故障转移群集硬件要求和存储选项Failover clustering hardware requirements and storage options

适用于:Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

若要创建故障转移群集,你需要以下硬件。You need the following hardware to create a failover cluster. 若要获得 Microsoft 的支持,所有硬件必须针对正在运行的 Windows Server 的版本进行了认证,并且完整的故障转移群集解决方案必须通过“验证配置向导”中的所有测试。To be supported by Microsoft, all hardware must be certified for the version of Windows Server that you are running, and the complete failover cluster solution must pass all tests in the Validate a Configuration Wizard. 有关验证故障转移群集的详细信息,请参阅验证故障转移群集的硬件For more information about validating a failover cluster, see Validate Hardware for a Failover Cluster.

  • 服务器:建议使用一组包含相同或相似组件的匹配计算机。Servers: We recommend that you use a set of matching computers that contain the same or similar components.

  • 网络适配器和电缆(用于网络通信):如果使用 iSCSI,则应将每个网络适配器专用于网络通信或 iSCSI,而不能同时用于两者。Network adapters and cable (for network communication): If you use iSCSI, each network adapter should be dedicated to either network communication or iSCSI, not both.

    在连接群集节点的网络基础结构中,应避免出现单点故障。In the network infrastructure that connects your cluster nodes, avoid having single points of failure. 例如,你可以通过多个不同的网络来连接群集节点。For example, you can connect your cluster nodes by multiple, distinct networks. 或者,你可以将群集节点与通过组合网络适配器、冗余交换机、冗余路由器或可消除单故障点的类似硬件一起构造的一个网络连接在一起。Alternatively, you can connect your cluster nodes with one network that's constructed with teamed network adapters, redundant switches, redundant routers, or similar hardware that removes single points of failure.

    备注

    如果使用一个网络来连接群集节点,该网络将需要符合“验证配置向导”中的冗余要求。If you connect cluster nodes with a single network, the network will pass the redundancy requirement in the Validate a Configuration Wizard. 但是,此向导生成的报告将包含一条有关该网络不应具有单点故障的警告。However, the report from the wizard will include a warning that the network should not have single points of failure.

  • 用于存储的设备控制器或相应适配器Device controllers or appropriate adapters for the storage:

    • 串行连接 SCSI 或光纤通道:如果你在所有群集服务器中使用串行连接 SCSI 或光纤通道,则存储堆栈的所有组件都应相同。Serial Attached SCSI or Fibre Channel: If you are using Serial Attached SCSI or Fibre Channel, in all clustered servers, all elements of the storage stack should be identical. 需要多路径 i/o (MPIO) 软件相同,并且设备特定模块 (DSM) 软件相同。It's required that the multipath I/O (MPIO) software be identical and that the Device Specific Module (DSM) software be identical. 建议将大容量存储设备控制器(即主机总线适配器 (HBA) 、HBA 驱动程序以及 HBA 固件)连接到群集存储。It's recommended that the mass-storage device controllers— the host bus adapter (HBA), HBA drivers, and HBA firmware—that are attached to cluster storage be identical. 如果使用不同的 HBA,则应向存储供应商验证你是否采用了其支持或推荐的配置。If you use dissimilar HBAs, you should verify with the storage vendor that you are following their supported or recommended configurations.
    • iSCSI:如果使用的是 iSCSI,则各群集服务器应具有一个或多个专用于群集存储的网络适配器或 HBA。iSCSI: If you are using iSCSI, each clustered server should have one or more network adapters or HBAs that are dedicated to the cluster storage. 不应将用于 iSCSI 的网络用于网络通信。The network you use for iSCSI should not be used for network communication. 在所有群集服务器中,用于连接 iSCSI 存储目标的网络适配器都应相同,建议使用千兆或更高速度的以太网。In all clustered servers, the network adapters you use to connect to the iSCSI storage target should be identical, and we recommend that you use Gigabit Ethernet or higher.
  • 存储:必须使用与 windows Server 2012 R2 或 windows server 2012 兼容的存储空间直通或共享存储。Storage: You must use Storage Spaces Direct or shared storage that's compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012. 你可以使用附加的共享存储,还可以将 SMB 3.0 文件共享用作在故障转移群集中配置的运行 Hyper-v 的服务器的共享存储。You can use shared storage that's attached, and you can also use SMB 3.0 file shares as shared storage for servers that are running Hyper-V that are configured in a failover cluster. 有关详细信息,请参阅在 SMB 上部署 Hyper-VFor more information, see Deploy Hyper-V over SMB.

    在大多数情况下,附加的存储应包含在硬件级别上配置的多个独立磁盘(逻辑单元号或 LUN)。In most cases, attached storage should contain multiple, separate disks (logical unit numbers, or LUNs) that are configured at the hardware level. 某些群集使用一个磁盘作为磁盘见证(在此子部分末尾进行介绍)。For some clusters, one disk functions as the disk witness (described at the end of this subsection). 其他磁盘包含群集角色(以前称为群集服务或应用程序)所需的文件。Other disks contain the files required for the clustered roles (formerly called clustered services or applications). 存储要求如下:Storage requirements include the following:

    • 若要使用故障转移群集中包含的本机磁盘支持,请使用基本磁盘(而非动态磁盘)。To use the native disk support included in Failover Clustering, use basic disks, not dynamic disks.

    • 建议使用 NTFS 格式化分区。We recommend that you format the partitions with NTFS. 如果使用群集共享卷 (CSV),则其中每个分区都必须采用 NTFS 格式。If you use Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV), the partition for each of those must be NTFS.

      备注

      如果你有见证磁盘仲裁配置,可以使用 NTFS 或弹性文件系统 (ReFS) 格式化磁盘。If you have a disk witness for your quorum configuration, you can format the disk with either NTFS or Resilient File System (ReFS).

    • 对于磁盘分区形式,可使用主启动记录 (MBR) 或 GUID 分区表 (GPT)。For the partition style of the disk, you can use either master boot record (MBR) or GUID partition table (GPT).

      磁盘见证是群集存储中的一个磁盘,它被指定用于保存群集配置数据库的副本。A disk witness is a disk in the cluster storage that's designated to hold a copy of the cluster configuration database. 仅当它指定为仲裁配置的一部分时,故障转移群集才具有磁盘见证。A failover cluster has a disk witness only if this is specified as part of the quorum configuration. 有关详细信息,请参阅了解存储空间直通中的仲裁For more information, see Understanding Quorum in Storage Spaces Direct.

Hyper-V 的硬件要求Hardware requirements for Hyper-V

如果要创建包括群集虚拟机的故障转移群集,则群集服务器必须支持 Hyper-V 角色的硬件要求。If you are creating a failover cluster that includes clustered virtual machines, the cluster servers must support the hardware requirements for the Hyper-V role. Hyper-V 需要一个 64 位处理器,包括以下要求:Hyper-V requires a 64-bit processor that includes the following:

  • 硬件协助的虚拟化。Hardware-assisted virtualization. 在提供虚拟化选项的处理器上,可以进行硬件协助的虚拟化 — 特别是具有 Intel 虚拟化技术 (Intel VT) 或 AMD 虚拟化 (AMD-V) 技术的处理器。This is available in processors that include a virtualization option—specifically processors with Intel Virtualization Technology (Intel VT) or AMD Virtualization (AMD-V) technology.
  • 硬件强制实施的数据执行保护 (DEP) 必须可用且已启用。Hardware-enforced Data Execution Prevention (DEP) must be available and enabled. 具体地说就是,你必须启用 Intel XD 位(执行禁用位)或 AMD NX 位(无执行位)。Specifically, you must enable Intel XD bit (execute disable bit) or AMD NX bit (no execute bit).

有关 Hyper-V 的详细信息,请参阅 Hyper-V 概述For more information about the Hyper-V role, see Hyper-V Overview.

使用故障转移群集部署存储区域网络Deploying storage area networks with failover clusters

使用故障转移群集部署存储区域网络 (SAN) 时,请遵循以下准则:When deploying a storage area network (SAN) with a failover cluster, follow these guidelines:

  • 确认存储的兼容性:请与制造商和供应商确认存储(包括存储所使用的驱动程序、固件和软件)是否与运行的 Windows Server 版本中的故障转移群集兼容。Confirm compatibility of the storage: Confirm with manufacturers and vendors that the storage, including drivers, firmware, and software used for the storage, are compatible with failover clusters in the version of Windows Server that you are running.

  • 隔离存储设备,每个设备一个群集:来自不同群集的服务器不能访问同一存储设备。Isolate storage devices, one cluster per device: Servers from different clusters must not be able to access the same storage devices. 多数情况下,用于一组群集服务器的一个 LUN 不应通过 LUN 屏蔽或分区而与所有其他服务器隔离。In most cases, a LUN used for one set of cluster servers should be isolated from all other servers through LUN masking or zoning.

  • 考虑使用多路径 I/O 软件或网络适配器组:在高度可用的存储构造中,你可以使用多路径 I/O 软件或网络适配器组(也称为负载平衡和故障转移或 LBFO)部署具有多个主机总线适配器的故障转移群集。Consider using multipath I/O software or teamed network adapters: In a highly available storage fabric, you can deploy failover clusters with multiple host bus adapters by using multipath I/O software or network adapter teaming (also called load balancing and failover, or LBFO). 这可以提供最高级别的冗余和可用性。This provides the highest level of redundancy and availability. 对于 Windows Server 2012 R2 或 Windows Server 2012,多路径解决方案必须基于 Microsoft 多路径 i/o (MPIO) 。For Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012, your multipath solution must be based on Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO). 虽然 Windows Server 包含一个或多个设备特定模块 (DSM) 作为操作系统的一部分,但你的硬件供应商通常会为你的硬件提供一个 MPIO DSM。Your hardware vendor will typically supply an MPIO device-specific module (DSM) for your hardware, although Windows Server includes one or more DSMs as part of the operating system.

    有关 LBFO 的详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server 技术库中的NIC 组合概述For more information about LBFO, see NIC Teaming Overview in the Windows Server Technical Library.

    重要

    主机总线适配器和多路径 I/O 软件可能对版本非常敏感。Host bus adapters and multipath I/O software can be very version sensitive. 如果你要对群集实现一个多路径解决方案,则应同你的硬件供应商密切协作,以便为运行的 Windows Server 版本选择正确的适配器、固件和软件。If you are implementing a multipath solution for your cluster, work closely with your hardware vendor to choose the correct adapters, firmware, and software for the version of Windows Server that you are running.

  • 考虑使用存储空间:如果你计划部署使用存储空间配置的串行连接 SCSI (SAS) 群集存储,请参阅为要求部署群集存储空间Consider using Storage Spaces: If you plan to deploy serial attached SCSI (SAS) clustered storage that's configured using Storage Spaces, see Deploy Clustered Storage Spaces for the requirements.

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