Windows Server 服务频道:LTSC 和 SACWindows Server servicing channels: LTSC and SAC

适用于:Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server(半年频道)Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel)

目前为 Windows Server 客户提供的两种主要版本频道为长期服务频道和半年频道。There are two primary release channels available to Windows Server customers, the Long-Term Servicing Channel and the Semi-Annual Channel.

可将服务器置于长期服务频道 (LTSC)、移到新半年频道或将部分服务器置于任一频道,具体取决于需求。You can keep servers on the Long-Term Servicing Channel (LTSC), move them to the Semi-Annual Channel, or have some servers on either track, depending on what works best for your needs.

长期服务频道 (LTSC)Long-Term Servicing Channel (LTSC)

这是你已熟悉的版本模型(以前称为“Long-Term Servicing Branch”),其中 Windows Server 的全新主要版本每 2-3 年发布一次。This is the release model you're already familiar with (formerly called the “Long-Term Servicing Branch”) where a new major version of Windows Server is released every 2-3 years. 用户有权享受 5 年的主流支持和 5 年的延长支持。Users are entitled to 5 years of mainstream support and 5 years of extended support. 该频道适用于需要更长时间服务选项和功能稳定性的系统。This channel is appropriate for systems that require a longer servicing option and functional stability. 新的半年频道版本不会影响 Windows Server 2019 和 Windows Server 早期版本的部署。Deployments of Windows Server 2019 and earlier versions of Windows Server will not be affected by the new Semi-Annual Channel releases. 长期服务频道将持续接受安全和非安全更新,但不会接受新特性和新功能。The Long-Term Servicing Channel will continue to receive security and non-security updates, but it will not receive the new features and functionality.

备注

当前的 LTSC 产品是 Windows Server 2019The current LTSC product is Windows Server 2019. 如果你想坚持使用此频道,则应该安装(或继续使用)Windows Server 2019,你可以通过 Server Core 安装选项或带桌面体验的服务器安装选项进行安装。If you want to stay in this channel, you should install (or continue using) Windows Server 2019, which can be installed in Server Core installation option or Server with Desktop Experience installation option.

半年频道Semi-Annual Channel

半年频道非常适合需要快速创新的客户。客户加入该频道后便可更快地使用新的操作系统功能,特别是基于容器和微服务的功能。The Semi-Annual Channel is perfect for customers who are innovating quickly to take advantage of new operating system capabilities at a faster pace, focused in on containers and microservices. 以半年频道发布的 Windows Server 产品每年发布两次新版本,分别在春季和秋季。Windows Server products in the Semi-Annual Channel will have new releases available twice a year, in spring and fall. 每个以该频道发布的版本自初始版本开始享受 18 个月的支持服务。Each release in this channel will be supported for 18 months from the initial release.

半年频道中引入的大部分功能将汇总至 Windows Server 的 Long-Term Servicing Channel 版本。Most of the features introduced in the Semi-Annual Channel will be rolled up into the next Long-Term Servicing Channel release of Windows Server. 版本、功能和支持内容可能因版本而异,具体取决于客户反馈。The editions, functionality, and supporting content might vary from release to release depending on customer feedback.

可使用软件保障,也可以通过 Azure 市场或其他云/托管服务提供商及 Visual Studio 订阅等会员计划为批量授权的客户提供半年频道。The Semi-Annual Channel is available to volume-licensed customers with Software Assurance, as well as via the Azure Marketplace or other cloud/hosting service providers and loyalty programs such as Visual Studio Subscriptions.

备注

当前的半年频道版本是 Windows Server 版本 1909The current Semi-Annual Channel release is Windows Server, version 1909. 如果你要将服务器置于此频道,则应该安装 Windows Server 版本 1909,该版本可以在 Server Core 模式下安装或作为容器中运行的 Nano Server 来安装。If you want to put servers in this channel, you should install Windows Server, version 1909, which can be installed in Server Core mode or as Nano Server run in a container. 不支持从长期服务频道版本就地升级,因为它们处于不同的发行频道中。In-place upgrades from a long-term servicing channel release aren't supported because they are in different release channels. 半年频道发行版不是更新 – 它是半年频道中的下一个 Windows Server 发行版。Semi-Annual Channel releases aren't updates – it's the next Windows Server release in the Semi-Annual Channel.

在该模型中,Windows Server 版本通过发布的年份和月份进行标识:例如,2017 年 9 月发布的版本标识为版本 1709In this model, Windows Server releases are identified by the year and month of release: for example, in 2017, a release in the 9th month (September) would be identified as version 1709. 以半年频道发布的 Windows Server 每年发布两次新版本。Fresh releases of Windows Server in the Semi-Annual Channel will occur twice each year. 每个版本的支持周期为 18 个月。The support lifecycle for each release is 18 months.

在 LTSC 上保留服务器还是将它们转移至半年频道?Should you keep servers on the LTSC or move them to the Semi-Annual Channel?

以下是需考虑的主要区别:These are the key differences to take into account:

  • 是否需要在 Devops、容器和微服务上增加新技术?Do you need to step up on new technology on Devops, Containers and Microservices? 如果需要,应该考虑安装 Windows Server 版本 1909,加入半年频道 。If so, you should consider joining the Semi-Annual Channel by installing Windows Server, version 1909. 如本主题中所述,每年你将收到两个新版本,每个版本的主流生产支持期为 18 个月。As described in this topic, you will receive new versions twice a year, with 18 months of mainstream production support per release. 可通过批量许可、Azure 或 Visual Studio 订阅服务获取新版本。You get it through volume licensing, Azure, or Visual Studio Subscription Services. 目前,如果你打算在生产环境中运行产品,半年频道中的版本需要批量许可和软件保障。Currently, releases in the Semi-Annual Channel require volume licensing and Software Assurance if you intend to run the product in production.
  • 是否需要稳定性和可预测性?Do you need stability and predictability? 是否需要在物理服务器上运行虚拟机和传统工作负载?Do you need to run virtual machines and traditional workloads on physical servers? 如果需要,应该考虑将服务器置于长期服务频道If so, you should consider keeping those servers on the Long-Term Servicing Channel. 当前的 LTSC 版本为 Windows Server 2019The current LTSC release is Windows Server 2019. 如本主题中所述,你有权每 2 至 3 年接收新版本,每个版本享受 5 年的主流支持和 5 年的延长支持。As described in this topic, you'll have access to new versions every 2-3 years, with 5 years of mainstream support followed by 5 years of extended support per release. LTSC 版本在所有发布机制中均有提供。LTSC releases are available through all release mechanisms. 无论使用何种许可模型,所有人均可使用 LTSC 版本。Releases in the LTSC are available to anyone regardless of the licensing model they are using.

下表总结了不同频道之间的主要差异:The following table summarizes the key differences between the channels:

说明Description 长期服务频道 (Windows Server 2019)Long-Term Servicing Channel (Windows Server 2019) 半年频道 (Windows Server)Semi-Annual Channel (Windows Server)
建议方案Recommended scenarios 通用文件服务器、Microsoft 和非 Microsoft 工作负载、传统应用、基础架构角色、软件定义数据中心和超融合基础设施General purpose file servers, Microsoft and non-Microsoft workloads, traditional apps, infrastructure roles, software-defined Datacenter, and hyper-converged infrastructure 容器化应用程序、容器主机和受益于更快创新的应用程序方案Containerized applications, container hosts, and application scenarios benefiting from faster innovation
最新发布New releases 每 2 - 3 年Every 2–3 years 每 6 个月Every 6 months
支持Support 5 年的主流支持和 5 年的延长支持5 years of mainstream support, plus 5 years of extended support 18 个月18 months
版本Editions 所有可用的 Windows Server 版本All available Windows Server editions 标准版和数据中心版Standard and Datacenter editions
谁可以使用Who can use 所有频道的所有客户All customers through all channels 仅软件保障客户和云客户Software Assurance and cloud customers only
安装选项Installation options Server Core 和带桌面体验的 ServerServer Core and Server with Desktop Experience 容器主机 Server Core、映像和 Nano Server 容器映像Server Core for container host and image and Nano Server container image

设备兼容性Device compatibility

除非另行沟通,否则运行半年频道版本的最低硬件要求将与运行最新 Windows Server 长期服务频道版本的要求相同。Unless otherwise communicated, the minimum hardware requirements to run the Semi-Annual Channel releases will be the same as the most recent Long-Term Servicing Channel release of Windows Server. 例如,当前长期服务频道版本为 Windows Server 2019For example, the current Long-Term Servicing Channel release is Windows Server 2019. 大多数硬件驱动器仍可在这些版本中正常工作。Most hardware drivers will continue to function in these releases.

维护Servicing

长期服务频道和半年频道两种版本都将由安全更新和非安全更新进行支持。Both the Long-Term Servicing Channel and the Semi-Annual Channel releases will be supported with security updates and non-security updates. 不同之处在于版本受支持的时间长度,如前文所述。The difference is the length of time that the release is supported, as described above.

维护工具Servicing tools

IT 专业人员可以使用多种工具维护 Windows Server。There are many tools with which IT pros can service Windows Server. 每个选项都有优点和缺点,从功能和控制到简洁性和低管理要求都涵盖在内。Each option has its pros and cons, ranging from capabilities and control to simplicity and low administrative requirements. 以下是可用于管理维护更新的维护工具示例:The following are examples of the servicing tools available to manage servicing updates:

  • Windows 更新(独立) :此选项仅适用于已连接到 Internet 并已启用 Windows 更新的服务器。Windows Update (stand-alone): This option is only available for servers that are connected to the Internet and have Windows Update enabled.
  • Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) 可在大范围内控制 Windows 10 和 Windows Server 更新,并且内置在 Windows Server 操作系统中。Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) provides extensive control over Windows 10 and Windows Server updates and is natively available in the Windows Server operating system. 除了能够延迟更新,组织还可以添加用于更新的批准层,并在准备就绪后将它们部署到特定计算机或计算机组。In addition to the ability to defer updates, organizations can add an approval layer for updates and choose to deploy them to specific computers or groups of computers whenever ready.
  • Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager 可最大程度地控制维护。Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager provides the greatest control over servicing. IT 专业人员可以延迟更新、批准更新,并且可以使用多种选项指向部署以及管理带宽使用情况和部署次数。IT pros can defer updates, approve them, and have multiple options for targeting deployments and managing bandwidth usage and deployment times.

你可能已基于你的资源、员工和专业知识选择使用这些选项中的至少一项。You've likely already chosen to use at least one of these options based on your resources, staff, and expertise. 可以继续将相同的流程用于半年频道版本:例如,如果已使用 Configuration Manager 管理更新,则可以继续使用。You can continue using the same process for Semi-Annual Channel Releases: for example, if you already use Configuration Manager to manage updates, you can continue to use it. 同样,如果你正在使用 WSUS,也可以继续使用。Similarly, if you are using WSUS, you can continue to use that.

在何处获取半年频道版本Where to obtain Semi-Annual Channel releases

半年频道版本应作为干净安装产品进行安装。Semi-Annual Channel releases should be installed as a clean installation.

  • 批量许可服务中心 (VLSC):享受软件保障的批量许可客户可以转到批量许可服务中心并单击“登录”来获取此版本。Volume Licensing Service Center (VLSC): Volume-licensed customers with Software Assurance can obtain this release by going to the Volume Licensing Service Center and clicking Sign In. 然后,单击“下载和密钥”并搜索此版本。Then click Downloads and Keys and search for this release.

  • 半年频道版本也会在 Microsoft Azure 中提供。Semi-Annual Channel releases are also available in Microsoft Azure.

  • Visual Studio 订阅:Visual Studio 订阅者可以从 Visual Studio 订阅者下载页下载半年频道版本。Visual Studio Subscriptions: Visual Studio Subscribers can obtain Semi-Annual Channel releases by downloading them from the Visual Studio Subscriber download page. 如果你还不是订阅者,请转到 Visual Studio 订阅进行注册,然后访问上方所述的 Visual Studio 订阅者下载页If you are not already a subscriber, go to Visual Studio Subscriptions to sign up, and then visit the Visual Studio Subscriber download page as above. 通过 Visual Studio 订阅获得的版本仅用于开发和测试。Releases obtained through Visual Studio Subscriptions are for development and testing only.

  • 通过 Windows 预览体验计划获取预览版本:测试较早版本的 Windows Server 对 Microsoft 及其客户都有帮助,因为他们有机会在发布之前发现可能出现的问题。Obtain preview releases through the Windows Insider Program: Testing the early builds of Windows Server helps both Microsoft and its customers because of the opportunity to discover possible issues before release. 此外,这还为客户提供了一个直接影响产品功能的独特机会。It also gives customers a unique opportunity to directly influence the functionality in the product. Microsoft 依赖于在开发过程中接收反馈,从而可以尽快做出调整。Microsoft depends on receiving feedback throughout the development process so that adjustments may be made as quickly as possible. 提前测试和反馈对于快速发布模型至关重要。Early testing and feedback is essential to the rapid release model. 若要参与 Windows 预览体验计划,请参阅 Windows 预览体验计划服务器版文档To get involved with the Windows Insider Program, see the Windows Insider Program for Server docs.

激活半年频道版本Activating Semi-Annual Channel releases

  • 如果你使用的是 Microsoft Azure,则此版本应该会自动激活。If you're using Microsoft Azure, this release should automatically be activated.
  • 如果你从批量许可服务中心或 Visual Studio 订阅获取了此版本,则可以使用你的 Windows Server 2016 CSVLK 通过你的密钥管理系统 (KMS) 环境来激活它。If you've obtained this release from the Volume Licensing Service Center or Visual Studio Subscriptions, you can activate it by using your Windows Server 2019 CSVLK with your Key Management System (KMS) environment. 有关详细信息,请参阅 KMS 客户端安装密钥For more info, see KMS client setup keys.

在 Windows Server 2019 之前发布的半年频道版本使用 Windows Server 2016 CSVLK。Semi-Annual Channel releases that were released before Windows Server 2019 use the Windows Server 2016 CSVLK.

半年频道版本为何仅提供 Server Core 安装选项?Why do Semi-Annual Channel releases offer only the Server Core installation option?

我们在规划 Windows Server 的每个版本时所采取的最重要步骤之一就是聆听客户的反馈意见 - 你如何使用 Windows Server?One of the most important steps we take in planning each release of Windows Server is listening to customer feedback – how are you using Windows Server? 哪些新功能对你的 Windows Server 部署影响最大,扩展后,哪些对你的日常业务影响最大?What new features will have the greatest impact on your Windows Server deployments, and by extension, your day-to-day business? 你的反馈告诉我们,当务之急是尽快并且尽可能高效地提供创新。Your feedback tells us that delivering new innovation as quickly and efficiently as possible is a key priority. 同时,对于以最快速度进行创新的那些客户,你已经告诉我们,你主要将命令行脚本与 PowerShell 配合使用来管理数据中心,因此,对于桌面 GUI(在安装具有桌面体验的 Windows Server 时提供)的需求并不强烈,尤其是现已提供了 Windows Admin Center 来远程管理服务器。At the same time, for those customers innovating most quickly, you've told us that you're primarily using command line scripting with PowerShell to manage your datacenters, and as such don't have a strong need for the desktop GUI available in the installation of Windows Server with Desktop Experience, especially now that Windows Admin Center is available to remotely manage your servers.

通过专注于 Server Core 安装选项,我们可以专门为这些创新投入更多资源,同时还保留传统的 Windows Server 平台功能和应用程序兼容性。By focusing on the Server Core installation option, we're able to dedicate more resources toward those new innovations, while also maintaining traditional Windows Server platform functionality and application compatibility. 如果你有关于这方面的反馈或与 Windows Server 和我们的未来版本相关的其他问题,可以通过反馈中心提出建议和意见。If you have feedback about this or other issues concerning Windows Server and our future releases, you can make suggestions and comments through the Feedback Hub.

Nano Server 的情况如何?What about Nano Server?

Nano Server 在半年频道中作为容器操作系统提供。Nano Server is available as a container operating system in the Semi-Annual Channel. 有关详细信息,请参阅在 Windows Server 半年频道中对 Nano Server 所做的更改See Changes to Nano Server in Windows Server Semi-Annual Channel for details.

如何判断服务器运行的是 LTSC 还是 SAC 版本How to tell whether a server is running an LTSC or SAC release

一般而言,长期服务频道版本(如 Windows Server 2019)是在发布新版半年频道(如 Windows Server 版本 1809)的同时发布的。Generally speaking, Long-Term Servicing Channel releases such as Windows Server 2019 are released at the same time as a new version of the Semi-Annual Channel, for example, Windows Server, version 1809. 这会略微增大确定服务器是否运行半年频道版本的难度。This can make it a little tricky to determine whether a server is running Semi-Annual Channel release. 不要查看内部版本号,而必须查看产品名称:半年频道版本使用 Windows Server Standard 或 Windows Server Datacenter 产品名称且不带版本号,而长期服务渠道版本包括版本号,例如 Windows Server 2019 Datacenter。Instead of looking at the build number, you must look at the product name: Semi-Annual Channel releases use the Windows Server Standard or Windows Server Datacenter product name, without a version number, while Long-Term Servicing Channel releases include the version number, for example, Windows Server 2019 Datacenter.

备注

以下指南旨在帮助识别并区分 LTSC 和 SAC,且仅用于生命周期和常规清单目的,The below guidance is intended to help identify and differentiate between LTSC and SAC for lifecycle and general inventory purposes only. 而不用于应用程序兼容性或用于表示特定的 API 图面。It is not intended for application compatibility or to represent a specific API surface. 应用开发人员应使用其它指南,以在系统生命周期内添加组件、API 和功能之前或之时确保它们的兼容性。App developers should use guidance elsewhere to properly ensure compatibility as components, APIs, and functionality can be added over the life of a system, or not yet be added. 操作系统版本对于开发人员来说更好入手。Operating System Version is a better starting point for App Developers.

打开 Powershell,并使用 Get-ItemProperty Cmdlet 或 Get-ComputerInfo Cmdlet 检查注册表中的相应属性。Open Powershell and use the Get-ItemProperty Cmdlet, or the Get-ComputerInfo Cmdlet, to check these properties in the registry. 结合属性和内部版本号,即可确认品牌年度(如 2019 年)中是否存在 LTSC 或 SAC。Along with build number, this will indicate LTSC or SAC by the presence, or lack thereof, of the branded year, i.e. 2019. LTSC 拥有内部版本号,但 SAC 没有。LTSC has this, SAC does not. 该命令还会返回版本发布时的 ReleaseId 或 WindowsVersion(如版本 1809),同时提示本次安装的是 Server Core 还是带桌面体验的服务器。This will also return the timing of the release with ReleaseId or WindowsVersion, i.e. 1809, as well as whether the installation is Server Core or Server with Desktop Experience.

带桌面体验的 Windows Server 2019 Datacenter Edition (LTSC) 示例:Windows Server 2019 Datacenter Edition (LTSC) with Desktop Experience example:

Get-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion" | Select ProductName, ReleaseId, InstallationType, CurrentMajorVersionNumber,CurrentMinorVersionNumber,CurrentBuild
ProductName               : Windows Server 2019 Datacenter
ReleaseId                 : 1809
InstallationType          : Server
CurrentMajorVersionNumber : 10
CurrentMinorVersionNumber : 0
CurrentBuild              : 17763

Windows Server 版本 1809 (SAC) Standard Edition Server Core 示例:Windows Server, version 1809 (SAC) Standard Edition Server Core example:

Get-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion" | Select ProductName, ReleaseId, InstallationType, CurrentMajorVersionNumber,CurrentMinorVersionNumber,CurrentBuild
ProductName               : Windows Server Standard
ReleaseId                 : 1809
InstallationType          : Server Core
CurrentMajorVersionNumber : 10
CurrentMinorVersionNumber : 0
CurrentBuild              : 17763

Windows Server 2019 Standard Edition (LTSC) Server Core 示例:Windows Server 2019 Standard Edition (LTSC) Server Core example:

Get-ComputerInfo | Select WindowsProductName, WindowsVersion, WindowsInstallationType, OsServerLevel, OsVersion, OsHardwareAbstractionLayer
WindowsProductName            : Windows Server 2019 Standard
WindowsVersion                : 1809
WindowsInstallationType       : Server Core
OsServerLevel                 : ServerCore
OsVersion                     : 10.0.17763
OsHardwareAbstractionLayer    : 10.0.17763.107

若要查询新的 Server Core 应用程序兼容性 FOD 是否存在于服务器上,请使用 Get-WindowsCapability Cmdlet 查找:To query if the new Server Core App Compatibility FOD is present on a server, use Get-WindowsCapability Cmdlet and look for:

Name    :     ServerCore.AppCompatibility~~~~0.0.1.0
State   :     Installed

其他参考Additional References

Windows Server 半年频道中对 Nano Server 所做的更改Changes to Nano Server in Windows Server Semi-Annual Channel

Windows Server 支持生命周期Windows Server support lifecycle

确定 Server Core 是否正在运行Determining whether Server Core is running

GetProductInfo 函数GetProductInfo function

软件清单日志记录 CmdletSoftware Inventory Logging Cmdlets