008 改进了通过安装所需的服务器角色,仅当你选择要在服务器上安装该特定角色的二进制文件的早期版本。Windows Server 2008 improves earlier versions by installing the binaries needed by a server role only if you choose to install that particular role on your server. 但是,Windows Server 2008 的完全安装选项仍然会安装许多服务和特定使用方案通常不需要其他组件。However, the Full installation option of Windows Server 2008 still installs many services and other components that are often not needed for a particular usage scenario.

这是 Microsoft 创建了第二个安装选项的原因-服务器核心-对于 Windows Server 2008: 若要消除任何服务和其他功能的支持的某些常用的服务器角色不重要。That's the reason Microsoft created a second installation option—Server Core—for Windows Server 2008: to eliminate any services and other features that are not essential for the support of certain commonly used server roles. 例如,真正的域名系统 (DNS) 服务器不需要安装它,因为您可能不希望浏览来自 DNS 服务器出于安全原因 Web 的 Windows Internet Explorer。For example, a Domain Name System (DNS) server really doesn't need Windows Internet Explorer installed on it because you wouldn't want to browse the Web from a DNS server for security reasons. 和 DNS 服务器甚至不需要图形用户界面 (GUI),因为你可以管理 DNS 的几乎所有方面从命令行使用功能强大的 Dnscmd.exe 命令,或者远程使用 DNS Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 管理单元中。And a DNS server doesn't even need a graphical user interface (GUI), because you can manage virtually all aspects of DNS either from the command line using the powerful Dnscmd.exe command, or remotely using the DNS Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in.

若要避免此问题,Microsoft 决定去除从已运行核心网络服务,如 Active Directory 域服务 (AD DS)、 DNS、 动态主机配置协议 (DHCP)、 文件和打印,绝对必要的 Windows Server 2008 的所有内容和几个其他服务器角色。To avoid this, Microsoft decided to strip everything from Windows Server 2008 that was not absolutely essential for running core network services like Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), DNS, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), File and Print, and a few other server roles. 结果是可用于创建支持有限的数量的角色和功能的服务器的新服务器核心安装选项。The result is the new Server Core installation option, which can be used to create a server that supports only a limited number of roles and features.

在 Server Core GUIThe Server Core GUI

完成服务器核心上安装系统和登录第一次后,您在为一点惊喜。When you finish installing Server Core on a system and log on for the first time, you're in for a bit of a surprise. 图 1-2 后第一次登录显示了服务器核心用户界面。Figure 1-2 shows the Server Core user interface after first logon.

服务器核心用户界面

图 1-2服务器核心用户界面Figure 1-2 Server Core user interface

没有任何桌面 !There's no desktop! 也就是说,没有任何 Windows 资源管理器外壳,其开始菜单、 任务栏中,与你可能习惯于看到的其他功能。That is, there is no Windows Explorer shell, with its Start menu, Taskbar, and the other features you may be used to seeing. 您必须是工作的命令提示符下,这意味着你可以通过键入命令一次,其速度较慢,或使用脚本和批处理文件,它可帮助你加快和简化你的配置进行大部分来配置服务器核心安装通过自动执行这些任务。All you have is a command prompt, which means that you have to do most of the work of configuring a Server Core installation either by typing commands one at a time, which is slow, or by using scripts and batch files, which can help you speed up and simplify your configuration tasks by automating them. 此外可以执行一些初始配置任务在执行无人参与的服务器核心安装时使用应答文件。You can also perform some initial configuration tasks using answer files when you perform an unattended installation of Server Core.

对于许多专家在使用 Netsh.exe、 Dfscmd.exe,等 Dnscmd.exe 命令行工具的管理员,配置和管理 Server Core 安装可以是简单、 甚至很有趣。For administrators who are experts in using command-line tools like Netsh.exe, Dfscmd.exe, and Dnscmd.exe, configuring and managing a Server Core installation can be easy, even fun. 对于那些不是专家,但是,并非毫无希望。For those who are not experts, however, all is not lost. 仍可用于标准的 Windows Server 2008 MMC 工具管理服务器核心安装。You can still use the standard Windows Server 2008 MMC tools for managing a Server Core installation. 只需在运行带有 Service Pack 1 的是完整安装的 Windows Server 2008 或 Windows Vista 的不同系统上使用它们。You just need to use them on a different system running either a full installation of Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with Service Pack 1.

您将了解有关配置和管理服务器核心安装中的章节 3 到 6 的这本书,而后面的章节讨论如何管理特定服务器角色和其他组件的详细信息。You'll learn more about configuring and managing a Server Core installation in Chapters 3 to 6 of this book, while later chapters deal with how to manage specific server roles and other components. 若要了解有关各种 Windows 命令行工具以及如何使用它们的详细信息,有两个很好的资源进行协商:To learn more about the various Windows command-line tools and how to use them, there are two good resources to consult:

  • Windows Server 2008 技术库 () 的命令参考部分The Command Reference section of the Windows Server 2008 Technical Library ()
  • Windows 命令行管理员随身顾问William R.stanek 撰写 (Microsoft Press,2008年) 的The Windows Command-Line Administrator's Pocket Consultant by William R. Stanek (Microsoft Press, 2008)

表 1-2 列出了主要的 GUI 应用程序,以及可执行文件,在服务器核心安装中可用。Table 1-2 lists the main GUI applications, together with their executables, that are available in a Server Core installation.

表 1-2 GUI 应用程序在服务器核心安装中可用Table 1-2 GUI applications available in a Server Core installation

GUI 应用程序GUI application 可执行文件路径Executable with path
命令提示符Command prompt %WINDIR%\System32\Cmd.exe%WINDIR%\System32\Cmd.exe
Microsoft 支持诊断工具Microsoft Support Diagnostic Tool %WINDIR%\System32\MSdt.exe%WINDIR%\System32\MSdt.exe
记事本Notepad %WINDIR%\System32\Notepad.exe%WINDIR%\System32\Notepad.exe
注册表编辑器Registry editor %WINDIR%\System32\Regedt32.exe%WINDIR%\System32\Regedt32.exe
系统信息System information %WINDIR%\System32\MSinfo32.exe%WINDIR%\System32\MSinfo32.exe
任务管理器Task manager %WINDIR%\System32\Taskmgr.exe%WINDIR%\System32\Taskmgr.exe
Windows InstallerWindows Installer %WINDIR%\System32\MSiexec.exe%WINDIR%\System32\MSiexec.exe

这是一个漂亮的简短列表 !That's a pretty short list! 现在这里是不包括 Server Core 中的用户界面元素的列表:Now here's a list of user interface elements that are not included in Server Core:

  • Windows 资源管理器桌面外壳程序 (Explorer.exe) 和任何支持的功能,例如主题The Windows Explorer desktop shell (Explorer.exe) and any supporting features such as Themes
  • 所有 MMC 控制台All MMC consoles
  • 所有控制面板实用程序,但区域和语言选项 (Intl.cpl) 和日期和时间 (Timedate.cpl) 除外All Control Panel utilities, with the exception of Regional And Language Options (Intl.cpl) and Date And Time (Timedate.cpl)
  • 所有超文本标记语言 (HTML) 呈现引擎,其中包括 Internet Explorer 和 HTML 帮助All Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) rendering engines, including Internet Explorer and HTML Help
  • Windows MailWindows Mail
  • Windows Media PlayerWindows Media Player
  • 大多数附件,例如画图、 计算器和写字板Most accessories such as Paint, Calculator, and Wordpad

.NET Framework 不也存在在 Server Core 中,这意味着没有正在运行服务器核心安装上的托管代码的支持。The .NET Framework is also not present in Server Core, which means there's no support for running managed code on a Server Core installation. 仅本机代码,使用 Windows 应用程序编程接口 (Api) 编写的代码,可以在 Server Core 上运行。Only native code—code written using Windows application programming interfaces (APIs)—can run on Server Core. 总之,任何 GUI 应用程序依赖.NET Framework 或 Explorer.exe 外壳程序不会运行在 Server Core 上。In summary, any GUI applications that depend on either the .NET Framework or on the Explorer.exe shell won't run on Server Core.

备注

由于 Windows PowerShell 要求.NET Framework,不能安装到服务器核心上的 Windows PowerShell。Because Windows PowerShell requires the .NET Framework, you cannot install Windows PowerShell onto Server Core. 但是,可以管理使用 Windows PowerShell,远程处理程序,但前提使用仅 PowerShell WMI 命令的服务器核心安装。You can, however, manage a Server Core installation remotely using Windows PowerShell so long as you use only PowerShell WMI commands.

支持的服务器角色Supported server roles

服务器核心安装提供仅有限的数量的服务器角色与 Windows Server 2008 的完整安装。A Server Core installation includes only a limited number of server roles compared with a Full installation of Windows Server 2008. 表 1-3 比较了可用于的 Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition 的完全安装选项和服务器核心安装的角色。Table 1-3 compares the roles available for both Full and Server Core installations of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition.

表 1-3完全安装选项和服务器核心安装的 Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition 的服务器角色之间的比较Table 1-3 Comparison of server roles for Full and Server Core installations of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition

服务器角色Server role 在完整安装中可用Available in Full installation Server Core 中可用Available in Server Core
Active Directory 证书服务 (AD CS)Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS) XX
Active Directory 域服务 (AD DS)Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) XX XX
Active Directory 联合身份验证服务 (AD FS)Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) XX
Active Directory 轻型目录服务 (AD LDS)Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) XX XX
Active Directory 权限管理服务 (AD RMS)Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS) XX
应用程序服务器Application Server XX
DHCP 服务器DHCP Server XX XX
DNS 服务器DNS Server XX XX
传真服务器Fax Server XX
文件服务File Services XX XX
Hyper-VHyper-V XX XX
网络策略和访问服务Network Policy and Access Services XX
打印服务Print Services XX XX
流式媒体服务Streaming Media Services XX XX
终端服务Terminal Services XX
UDDI 服务UDDI Services XX
Web 服务器 (IIS)Web Server (IIS) XX XX
Windows 部署服务Windows Deployment Services XX

可用于服务器核心角色通常是而不考虑体系结构 (x86 或 x64) 和产品版本相同的虽然有少数例外情况:While the roles available for Server Core are generally the same regardless of architecture (x86 or x64) and product edition, there are a few exceptions:

  • 仅当使用 HYPER-V 产品媒体购买 Windows Server 2008 提供 HYPER-V (虚拟化) 角色,并且 (HYPER-V 是仅适用于 x64 版本)。The Hyper-V (virtualization) role is available only if you purchased Windows Server 2008 with Hyper-V product media (Hyper-V is available only for x64 versions). 如果不需要此角色,你可以改为不包含的 HYPER-V 产品媒体购买 Windows Server 2008。If you do not need this role, you can purchase Windows Server 2008 without Hyper-V product media instead.
  • Standard Edition 上的文件服务角色仅限于一个独立分布式文件系统 (DFS) 根和不支持 Cross-File 复制 (DFS-R)。The File Services role on Standard Edition is limited to one standalone Distributed File System (DFS) root and does not support Cross-File Replication (DFS-R).
  • 您可以在 Server Core 上安装流媒体服务角色之前,需要下载并安装相应 Microsoft 更新独立程序包 (.msu 文件) 的服务器的体系结构 (x86 或 x64) 从 Microsoft 下载中心获得。Before you can install the Streaming Media Services role on Server Core, you need to download and install the appropriate Microsoft Update Standalone Package (.msu file) for your server's architecture (x86 or x64) from the Microsoft Download Center.
  • Web 服务器 (IIS) 角色不支持 ASP.NET。The Web Server (IIS) role does not support ASP.NET. 这是因为服务器核心,这可以限制与服务器核心 Web 服务器可以执行的操作不支持.NET Framework。This is because the .NET Framework is not supported on Server Core, which limits what you can do with a Server Core Web server.

支持的可选功能Supported optional features

服务器核心安装还支持仅提供的功能的有限的子集上完整安装的 Windows Server 2008。A Server Core installation also supports only a limited subset of the features available on a Full installation of Windows Server 2008. 表 1-4 进行比较可用于的 Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition 的完全安装选项和服务器核心安装的功能。Table 1-4 compares the features available for both Full and Server Core installations of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition.

表 1-4的完全安装选项和服务器核心安装的 Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition 的功能比较Table 1-4 Comparison of features for Full and Server Core installations of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition

功能Feature 在完整安装中可用Available in Full installation Server Core 中可用Available in Server Core
.NET framework 3.0 功能.NET Framework 3.0 Features XX
BitLocker 驱动器加密BitLocker Drive Encryption XX XX
BITS 服务器扩展BITS Server Extensions XX
连接管理器管理工具包Connection Manager Administration Kit XX
桌面体验Desktop Experience XX
故障转移群集Failover Clustering XX XX
组策略管理Group Policy Management XX
Internet 打印客户端Internet Printing Client XX
Internet 存储名称服务器Internet Storage Name Server XX
LPR 端口监视器LPR Port Monitor XX
消息队列Message Queuing XX
多路径 IOMultipath IO XX XX
网络负载平衡Network Load Balancing XX XX
对等名称解析协议Peer Name Resolution Protocol XX
高质量 Windows 音频视频体验Quality Windows Audio Video Experience XX
远程协助Remote Assistance XX
远程差分压缩Remote Differential Compression XX
远程服务器管理工具Remote Server Administration Tools XX
可移动存储管理器Removable Storage Manager XX XX
RPC Over HTTP 代理RPC Over HTTP Proxy XX
简单 TCP/IP 服务Simple TCP/IP Services XX
SMTP 服务器SMTP Server XX
SMNP 服务SMNP Services XX XX
存储管理器 SanStorage Manager for SANs XX
基于 UNIX 的应用程序的子系统Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications XX XX
Telnet 客户端Telnet Client XX XX
Telnet 服务器Telnet Server XX
TFTP 客户端TFTP Client XX
Windows 内部数据库Windows Internal Database XX
Windows PowerShellWindows PowerShell XX
Windows 产品激活服务Windows Product Activation Service XX
Windows Server Backup 功能Windows Server Backup Features XX XX
Windows 系统资源管理器Windows System Resource Manager XX
WINS 服务器WINS Server XX XX
无线 LAN 服务Wireless LAN Service XX

同样,有的几点需要了解有关在 Server Core 上提供的功能:Again, there are some points you need to know about concerning the features available on Server Core:

  • 某些功能可能在 Server Core 上需要特殊硬件才能正确 (或根本)。Some features may require special hardware to function properly (or at all) on Server Core. 这些功能包括 BitLocker 驱动器加密、 故障转移群集、 多路径 IO、 网络负载平衡和可移动存储。These features include BitLocker Drive Encryption, Failover Clustering, Multipath IO, Network Load Balancing, and Removable Storage.
  • 故障转移群集上不可用标准版。Failover Clustering is not available on Standard Edition.

服务器核心体系结构Server Core architecture

深入了解到服务器核心,让我们来简要介绍一下 Windows Server 2008 的服务器核心安装的体系结构进行比较,这与完全安装。Digging deeper into Server Core, let's briefly look at the architecture of a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 by comparing it with that of a Full installation. 首先,请记住,服务器核心不是其他版本的 Windows Server 2008,但只需安装选项,可以选择到系统上安装 Windows Server 2008 时。First, remember that Server Core is not a different version of Windows Server 2008 but simply an installation option that you can select when installing Windows Server 2008 onto a system. 这意味着:This implies the following:

  • 服务器核心安装上的内核是相同的相同的硬件体系结构 (x86 或 x64) 和版本类别的完整安装上找到。The kernel on a Server Core installation is the same one found on a Full installation of the same hardware architecture (x86 or x64) and edition.
  • 如果服务器核心安装上存在一个二进制文件,则相同的硬件体系结构 (x86 或 x64) 和版本的完整安装具有相同版本的该特定二进制文件 (稍后讨论的两种例外情况)。If a binary is present on a Server Core installation, a Full installation of the same hardware architecture (x86 or x64) and edition has the same version of that particular binary (with two exceptions discussed later).
  • 如果特定的设置 (如特定的防火墙例外或特定服务的启动类型) 的 Server Core 安装上的某些默认配置,配置该设置的相同的完全安装上完全相同的方式硬件体系结构 (x86 或 x64) 和版本。If a particular setting (for example, a specific firewall exception or the startup type of a particular service) has a certain default configuration on a Server Core installation, that setting is configured exactly the same way on a Full installation of the same hardware architecture (x86 or x64) and edition.

图 1-3 显示了完整的安装和 Windows Server 2008 的服务器核心安装的体系结构的简化的视图。Figure 1-3 shows a simplified view of the architecture of both a Full installation and a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008. 点线表示服务器核心体系的结构,而整个关系图表示的完整安装的体系结构。The dotted line indicates the architecture of Server Core, while the entire diagram represents the architecture of a Full installation.

下图说明了 Windows Server 2008 中,使用在核心操作系统功能的子集时正在构造的 Server Core 的模块化体系结构。The diagram illustrates the modular architecture of Windows Server 2008, with Server Core being constructed upon a subset of the core operating system features. 为相同的硬件体系结构和版本,存在的全新服务器核心安装上的每个文件还存在。 在完整安装中,两个特殊文件除外 (Scregedit.wsf 和 Oclist.exe) 是仅在服务器核心上存在For the same hardware architecture and edition, every file present on a clean install of Server Core is also present on a Full installation, with the exception of two special files (Scregedit.wsf and Oclist.exe), which are present only on Server Core. 这些特殊文件包括在服务器核心,以简化的初始配置的服务器核心安装和添加或删除角色和可选组件。These special files were included on Server Core to simplify the initial configuration of a Server Core installation and the addition or removal of roles and optional components.

服务器核心和完整安装的体系结构

图 1-3的服务器核心和完整安装的体系结构Figure 1-3 The architectures of Server Core and Full installations

驱动程序支持Driver support

图 1-3 所示的服务器核心体系结构关系图很明显简化;它不会显示一件事是设备驱动程序支持在服务器核心和完整安装之间的差异。The architectural diagram of Server Core shown in Figure 1-3 is obviously simplified; one thing it doesn't show is the difference in device driver support between Server Core and Full installations. Windows Server 2008 的完整安装包含成千上万个不同类型的设备,以便你能够在各种不同的硬件配置上安装产品的现成驱动程序。A Full installation of Windows Server 2008 contains thousands of in-box drivers for different types of devices, which enable you to install products on a wide variety of different hardware configurations. (如 Windows Vista 客户端操作系统包括更多的驱动程序以支持设备,例如数码照相机和扫描仪通常不与服务器一起使用。)(Client operating systems like Windows Vista include even more drivers to support devices such as digital cameras and scanners that are normally not used with servers.)

如果新的设备连接到 (或安装在) Windows Server 2008 的完整安装,插即用 (PnP) 子系统首先检查设备的现成驱动程序是否存在。If a new device is connected to (or installed in) a Full installation of Windows Server 2008, the Plug and Play (PnP) subsystem first checks whether an in-box driver for the device is present. 如果找到兼容的现成驱动程序,即插即用的子系统将自动安装该驱动程序和设备,然后进行操作。If a compatible in-box driver is found, the PnP subsystem automatically installs the driver and the device then operates. 在完整安装的 Windows Server 2008 中的气球状弹出通知可能会显示,指示安装了驱动程序和设备便可供使用。On a Full installation of Windows Server 2008, a balloon popup notification may be displayed, indicating that the driver has been installed and the device is ready for use.

在服务器核心安装中,驱动程序安装过程是相同的 (即插即用的子系统是存在于服务器核心上) 有两个限制。On a Server Core installation, the driver installation process is the same (the PnP subsystem is present on Server Core) with two qualifications. 首先,服务器核心包括只有最少数量的现成驱动程序,并仅为设备的以下类型:First, Server Core includes only a minimal number of in-box drivers, and only for the following types of devices:

  • 标准的视频图形数组 (VGA) 视频驱动程序A standard Video Graphics Array (VGA) video driver
  • 存储设备的驱动程序Drivers for storage devices
  • 网络适配器驱动程序Drivers for network adapters

请注意,对于每个如下所示的三个设备类别,Server Core 包含相应的完全安装 (适用于相同的硬件体系结构) 找到的相同现成驱动程序。Note that for each of the three device categories shown here, Server Core includes the same in-box drivers that are found on a corresponding Full installation (for the same hardware architecture).

此外,当即插即用子系统会自动安装新设备的驱动程序,它会以无提示方式 — 不显示任何提示框弹出通知。Also, when the PnP subsystem automatically installs a driver for a new device, it does so silently—no balloon popup notification is displayed. 为什么不呢?Why not? 因为在 Server Core 上没有任何 GUI 还有没有任务栏中,以便在任务栏上没有通知区域精彩内容 !Because there is no GUI on Server Core there's no taskbar, so there's no notification area on the taskbar!

因此要怎么做时打印服务角色添加到服务器核心安装,并且你想要安装打印机?So what do you do when you add the Print Services role to a Server Core installation and you want to install a printer? 您的打印机驱动程序手动添加到服务器-服务器核心有没有现成的打印驱动程序。You add the printer driver manually to the server—Server Core has no in-box print drivers.

服务占用空间Service footprint

服务器核心是最小安装,因为它具有较小的系统服务占用比相应的完整安装的相同的硬件体系结构和版本。Because Server Core is a minimal installation, it has a smaller system service footprint than a corresponding Full installation of the same hardware architecture and edition. 例如,默认情况下,Windows Server 2008 中,其中大约 50 配置为自动启动的完全安装上安装约 75 个系统服务。For example, about 75 system services are installed by default on a Full installation of Windows Server 2008, of which approximately 50 are configured for automatic startup. 与此相反,服务器核心已自动安装的默认值,且少于 40 这些开始仅约 70 服务。By contrast, Server Core has only about 70 services installed by default, and fewer than 40 of these start automatically.

表 1-5 列出了默认情况下,在服务器核心安装中,启动模式下进行安装的服务和每个服务使用的帐户。Table 1-5 lists the services that are installed by default on a Server Core installation, with the startup mode for and account used by each service.

表 1-5默认情况下,在 Server Core 上安装的系统服务Table 1-5 System services installed by default on Server Core

服务名称Service name Display nameDisplay name 启动模式Startup mode 帐户Account
AeLookupSvcAeLookupSvc 应用程序体验Application Experience 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
AppMgmtAppMgmt 应用程序管理Application Management ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
BFEBFE 基本筛选引擎Base Filtering Engine 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
BITSBITS 后台智能传送服务Background Intelligent Transfer Service 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
浏览器Browser 计算机浏览器Computer Browser ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
CertPropSvcCertPropSvc 证书传播Certificate Propagation ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
COMSysAppCOMSysApp COM + 系统应用程序COM+ System Application ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
CryptSvcCryptSvc 加密服务Cryptographic Services 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
DcomLaunchDcomLaunch DCOM 服务器进程启动器DCOM Server Process Launcher 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
DhcpDhcp DHCP 客户端DHCP Client 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
启动 DnscacheDnscache DNS 客户端的运行情况DNS Client 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
DPSDPS 诊断策略服务Diagnostic Policy Service 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
事件日志Eventlog Windows 事件日志Windows Event Log 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
EventSystemEventSystem COM + 事件系统COM+ Event System 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
FCRegSvcFCRegSvc Microsoft 光纤通道平台注册服务Microsoft Fibre Channel Platform Registration Service ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
gpsvcgpsvc 组策略客户端Group Policy Client 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
hidservhidserv 人机接口设备的访问Human Interface Device Access ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
hkmsvchkmsvc 运行状况密钥和证书管理Health Key and Certificate Management ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
IKEEXTIKEEXT IKE 和 AuthIP IPsec 密钥模块IKE and AuthIP IPsec Keying Modules 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
iphlpsvciphlpsvc IP 帮助程序IP Helper 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
KeyIsoKeyIso CNG 密钥隔离CNG Key Isolation ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
KtmRmKtmRm 适用于分布式事务处理协调器的 KtmRmKtmRm for Distributed Transaction Coordinator 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
LanmanServerLanmanServer ServerServer 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
LanmanWorkstationLanmanWorkstation WorkstationeWorkstatione 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
lltdsvclltdsvc 链路层拓扑发现映射器Link-Layer Topology Discovery Mapper ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
lmhostslmhosts TCP/IP NetBIOS 帮助程序TCP/IP NetBIOS Helper 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
MpsSvcMpsSvc Windows 防火墙Windows Firewall 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
MSDTCMSDTC 分布式事务处理协调器Distributed Transaction Coordinator 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
MSiSCSIMSiSCSI Microsoft iSCSI 发起程序服务Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Service ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
msiservermsiserver Windows InstallerWindows Installer ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
napagentnapagent 网络访问保护代理Network Access Protection Agent ManualManual Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
NetlogonNetlogon NetlogonNetlogon ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
netprofmnetprofm 网络列表服务Network List Service 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
NlaSvcNlaSvc 网络位置感知Network Location Awareness 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
nsinsi 网络存储界面服务Network Store Interface Service 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
plapla 性能日志和警报Performance Logs & Alerts ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
PlugPlayPlugPlay Plug and PlayPlug and Play 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
PolicyAgentPolicyAgent IPsec 策略代理IPsec Policy Agent 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
ProfSvcProfSvc 用户配置文件服务User Profile Service 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
ProtectedStorageProtectedStorage 受保护的存储Protected Storage ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
RemoteRegistryRemoteRegistry 远程注册表Remote Registry 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
RpcSsRpcSs 远程过程调用 (RPC)Remote Procedure Call (RPC) 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
RSoPProvRSoPProv 策略提供程序的结果集Resultant Set of Policy Provider ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
sacsvrsacsvr 特殊管理控制台帮助Special Administration Console Helper ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
SamSsSamSs 安全帐户管理器Security Accounts Manager 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
SCardSvrSCardSvr 智能卡Smart Card ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
计划Schedule 任务计划程序Task Scheduler 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
SCPolicySvcSCPolicySvc 智能卡移除策略Smart Card Removal Policy ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
seclogonseclogon 辅助登录Secondary Logon 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
SENSSENS 系统事件通知服务System Event Notification Service 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
SessionEnvSessionEnv 终端服务配置Terminal Services Configuration ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
slsvcslsvc 软件授权Software Licensing 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
SNMPTRAPSNMPTRAP SNMP 陷阱SNMP Trap ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
swprvswprv Microsoft 软件卷影复制提供程序Microsoft Software Shadow Copy Provider ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
TBSTBS TPM 基本服务TPM Base Services ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
TermServiceTermService 终端服务Terminal Services 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
TrustedInstallerTrustedInstaller Windows 模块安装程序Windows Modules Installer 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
UmRdpServiceUmRdpService 终端服务 UserMode 端口重定向程序Terminal Services UserMode Port Redirector ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
vdsvds 虚拟磁盘Virtual Disk ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
VSSVSS 卷影复制Volume Shadow Copy ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
W32TimeW32Time Windows 时间Windows Time 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
WcsPlugInServiceWcsPlugInService Windows 颜色系统Windows Color System ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
WdiServiceHostWdiServiceHost 诊断服务主机Diagnostic Service Host ManualManual LocalServiceLocalService
WdiSystemHostWdiSystemHost 诊断系统主机Diagnostic System Host ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
WecsvcWecsvc Windows 事件收集器Windows Event Collector ManualManual Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
WinHttpAuto-ProxySvcWinHttpAuto-ProxySvc WinHTTP Web 代理自动发现服务WinHTTP Web Proxy Auto-Discovery Service 自动Auto LocalServiceLocalService
WinmgmtWinmgmt Windows Management InstrumentationWindows Management Instrumentation 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem
WinRMWinRM Windows 远程管理 (Ws-management)Windows Remote Management (WS-Management) 自动Auto Network-ServiceNetwork-Service
wmiApSrvwmiApSrv WMI 性能适配器WMI Performance Adapter ManualManual LocalSystemLocalSystem
wuauservwuauserv Windows 更新Windows Update 自动Auto LocalSystemLocalSystem