安装具有桌面体验的服务器Install Server with Desktop Experience

适用于:Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server 2016

使用安装向导安装 Windows Server 2016 时,可以在 Windows Server 2016Windows Server(带有桌面体验的服务器) 之间进行选择。When you install Windows Server 2016 using the Setup wizard, you can choose between Windows Server 2016 and Windows Server (Server with Desktop Experience). “带桌面体验的服务器”选项是 Windows Server 2016 中的选项,相当于安装了桌面体验功能的 Windows Server 2012 R2 中的完全安装选项。The Server with Desktop Experience option is the Windows Server 2016 equivalent of the Full installation option available in Windows Server 2012 R2 with the Desktop Experience feature installed. 如果没有在安装向导中进行选择,则会安装 Windows Server 2016;这是“服务器核心” 安装选项。If you do not make a choice in the Setup wizard, Windows Server 2016 is installed; this is the Server Core installation option.

选择“带有桌面体验的服务器”选项将安装标准用户界面和所有工具,其中包括需要在 Windows Server 2012 R2 中单独安装的客户端体验功能。The Server with Desktop Experience option installs the standard user interface and all tools, including client experience features that required a separate installation in Windows Server 2012 R2. 将会通过服务器管理器或其他方法安装服务器角色和功能。Server roles and features are installed with Server Manager or by other methods. 与“服务器核心”选项相比,它需要更多的磁盘空间、具有更高的服务要求,因此建议选择服务器核心安装,除非你有特殊需求要用到“带有桌面体验的服务器”选项中包含的附加用户界面元素和图形管理工具。Compared with the Server Core option, it requires more space on disk,and has higher servicing requirements, so we recommend that you choose the Server Core installation unless you have a particular need for the additional user interface elements and graphical management tools that are included in the Server with Desktop Experience option. 如果感觉可以不借助其他元素进行操作,请参阅安装服务器核心If you feel you can work without the additional elements, see Install Server Core. 有关更轻量的选项,请参阅安装 Nano ServerFor an even more lightweight option, see Install Nano Server.

备注

与某些之前版本的 Windows Server 不同,安装后无法在服务器核心和具有桌面体验的服务器之间转换。Unlike some previous releases of Windows Server, you cannot convert between Server Core and Server with Desktop Experience after installation. 如果安装具有桌面体验的服务器,但后来决定使用服务器核心,则应重新安装。If you install Server with Desktop Experience and later decide to use Server Core, you should do a fresh installation.

用户界面: 标准图形用户界面(服务器图形 Shell)。User interface: standard graphical user interface (Server Graphical Shell). 服务器图形 Shell 包括新的 Windows 10 shell。The Server Graphical Shell includes the new Windows 10 shell. 默认情况下,此选项会安装的特定 Windows 功能是 User-Interfaces-Infra、Server-GUI-Shell、Server-GUI-Mgmt-Infra、InkAndHandwritingServices、ServerMediaFoundation 和桌面体验。The specific Windows features installed by default with this option are User-Interfaces-Infra, Server-GUI-Shell, Server-GUI-Mgmt-Infra, InkAndHandwritingServices, ServerMediaFoundation and Desktop Experience. 此版本的服务器管理器中会显示这些功能,但不支持对其进行卸载,且这些功能不适用于将来版本。While these features do appear in Server Manager in this release, uninstalling them is not supported and they will not be available in future releases.

在本地安装、配置、卸载服务器角色: 使用服务器管理器或 Windows PowerShell 进行Install, configure, uninstall server roles locally: with Server Manager or with Windows PowerShell

远程安装、配置、卸载服务器角色: 使用服务器管理器、远程服务器、RSAT 或 Windows PowerShell 进行Install, configure, uninstall server roles remotely: with Server Manager, Remote Server, RSAT, or Windows PowerShell

Microsoft 管理控制台:已安装Microsoft Management Console: installed

安装方案Installation scenarios

评估Evaluation

可以从 Windows Server 评估获取 Windows Server 的 180 天许可证评估副本。You can obtain a 180-day-licensed evaluation copy of Windows Server from Windows Server Evaluations. 选择 Windows Server 2016 | 64 位 ISO 选项下载,或访问 Windows Server 2016 | 虚拟实验室Choose the Windows Server 2016 | 64-bit ISO option to download, or you can visit the Windows Server 2016 | Virtual Lab.

重要

对于 14393.0.161119-1705.RS1_REFRESH 之前的 Windows Server 2016 版本,只能将使用“桌面体验”选项(非“Server Core”选项)安装的 Windows Server 2016 从评估版转换为零售版。For releases of Windows Server 2016 prior to 14393.0.161119-1705.RS1_REFRESH, you can only perform this conversion from evaluation to retail with Windows Server 2016 that has been installed by using the Desktop Experience option (not the Server Core option). 从 14393.0.161119-1705.RS1_REFRESH 版本和更高版本开始,无论使用哪个安装选项,你都可以将评估版本转换为零售版本。Starting with version 14393.0.161119-1705.RS1_REFRESH and later releases, you can convert evaluation editions to retail regardless of the installation option used.

全新安装Clean installation

若要从媒体安装“带有桌面体验的服务器”安装选项,请将媒体插入驱动器中,重启计算机,然后运行 Setup.exe。To install the Server with Desktop Experience installation option from the media, insert the media in a drive, restart the computer, and run Setup.exe. 在打开的向导中,选择 Windows 服务器(带有桌面体验的服务器) (Standard 或 Datacenter),然后完成该向导。In the wizard that opens, select Windows Server (Server with Desktop Experience) (Standard or Datacenter), and then complete the wizard.

升级Upgrade

升级表示从现有的操作系统发行版过渡到更新的发行版,同时使用相同的硬件。Upgrade means moving from your existing operating system release to a more recent release while staying on the same hardware.

如果你已经有相应的 Windows Server 产品的完全安装,则可以升级到安装有桌面体验的 Windows Server 2016 相应版本的服务器,如下所示。If you already have a Full installation of the appropriate Windows Server product, you can upgrade it to a Server with Desktop Experience installation of the appropriate edition of Windows Server 2016, as indicated below.

重要

在此版本中,升级最适合用于虚拟机,其中进行成功升级不需要特定 OEM 硬件驱动程序。In this release, upgrade works best in virtual machines where specific OEM hardware drivers are not needed for a successful upgrade. 另外,推荐的选项为迁移。Otherwise, migration is the recommended option.

  • 不支持从 32 位到 64 位体系结构的就地升级。In-place upgrades from 32-bit to 64-bit architectures are not supported. 所有版本的 Windows Server 2016 都仅有 64 位。All editions of Windows Server 2016 are 64-bit only.
  • 不支持从一种语言到另一种语言的就地升级。In-place upgrades from one language to another are not supported.
  • 如果服务器是域控制器,请参阅将域控制器升级到 Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2012 以获取重要信息。If the server is a domain controller, see Upgrade Domain Controllers to Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2012 for important information.
  • 不支持从 Windows Server 2016 的预发布版本(预览版)升级。Upgrades from pre-release versions (previews) of Windows Server 2016 are not supported. 为 Windows Server 2016 执行干净安装。Perform a clean installation to Windows Server 2016.
  • 不支持从“服务器核心安装”切换到“带桌面安装的服务器”的升级(反之亦然)。Upgrades that switch from a Server Core installation to a Server with a Desktop installation (or vice versa) are not supported.

如果在左列中看不到当前版本,则不支持到此版本的 Windows Server 2016 的升级。If you do not see your current version in the left column, upgrading to this release of Windows Server 2016 is not supported.

如果在右列中看到一个以上版本,则支持从相同的开始版本升级到任一版本。If you see more than one edition in the right column, upgrading to either edition from the same starting version is supported.

如果运行此版本:If you are running this edition: 可以升级到这些版本:You can upgrade to these editions:
Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard Windows Server 2016 Standard 或 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Standard or Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard Windows Server 2016 Standard 或 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Standard or Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 R2 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 R2 Essentials Windows Server 2016 EssentialsWindows Server 2016 Essentials
Windows Storage Server 2012 StandardWindows Storage Server 2012 Standard Windows Storage Server 2016 StandardWindows Storage Server 2016 Standard
Windows Storage Server 2012 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2012 Workgroup Windows Storage Server 2016 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2016 Workgroup
Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Storage Server 2012 R2 Standard Windows Storage Server 2016 StandardWindows Storage Server 2016 Standard
Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2012 R2 Workgroup Windows Storage Server 2016 WorkgroupWindows Storage Server 2016 Workgroup

有关迁移到 Windows Server 2016 的许多其他选项(例如在批量许可版本、评估版本和其他版本之间进行许可转换),请参阅升级选项以了解详细信息。For many additional options for moving to Windows Server 2016, such as license conversion among volume licensed editions, evaluation editions, and others, see details at Upgrade Options.

迁移Migration

迁移意味着通过在一组不同的硬件或虚拟机上执行全新安装,然后将旧服务器的工作负荷转移到新服务器,从而将现有的操作系统移动到 Windows Server 2016。Migration means moving from your existing operating system to Windows Server 2016 by performing a clean installation on a different set of hardware or virtual machine and then transferring the older server's workloads to the new server. 根据所安装服务器角色的不同,迁移过程可能会有相当大的不同,有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server Installation, Upgrade, and Migration(Windows Server 安装、升级和迁移)。Migration, which might vary considerably depending on the server roles you have installed, is discussed in detail at Windows Server Installation, Upgrade, and Migration.

迁移能力因服务器角色不同而异。The ability to migrate varies among different server roles. 以下网格介绍了专门针对移动到 Windows Server 2016 的服务器角色升级和迁移选项。The follwogin grid explains your server role upgrade and migration options specifically for moving to Windows Server 2016. 有关单个角色的迁移指南,请访问在 Windows Server 中迁移角色和功能For individual role migration guides, visit Migrating Roles and Features in Windows Server. 有关安装和升级的详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server Installation, Upgrade, and Migration(Windows Server 安装、升级和迁移)。For more information about installation and upgrades, see Windows Server Installation, Upgrade, and Migration.

服务器角色Server Role 是否可从 Windows Server 2012 R2 升级?Upgradeable from Windows Server 2012 R2? 是否可从 Windows Server 2012 升级?Upgradeable from Windows Server 2012? 是否支持迁移?Migration Supported? 是否无需停机就可完成迁移?Can migration be completed without downtime?
Active Directory 证书服务Active Directory Certificate Services Yes Yes Yes No
Active Directory 域服务Active Directory Domain Services Yes Yes Yes Yes
Active Directory 联合身份验证服务Active Directory Federation Services No No Yes 否(需要将新节点添加到场中)No (new nodes need to be added to the farm)
Active Directory 轻型目录服务Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services Yes Yes Yes Yes
Active Directory 权限管理服务Active Directory Rights Management Services Yes Yes Yes No
故障转移群集Failover Cluster 是,群集操作系统滚动升级过程包括节点暂停排出、逐出、升级到 Windows Server 2016 以及重新加入原始群集。Yes with Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process which includes node Pause-Drain, Evict, upgrade to Windows Server 2016 and rejoin the original cluster. 是,当群集删除服务器以进行升级,并随后再将服务器添加到不同的群集时。Yes, when the server is removed by the cluster for upgrade and then added to a different cluster. 而非服务器是群集的一部分时。Not while the server is part of a cluster. 是,当群集删除服务器以进行升级,并随后再将服务器添加到不同的群集时。Yes, when the server is removed by the cluster for upgrade and then added to a different cluster. Yes 否,对于 Windows Server 2012 故障转移群集而言。No for Windows Server 2012 Failover Clusters. 是,对于具有 Hyper-V VM 的 Windows Server 2012 R2 故障转移群集或运行横向扩展文件服务器角色的 Windows Server 2012 R2 故障转移群集。Yes for Windows Server 2012 R2 Failover Clusters with Hyper-V VMs or Windows Server 2012 R2 Failover Clusters running the Scale-out File Server role. 请参阅群集操作系统滚动升级See Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.
文件和存储服务File and Storage Services Yes Yes 因子功能而不同Varies by sub-feature No
打印和传真服务Print and Fax Services No No 是 (Printbrm.exe)Yes (Printbrm.exe) No
远程桌面服务Remote Desktop Services 是,对于所有子角色,但不支持混合模式场Yes, for all sub-roles, but mixed mode farm is not supported 是,对于所有子角色,但不支持混合模式场Yes, for all sub-roles, but mixed mode farm is not supported Yes No
Web 服务器 (IIS)Web Server (IIS) Yes Yes Yes No
Windows Server Essentials 体验Windows Server Essentials Experience Yes N/A - 新功能N/A – new feature Yes No
Windows Server Update ServicesWindows Server Update Services Yes Yes Yes No
工作文件夹Work Folders Yes Yes Yes 是,使用群集操作系统滚动升级从 WS 2012 R2 群集进行操作时。Yes from WS 2012 R2 cluster when using Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.

重要

完成安装后,如果已安装所需的所有服务器角色和功能,则可以使用 Windows 更新或其他更新方法立即检查并安装 Windows Server 2016 可用的更新。Once Setup has completed and immediately after you have installed all of the server roles and features you need, check for and install updates available for Windows Server 2016 by using Windows Update or other update methods.


如果需要其他安装选项,或者如果已完成安装并准备好部署特定的工作负荷,则可以返回到 Windows Server 2016 主页If you need a different installation option, or if you've completed installation and are ready to deploy specific workloads, you can head back to the main Windows Server 2016 page.