使游戏成为辅助游戏Making games accessible
辅助功能可支持地球上的每个人和每个组织实现更多目标，并且这也适用于使游戏更具辅助性。Accessibility can empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more, and this applies to making games more accessible too. 本文面向游戏开发人员、游戏设计人员和生产商编写。This article is written for game developers, game designers, and producers. 它提供了从各种组织（在下方的参考部分中列出）派生的游戏辅助功能指南的概述，并介绍了创建更易于使用的游戏的非独占游戏设计原则。It provides an overview of game accessibility guidelines derived from various organizations (listed in the reference section below), and introduces the inclusive game design principle for creating more accessible games.
适合所有用户的游戏Gaming for Everyone
在 Microsoft，我们认为游戏应为每个人带来乐趣。At Microsoft, we believe that gaming should be fun for everyone. 我们“必须付出更多努力来让游戏成为欢迎每个人的包容环境。We "felt compelled to do more to make gaming an inclusive environment that embraced everyone. 从根本上我们相信，我们为粉丝创造的内容以及我们的展现方式 - Microsoft 的内部和外部 - 是我们身份的体现。We fundamentally believe that what we build for our fans and the way we show up – inside and outside the walls of Microsoft – is a reflection of who we are. 我们设计程序以反映我们作为一个组织的核心价值，我们相信这个程序会促成积极的改变 - 不仅是在我们的工作场所，还有我们为我们所服务的玩家打造的产品。”We designed the program to reflect the core values we have as an organization and believe that the program could result in positive change – not only in our workplace but in the products we build for the gamers we serve." （来自 Phil Spencer 的博客文章）(Blog post from Phil Spencer)
我们想要打造一种有趣、多样和包容的环境，每个人都可以在这个环境中畅玩游戏。We want to create a fun, diverse, and inclusive environment where everyone can play in. “想要真正产生持久的影响需要文化的转变，这不是一日之功就能实现的。"To truly have a lasting impact requires a culture shift, one that won’t happen overnight. 然而，我们的团队每天都在致力于让自己变得更好，在我们的决策过程中互相学习，思考世界各地的游戏玩家之间的需求、能力和兴趣的多样性。”However, our team is committed to get better each day, to teach one another to pause in our decision making process and think about the amazing diversity of needs, abilities and interests amongst gamers around the world." （来自 Phil Spencer 的博客文章）(Blog post from Phil Spencer)
为什么使游戏成为辅助游戏？Why make games accessible?
增加游戏受众Increased gamer base
在最基本的层面上，辅助功能的商业理由很简单：At its most basic level, the business justification for accessibility is straightforward:
能够玩你的游戏的用户数 x 游戏的精彩程度 = 游戏销量Number of users who can play your game x Awesomeness of game = Game sales
如果你制作了一款精彩的游戏，但这款游戏很复杂，只有少量的用户可以玩，你的销量便会受到限制。If you made an amazing game that is so complicated or convoluted that only a handful of people can play it, you limit your sales. 同样，如果你制作的游戏无法供具有肢体、感官或认知障碍的人士玩，那么你就错过了潜在的销量。Similarly, if you made a game that is unplayable by those with physical, sensory, or cognitive impairments, you are missing out on potential sales. 例如，考虑到美国就有 19% 的人口具有某种形式的残障，有估计 14% 的成年人面临阅读困难，而且估计有 10% 的男性具有某种形式的色觉障碍，这可能会对你的应用收益产生很大的影响。Considering that, for example, 19% of people in the United States have some form of disability, estimated 14% of adults in the US have difficulty reading, and estimated 10% of males have some form of color vision deficiency, this can potentially have a large impact on your title’s revenue.
创建更易于使用的游戏最终有利于创建更好的游戏。Creating a more accessible game can create a better game in the end.
一个示例是游戏中的字幕。An example is subtitles in games. 过去，游戏很少支持游戏对话的字幕或隐藏式字幕。In the past, games rarely supported subtitles or closed captioning for game dialogues. 今天，玩家预期游戏会包含字幕和隐藏式字幕。Today, it’s expected that games include subtitles and closed captioning. 这种改变不是具有残障的玩家推动的。This change was not driven by gamers with disabilities. 相反，它是由本地化推动的，但受到了偏好在玩游戏时带字幕的广大玩家的欢迎，因为它可使游戏体验更好。Instead, it was driven by localization, but became popular with a wide range of gamers who simply preferred to play with subtitles because it made the gaming experience better. 当玩家在玩游戏时听到太多背景噪音、在同时播放各种音效或环境声音的情况下难以听到语音，或者当他们只是需要保持低音量来避免打扰其他人时，他们会打开字幕和隐藏式字幕。Gamers turn subtitles and closed captioning on when they are playing with too much background noise, are having difficulty hearing voices with various sound effects or ambient sounds playing at the same time, or when they simply need to keep the volume low to avoid disturbing others. 字幕和隐藏式字母不仅帮助玩家获得更好的游戏体验，还使具有听觉障碍的人士能更好地玩游戏。Subtitles and closed captions not only helped gamers to have a better gaming experience, but it also allows people with hearing disabilities to game as well.
控制器重新映射是另一个由于相似原因而正在慢慢成为游戏行业标准的功能。Controller remapping is another feature that is slowly becoming a standard for the game industry for similar reasons. 它通常作为一项权益面向所有玩家提供。It is most commonly offered as a benefit for all players. 有些玩家喜欢自定义他们的游戏体验，而有些则只是喜欢与设计人员的想法不同的内容。Some gamers enjoy customizing their gaming experiences and some simply prefer something different from what the designers had in mind. 大部分人没有意识到的是，在输入设备上重新映射按钮的功能实际上也是一种辅助功能，旨在让具有各种类型的运动障碍、身体无法操作或难以操作控制器的某些区域的人更方便玩游戏。What most people don’t realize is that the ability to remap buttons on an input device is actually also an accessibility feature that was intended to make a game playable for people with various types of motor disabilities, who are physically unable to or find it difficult to operate certain areas of the controller.
最终，用于提高游戏辅助性的思维过程通常会产生更好的游戏，因为你设计出了更用户友好、更容易自定义的体验来供玩家享受。Ultimately, the thought process used to make your game more accessible will often result in a better game because you have designed a more user-friendly, customizable experience for your players to enjoy.
社交空间和生活质量Social space and quality of life
视频游戏是一种最赚钱的娱乐形式，玩游戏能够带来欢乐时刻。Video games are one of the highest grossing forms of entertainment and gaming can provide hours of joy. 对于某些人来说，游戏不仅是一种娱乐形式，还是一种从病床、慢性疼痛或使人衰弱的社交焦虑的逃避。For some, gaming is not only a form of entertainment but it is an escape from a hospital bed, chronic pain, or debilitating social anxiety. 玩家被转移到另一个世界，在这个世界中他们可以成为视频游戏中的主角。Gamers are transported into a world where they become the main characters in the video game. 通过玩游戏，他们可以为自己创造社交空间并参与其中，从而使他们从由他们的障碍所引发的日常痛苦中解脱出来，并且得到与无法通过其他方式进行互动的人交流的机会。Through gaming, they can create and participate in a social space for themselves that provides distraction from the day-to-day struggles brought on by their disabilities, and that provides an opportunity to communicate with people they might otherwise be unable to interact with.
游戏也是一种文化。Gaming is also a culture. 能够参与你的所有好友都在谈论的事，对于有些人的生活质量可能非常有价值。Being able to take part in the same thing that all of your friends are talking about is something that can be hugely valuable to someone’s quality of life.
你现在正在制作的游戏是辅助游戏吗？Is the game you are making today accessible?
如果你正在考虑第一次使你的游戏成为辅助游戏，下面是你需要自问的问题：If you are thinking about making your game accessible for the first time, here are some questions to ask yourself:
- 你是否能够使用单手完成游戏？Can you complete the game using a single hand?
- 一般人是否能对游戏轻松上手？Can an average person be able to pick the game up and play?
- 你是否能够在一段距离之外在小型监视器或电视上玩游戏？Can you effectively play the game on a small monitor or TV sitting at a distance?
- 你是否支持使用多种类型的输入设备玩完整个游戏？Do you support more than one type of input device that can be used to play through the entire game?
- 你是否能够在静音的情况下玩游戏？Can you play the game with sound muted?
- 你是否能够在将监视器设置为黑白的情况下玩游戏？Can you play the game with your monitor set to black and white?
- 一个月后加载你上次保存的游戏时，你可以轻松确定在游戏的哪个位置并知道需要做什么来继续游戏吗？When you load your last saved game after a month, can you easily figure out where you are in the game and know what you need to do in order to progress?
如果你的答案大部分都是否，或者你不知道答案，那么是时候设置辅助功能并将其放到你的游戏中了。If your answers are mostly no, or you do not know the answers, it is time to step up and put accessibility into your game.
残障定义为“个体的需求与所提供的服务、产品或环境之间的不匹配”。Disability is defined as "a mismatch between the needs of the individual and the service, product or environment offered." （非独占视频，Microsoft.com。）这意味着任何人都可能体验残障，它可以是短期或情境式的状况。(Inclusive video, Microsoft.com.) This means that anyone can experience a disability, and that it can be a short-term or situational condition. 想象一下具有这些状况的玩家在玩游戏时可能遇到的挑战，并思考如何针对它们更好地设计你的游戏。Envision what challenges gamers with these conditions might have when playing your game, and think about how your game can be better designed for them. 下面是需要考虑的某些残障：Here are some disabilities to consider:
- 医学的、长期的状况，如青光眼、白内障、色盲、近视和糖尿病视网膜病Medical, long-term conditions like glaucoma, cataracts, color blindness, near-sightedness, and diabetic retinopathy
- 短期的、情境式的状况，如监视器或屏幕尺寸较小、屏幕分辨率低，或者由监视器或移动设备屏幕上的明亮光源（如太阳）产生的屏幕炫光Short-term, situational conditions like a small monitor or screen size, a low resolution screen, or screen glare due to bright light sources like the sun on a monitor or mobile screen
- 医学的、长期的状况，如由疾病或遗传引发的完全失聪或部分听力损失Medical, long-term conditions like complete deafness or partial hearing loss due to diseases or genetics
- 短期的、情境式的状况，如背景噪音过大、较低的音频质量，或为避免打扰他人而限制了音量Short-term, situational conditions like excessive background noise, low quality audio quality, or restricted volume to avoid disturbing others
- 医学的、长期的状况，如帕金森病、肌萎缩侧索硬化 (ALS)、关节炎和肌肉萎缩症Medical, long-term conditions like Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), arthritis, and muscular dystrophy
- 短期的、情境式的状况，如手受伤、拿着饮料或手臂中怀抱孩子Short-term, situational conditions like an injured hand, holding a beverage, or carrying a child in one arm
- 医学的、长期的状况，如诵读困难、癫痫、注意缺陷多动障碍 (ADHD)、痴呆和健忘症Medical, long-term conditions like dyslexia, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dementia, and amnesia
- 短期的、情境式状况（如饮酒），如缺乏睡眠或者由房屋旁边驶过的紧急车辆发出的鸣笛等所引发的暂时分心Short-term, situational conditions like alcohol consumption, lack of sleep, or temporary distractions like siren from an emergency vehicle driving by the house
- 医学的、长期的状况，如声带损伤、构音障碍和失用症Medical, long-term conditions like vocal cord damage, dysarthria, and apraxia
- 短期的、情境式的状况，如牙科工作或正在吃饭和喝水Short-term, situational conditions like dental work, or eating and drinking
如何提高游戏的辅助性？How to make games more accessible?
设计转变：非独占游戏设计方法Design shift: Inclusive game design approach
非独占设计侧重于创建更容易供更广泛的消费者（包括残障人士）使用的产品和服务。Inclusive design focuses on creating products and services more accessible to a broader spectrum of consumers, including people with disabilities.
为了获取成功，当今的游戏设计师需要不只是思考如何创造他们自己喜欢的游戏。To be successful, today’s game designers need to think beyond creating games that they enjoy. 游戏设计师需要注意他们的设计决策如何影响游戏的总体辅助性；游戏对其整体目标受众（包括残障人士）的可玩性。Game designers need to be aware of how their design decisions impact the overall accessibility of the game; the playability of the game for their entire target audience, including those with disabilities.
因此，传统游戏设计模式必须转变，以拥抱非独占游戏设计概念。As such, traditional game design paradigms must shift to embrace the inclusive game design concept. 非独占游戏设计意味着超越为目标受众创造快乐的基本游戏设计，以创造额外或经修改的人物角色以包含更广泛的玩家。Inclusive game design means going beyond the basic game design of creating fun for the target audience, to creating additional or modified personas to include a wider spectrum of players. 你需要清楚了解游戏所存在的设计障碍，并确保在游戏带给人们有趣的目标体验时，这些问题不会增加不必要的障碍。You need to be acutely aware about designing barriers in your game and make sure that they do not add unnecessary barriers that take the fun away from the intended experience.
通过识别差异，你可以优化、迭代原始设计概念，并使其更好，从而让更多人感受你的愿景。By identifying gaps, you can optimise, iterate on the original design concept and make it better, allowing more people to experience your vision. 当你花时间在游戏设计过程中更具包含性时，你最终的游戏也会变得更具辅助性。When you take the time to be more inclusive in your game design process, your final game becomes more accessible. 没有游戏能够永远受到每个人的欢迎，游戏的定义需要有某种程度的挑战性，但考虑使用辅助功能，你可以确保没有人会被不必要地排除在外。No game can ever work for everyone, the definition of game requires that there is some degree of challenge, but through considering accessibility you can ensure that no one is unnecessarily excluded.
支持玩家：为玩家提供选择Empower gamers: Give gamers options
几乎所有辅助功能解决方案都会归结为两个原则中的一个。Nearly every accessibility solution comes down to one of two principles. 第一个是为你的玩家提供自定义其游戏体验的选择。The first is giving your gamers the options to customize their gaming experience. 如果你已经有大量粉丝群体，你的受众可能有很大一部分不希望体验发生任何形式的变化。If you already have a huge fan base, you may have a significant portion of your audience who do not want the experience to change in any way. 没关系。That’s okay. 为你的玩家提供打开和关闭这些功能的功能，并使这些功能可以单独配置。Give your gamers the ability to turn these features on and off, and make features configurable individually. 你需要让用户能够以最适合自己需求和偏好的方式体验游戏。You need to allow people to experience the game in the way that best suits their own needs and preferences.
增强：采用多种方法传达信息Reinforce: Communicate information in more than one way
第二个原则正是通用设计概念发挥作用的方面，这是一种不仅能带来更多玩家同时还能改进所有用户体验的方法。The second principle is where the concept of universal design comes in, a single approach that not only brings in more players but also improves the experience for all. 例如图像及文本、符号及颜色。For example an image as well as text, a symbol as well as colour. 基于一系列不同彩色标记的地图不仅无法使用色盲游戏标记，而且每个必须记住所有内容的人都能感到沮丧。A map that is based on a range of different coloured markers is not only impossible for color blind gamers to use, it is also frustrating for everyone else who must remember what everything equates to. 添加符号会为每个人带来更好的体验。Adding symbols makes it a better experience for everyone.
创新：有创意Innovate: Be creative
提高游戏的辅助性有许多有创意的方式。There are many creative ways to improve the accessibility of your game. 戴上有创意的帽子，向现存的其他辅助游戏学习。Put on your creative hat and learn from other accessible games out there. 如果你已经有一个现有的游戏，请学会识别可进行改进的当前游戏功能，同时使核心游戏机制和体验保持设计原样。If you already have an existing game, learn to identify current game features that could be improved while keeping the core game mechanics and experience as designed. 如上所述，游戏中的辅助功能的关键在于为玩家提供自定义其游戏体验的选项。As mentioned above, accessibility in games is all about providing gamers with options to customize their gaming experience. 可以通过强调或以多种方式传达信息。It could be through reinforcement or communicating information in more than one way.
考虑使用辅助功能，你能够从新的角度着手设计，很有可能是你未曾想到过的想法。Considering accessibility allows you to approach design from a new angle and possibly ideas you would have not thought of otherwise. 这种设计方法不仅会产生有趣的概念，还会打造出被广为采用或在大众市场取得商业成功的产品。This approach to design resulted not only in interesting concepts but have created products that have wide spread adoption or mass market commercial success. 示例包括预测文本、语音识别、路边切口、扬声器、打字机和光学字符识别 (OCR)。Examples include predictive text, voice recognition, curb cuts, the loudspeaker, the typewriter, and Optical Character Recognition (OCR). 这些产品的想法来自那些开始思考辅助功能解决方案的人。Ideas for these products came from those who started thinking about solutions for accessibility.
采用：质量意味着具有辅助性的功能Adopt: Quality means accessible features
辅助功能是一种质量措施。Accessibility is a measure of quality. 这是一项功能要求，而不是一个不错的工作项。It has to be a feature requirement and not a good-to-have work item. 例如，如果你的时间充裕，应将“调整适用于色盲人士的最小映射”视为优先级较高的工作项。For example, "Adapt minimap for colourblindness" is not considered a low priority work item that you get to if you have extra time. 如果此工作项未完成，这就意味着整个最小映射功能未完成，不能交付。If this work item is not done, it simply means that entire minimap feature is incomplete and cannot be shipped.
布道：使辅助功能成为游戏工作室中的优先事项Evangelize: Make accessibility a priority in your game studio
游戏开发始终按照紧凑的时间线进行，因此优先安排辅助功能将使此过程更轻松。Game development is always running on a tight timeline, so prioritizing accessibility will help make it an easier process. 一种方法是从一开始是就带着辅助功能的思维。One way is to design from the start with accessibility in mind. 越早考虑辅助功能，它就越便利，成本也越低。The earlier you consider accessibility, the easier and cheaper it becomes.
与团队共享你有关辅助功能的知识，共享商业理由，消除常见的误解 - 它不会让多数人受益，它会削弱你的机制，而且很难实现、成本也很高。Share your knowledge about accessibility with your team, share the business justifications, and dispel the common misconceptions – that it doesn’t benefit many people, it dilutes your mechanic, and it's difficult and expensive to implement.
审核：经常评估你的游戏Review: Constantly evaluate your game
在开发期间，你可以引入一个审核过程来确保你在途中的每个步骤都思考辅助功能。During development, you can introduce a review process to make sure that at every step of the way you are thinking about accessibility. 制作类似如下的清单来帮助你的团队经常评估你正在创建的内容是否具有辅助性。Make a checklist like the one below to help your team constantly evaluate whether what you are creating is accessible or not.
|游戏内电影In-game cinematics||具有字幕和描述文字，经过光敏性测试Has subtitles and captions, photosensitivity tested|
|整体插图（2D 和3D 图形）Overall artwork (2D and 3D graphics)||使颜色和选项完全相关，而不是完全依赖于标识，同时也使用形状和模式Color blind friendly colors and options, not dependent entirely on color for identification but use shapes and patterns as well|
|“开始”评估、设置菜单和其他菜单Start screen, settings menu and other menus||朗读选项的功能、记住设置的功能、备用命令控制输入法、可调整的 UI 字体大小Ability to read options aloud, ability to remember settings, alternate command control input method, adjustable UI font size|
|游戏玩法Gameplay||广泛的可调整难度级别、字幕和描述文字、对玩家的良好视觉和听觉反馈Wide adjustable difficulty levels, subtitles and captions, good visual and audio feedback for gamer|
|HUD 屏幕HUD display||可调整的屏幕位置、可调整的字体大小、色盲友好选项Adjustable screen position, adjustable font size, color blind friendly option|
|控制输入Control input||输入设备的可映射控制、自定义控制器支持、简化所允许游戏的输入Mappable controls to input device, custom controller support, simplified input for game allowed|
试玩和迭代：获取玩家的反馈Playtest and iterate: Get gamers' feedback
在组织试玩会议时，邀请具有你的游戏设计所面向的残障的试玩人员，并使他们玩你的游戏。When organizing playtesting sessions, invite play testers with disabilities that your game is designed for and get them to play your game. 请记住在 Beta 测试问卷中加入辅助功能问题。Remember to include accessibility questions in the Beta test questionaires. 本地的残疾人群体是很好的参与者来源。Local disability groups are a great source of participants. 观察他们如何玩，并获取他们的反馈。Observe how they play and get feedback from them. 确定为了使游戏更好需要进行哪些更改。Figure out what changes need to be made to make the game better.
使用社交媒体和游戏论坛听取有关辅助功最受关注的方面以及应该如何实现的问题。Use social media and your game's forum to listen for input about which accessibility features matter most and how they should be implemented.
大声宣布：让全世界知道你的游戏是辅助游戏Shout it out: Let the world know your game is accessible
客户将希望知道具有残障的玩家是否可以玩你的游戏。Consumers will want to know if your game can be played by gamers with disabilities. 在游戏网站、新闻稿和包装上清楚地陈述游戏的辅助功能，以确保消费者在购买游戏时知道应该期待哪些内容。State the game’s accessibility clearly on the game website, press releases, and packaging to ensure that consumers know what to expect when they buy your game. 记得使你的游戏的网站和所有销售渠道也具有辅助性。Remember to make your website and all sales channels to the game accessible as well. 最重要的是，向外扩展到游戏社区，告诉他们关于你的游戏的信息。Most importantly, reach out to the accessibility gaming community and tell them about your game.
游戏辅助功能Game accessibility features
本部分概述可使你的游戏更具辅助性的一些功能。This section outlines some features that can make your game more accessible. 这些功能派生自 游戏辅助功能指南 网站中的指导原则。These features are derived from guidelines taken from the Game accessibility guidelines website. 该资源代表了一组工作室、专家和学者的调查结果。That resource represent the findings of a collaborative group of studios, specialists, and academics.
色盲友好图形和用户界面Color blind friendly graphics and user interface
眼睛的视网膜具有两种类型的感光细胞：用于查看光所在位置的视锥细胞和用于在弱光条件下查看的视杆细胞。The retina of the eye has two types of light-sensitive cells: the cones for seeing where there is light, and the rods for seeing in low light conditions.
有三种类型的视锥细胞（红色、蓝色和蓝色）来使我们能够正确查看颜色。There are three types of cones (red, green, and blue) to enable us to view colors correctly. 当这三种类型的一种或多种情况看不到预期时，会发生色盲。Color blindness occurs when one or more of these three types light cones is not functioning as expected. 色盲的范围可能包括几乎普通的颜色感觉，并降低了红色、绿色或蓝色的灵敏度，甚至完全无法发现任何颜色。The degree of color blindness can range from almost normal color perception with reduced sensitivity towards red, green, or blue light, to a complete inability to perceive any color at all.
由于在为色盲设计时不太常见，因此在设计色盲时，为红或绿的用户提供了选择的颜色：Since it’s less common to have reduced sensitivity to blue light, when designing for the color blind, the selection of colors are geared towards people who are red or green color blind:
使用可由具有红色/绿色色盲的人进行区分的颜色组合：Use color combinations that can be differentiated by people with red/green color blindness:
- 看起来相似的颜色：红色和绿色的所有色度，包括棕色和橙色Colors that appear similar: All shades of red and green including brown and orange
- 显眼的颜色：蓝色和黄色Colors that stand out: Blue and yellow
不要只单独依赖颜色来传达或区分游戏对象。Do not rely solely on color to communicate or distinguish game objects. 还应使用形状和图案。Use shapes and patterns as well.
如果只能使用颜色，请在预设中加入可自由选择的颜色，以便有需要的玩家可以进行完全自定义，同时不为不需要的玩家带来额外的麻烦。If you have to rely on colors alone, combine presets with a free selection of colors, so that it can be fully customizable by the players who need them and not creating extra work for players who do not need them.
使用色盲模拟器测试设计，以便可以通过色盲眼睛查看设计。Use a color blind simulator to test your designs so that you can view your designs through color blind eyes. 这可以帮助你避免出现常见的对比度问题。This can help you avoid common contrast issues. 彩色 Oracle 是一种免费的色盲模拟器，可以模拟三种最常见的颜色视觉缺陷类型-deuteranopia、protanopia 和 tritanopia。Color Oracle is a free color blind simulator that can simulate the three most common types of color vision deficiency – deuteranopia, protanopia, and tritanopia.
隐藏式字幕和字幕Closed captioning and subtitles
在为游戏设计隐藏式字幕和字幕时，目标是提供可读的描述文字作为一个选项，以便没有音频也可以享受你的游戏。When designing the closed captions and subtitles for your game, the objective is provide readable captions as an option so that your game can also be enjoyed without audio. 应该可以将游戏对话、游戏音频和音效等游戏组件在屏幕上以文字的形式显示。It should be possible to have game components like game dialogues, game audio, and sound effects displayed as text on screen.
下面是在设计隐藏式字幕和字幕时需要考虑的一些基本指南：Here are some basic guidelines to consider when designing closed captions and subtitles:
- 选择简单易读的字体。Select simple readable font.
- 选择足够大的字体大小，或者考虑使用可调整的字体大小选项来增加灵活性。Select sufficiently large font size, or consider having adjustable font size option for more flexibility. （理想的字体大小取决于屏幕大小、离屏幕的观看的距离等。）(Ideal font size depends on screen size, viewing distance from screen, and so on.)
- 在背景和字体颜色之间创造高对比度。Create high contrast between background and font color. 为文本使用鲜明轮廓和阴影。Use strong outline and shadows for the text. 为字幕使用深色的背景覆盖层，并记住提供开关选项。Use a dark background overlay for the captions and remember to provide options for it to be turned on or off. （有关详细信息，请参阅关于对比度比率的信息。）(For more information, see Information on contrast ratio.)
- 在屏幕上显示短句，每行最多 38 个字符，每次最多 2-3 行。Display short sentences on screen, maximum 38 characters per line and maximum 2-3 lines at any one time. （记得不要在事件发生前就显示文字，从而泄露游戏情节。）(Remember not to give the game away by displaying the text before event occurs.)
- 区分制造声音的物体或说话的人。Differentiate what is making the sound or who is talking. （示例：“Daniel：嗨！”）(Example: "Daniel: Hi!")
- 提供打开和关闭隐藏式和字幕的选项。Provide the option to turn closed captions and subtitles on and off. （其他功能：基于重要性选择显示多少声音信息的功能。）(Additional feature: Ability to select how much sound information is displayed based on importance.)
游戏聊天脚本Game chat transcription
如果你的游戏允许玩家使用语音和发送文本消息来与彼此通信，文本到语音转换和语音到文本转换功能应该作为选项提供。If your title allows gamers to communicate using voice and send text messages to one another, Text-to-Speech and Speech-to-Text functionalities should be available as an option.
游戏设备未连接麦克风的用户仍可以与发言的其他人进行语音对话。People who do not have microphones attached to their gaming device can still have a voice conversation with someone who is speaking. 他们可以在聊天窗口中键入文本并将这些消息转换为语音。They are able to type text into the chat window and have those messages converted into voice. 它还让听力不是很好的用户能够阅读来自语音聊天用户的转录的文本消息。It also allows someone who can't hear very well to read the transcribed text messages from the person they're having a voice chat with.
对于参与 ID@Xbox 和托管合作伙伴计划的开发人员，文本到语音转换和语音到文本转换功能作为 Xbox Live 服务的游戏聊天 2 辅助功能的一部分提供。For developers in the ID@Xbox and managed partners program, Text-to-Speech and Speech-to-Text features are available as part of the Game Chat 2 accessibility features in the Xbox Live service. 有关详细信息，请参阅游戏聊天 2 概述。For more information, see Game Chat 2 Overview.
声音可以向玩家提供视觉反馈之外的反馈。Sound provides feedback to the player, in addition to visual feedback. 出色的游戏音频设计可以使具有视觉障碍的玩家更容易使用。Good game audio design can improve accessibility for players with visual impairment. 下面是要考虑的某些指南：Here are some guidelines to consider:
- 使用 3D 音频提示来提供额外的空间信息。Use 3D audio cues to provide additional spatial information.
- 将音乐、语音和音效音量控件分离。Separate music, speech and sound effects volume controls.
- 设计为玩家提供有意义信息的语音。Design speech that provides meaningful information for gamers. （示例：“敌人正在靠近我们”与“敌人正在从后门进入”。）(Example: "Enemies are approaching" vs. "Enemies are entering from the back door.")
- 确保以合理的速率说出语音，并提供语速控件以提高辅助性。Ensure speech is spoken at a reasonable rate, and provide rate control for better accessibility.
完全可映射控制Fully mappable controls
有些公司和组织（如 Special Effect）设计可与各种游戏系统（如 Windows 和 Xbox One）结合使用的自定义游戏控制器。There are companies and organizations, such as Special Effect, that design custom game controllers that can be used with various gaming systems like Windows and Xbox One. 此自定义使具有不同形式的残障的人士能够玩本来不能玩的游戏。This customization allows people with different forms of disabilities to play games they might not be able to play otherwise. 有关现在由于自定义控制器而能够独立玩游戏的人员的详细信息，请参阅它们帮助了谁。For more information on people who are now able to play games independently because of customized controllers, see who they helped.
作为游戏开发人员，你可以通过允许完全可映射的控制来使游戏更具辅助性，以便使玩家可以选择插入其自己的自定义控制器，并根据需要重新映射按键。As a game developer, you can make your game more accessible by allowing fully mappable controls so that gamers have the option to plug in their custom controllers and remap the keys according to their needs.
使用完全可映射控制对于使用标准控制器的用户也有益处。Having fully mappable controls also benefits people who use standard controllers. 你的玩家可以设计适合自己特殊的个人需求的布局。Your gamers can design a layout that suits their unique individual needs.
标准 Xbox One 和 Xbox Elite 控制器都提供控制器的自定义用于精确游戏。Both standard Xbox One and Xbox Elite controllers offer customization of the controllers for precision gaming. 若要完全利用其重新映射功能，建议开发人员直接在游戏中加入重新映射。To fully utliize their remapping capabilities, it is recommended that developers include remapping directly in the game. 有关详细信息，请参阅 Xbox One 和 Xbox Elite。For more information, see Xbox One and Xbox Elite.
较广的难度级别选择Wider selection of difficulty levels
视频游戏提供娱乐。Video games provide entertainment. 对游戏开发人员的挑战是调整难度级别，以便玩家体验适量的挑战。The challenge for game developers is to tune the difficulty level such that the gamer experiences the right amount challenge. 首先，并非所有玩家都有相同的技巧水平和能力，因此设计较广的难度选项选择可增加为玩家提供适量挑战的几率。Firstly, not all gamers have the same skill level and capability, so designing a wider selection of difficulty options increases the chance of providing gamers with the right amount of challenge. 同时，这种较广的选择还可使你的视频游戏更具辅助性，因为它可能会使更多的残障人士来玩你的游戏。At the same time, this wider selection also makes your video game more accessible because it could potentially allow more people with disabilities to play your game. 请记住，玩家希望在游戏中克服挑战，并为此获得奖赏。Remember, gamers want to overcome challenges in a game and be rewarded for it. 他们不需要不能赢的游戏。They do not want a game that they cannot win.
调整游戏的难度级别是一个微秒的过程。Tweaking the difficulty level of your game is a delicate process. 如果太简单，玩家可能会无聊。If it is too easy, gamers might get bored. 如果太难，玩家可能会放弃，并且不再从该点继续玩下去。If it is too difficult, gamers may give up and not play any further from that point on. 权衡的过程同时具有艺术性和科学性。The balancing process is both art and science. 有多种方法可使游戏关卡具有适量的挑战。There are many ways to make a game level that has the right amount of challenge. 某些游戏提供简化的输入（如其游戏的单按钮游戏选项）、提供倒回和重玩的选项来使游戏玩法更宽松，或者在多次尝试后减少和弱化敌人以便更容易前进。Some games offer simplified inputs, like a single button press game option for their game, a rewind and replay option to make gameplay more forgiving, or less and weaker enemies to make it easier to proceed forward after several tries.
光敏性癫痫测试Photosensitivity epilepsy testing
光敏性癫痫 (PSE) 是一种由视觉刺激（包括暴露在闪光灯或特定的移动视觉形式和模式下）触发病情发作的病症。Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) is a condition where seizures are triggered by visual stimuli, including exposures to flashing lights or certain moving visual forms and patterns. 大约 3% 的人会出现此病症，并且在儿童和青少年中更常见。This occurs in about three percent of people and is more common in children and adolescents. 在数字方面，我们看到大约每 4000 个用户中有 1 个年龄段为 5-24。In terms of numbers, we are looking at approximately 1 in 4000 people aged 5-24.
在玩视频游戏时，有许多因素可能会导致光敏反映，包括游戏的持续时间、闪光的频率、光的强度、背景和光的对比度、屏幕和玩家之间的距离以及光的波长。There are many factors that can cause a photosensitive reaction when playing video games, including the duration of gameplay, the frequency of the flash, the intensity of the light, the contrast of the background and the light, the distance between the screen and the gamer, and the wavelength of the light.
许多人发现他们是在一次发病后患上癫痫的。Many people discover that they have epilepsy through having a seizure. 玩家可能而且确实会在视频游戏中首次发作癫痫，这可能导致人身伤害。Gamers can and do have their first seizures through videogames, and this can result in physical injury. 作为开发人员，下面是一些设计游戏的提示，用于减少光敏性癫痫引起的发病风险。As a developer, here are some tips for designing a game to reduce the risk of seizures caused by photosensitive epilepsy.
避免以下事项：Avoid the following:
- 使用频率为每秒 5 到 30 次闪光（赫兹）的闪光灯，因为该范围内的闪光灯最有可能触发病情发作。Having flashing lights with a frequency of 5 to 30 flashes per second (Hertz) because flashing lights in that range are most likely to trigger seizures.
- 任何持续时间超过 5 秒的连续闪动图像Any sequence of flashing images that lasts for more than 5 seconds
- 一秒内超过三次闪烁，覆盖 25% 以上的屏幕区域More than three flashes in a single second, covering 25%+ of the screen
- 移动的重复图案或统一文本，覆盖 25% 以上的屏幕区域Moving repeated patterns or uniform text, covering 25%+ of the screen
- 静态的重复图案或统一文本，覆盖 40% 以上的屏幕区域Static repeated patterns or uniform text, covering 40%+ of the screen
- 亮度/对比度的瞬时大变化（包括快速剪切），或与红色之间的切换An instantaneous high change in brightness/contrast (including fast cuts), or to/from the colour red
- 超过五个可能由较小的规则单元（如圆点）组成的均匀分布的高对比度重复条纹 - 行或列（如网格和棋盘）More than five evenly spaced high contrast repeated stripes – rows or columns such as grids and checkerboards, that may be composed of smaller regular elements such as polkadots
- 超过五行只有大写字母格式的文本行，字母之间间距不大，而且行间距与行本身的高度相同，这有效地将它变为高对比度的均匀交替行More than five lines of text formatted as capital letters only, with not much spacing between letters, and line spacing the same height as the lines themselves, effectively turning it into high contrast evenly alternating rows
使用自动系统检查游戏中是否有可能触发光敏性癫痫的刺激物。Use an automated system to check gameplay for stimuli that could trigger photosensitive epilepsy. （示例：Cambridge Research System Ltd 和 Graham Harding 教授开发的 The Harding Test 和 Harding Flash and Pattern Analyzer (FPA) G2。）(Example: The Harding Test and Harding Flash and Pattern Analyzer (FPA) G2 developed by Cambridge Research System Ltd and Professor Graham Harding.)
加入闪烁开/关设置选项，并将闪烁设置为默认关闭。Include Flashing On/Off as a setting option and set Flashing as Off by default. 这样一来，就可以保护还不知道自己容易发病的玩家。In doing so, you protect players who do not yet know they are susceptible to seizures.
在游戏关卡之间设计中断，鼓励玩家休息，避免不间断地玩。Design for breaks between game levels, encouraging players to take a break from playing non-stop.
其他辅助功能资源Other accessibility resources
下面是一些提供关于游戏辅助功能的其他信息的外部站点。Here are some external sites that provide additional information about game accessibility.
游戏辅助功能指南Game accessibility guidelines
- 游戏辅助功能准则 (用作本主题中的参考) Game accessibility guidelines (used as a reference in this topic)
- AbleGamers Foundation 准则 (用作本主题中的参考) AbleGamers Foundation guidelines (used as a reference in this topic)
- 设计通用辅助 (UA) 游戏Design Universally Accessible (UA) games
自定义输入控制器Custom input controllers
使用的其他引用Other references used
- Color Blind Awareness，一家社区利益公司Color Blind Awareness, a Community Interest Company
- 如何 — 在 Gamasutra 上通过 Ian Hamilton 撰写博客文章How to do subtitles well—a blog article on Gamasutra by Ian Hamilton
- 面向所有人的创新计划Innovation for All Programme
- 癫痫基金会Epilepsy foundation