在 SharePoint Server 中備份伺服器陣列Back up farms in SharePoint Server

摘要: 了解如何備份 SharePoint Server 2016 和 SharePoint 2013 伺服器陣列。Summary: Learn how to back up a SharePoint Server 2016 and SharePoint 2013 farm.

您可以使用SharePoint 管理中心網站、Microsoft PowerShell 或 SQL Server 工具來備份 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列。所使用的備份工具取決於已部署的環境類型、備份排程的需要以及您組織的服務等級協定而定。You can back up a SharePoint Server farm by using the SharePoint Central Administration website, Microsoft PowerShell, or SQL Server tools. The backup tool that you use depends on the kind of environment that you have deployed, your backup schedule requirements, and service level agreements that you have with your organization.

開始之前Before you begin

建議您備份設定及內容,以定期備份完整伺服器陣列。定期備份伺服器陣列,可減少因硬體故障、停電或其他問題時發生資料遺失的機率。雖然這只是簡單的程序,但有助於讓所有伺服器陣列資料和設定,可於必要時用於復原。We recommend that you regularly back up the complete farm by backing up both the configuration and content. Regularly backing up the farm reduces the possibility of data losses that might occur from hardware failures, power outages, or other problems. It is a simple process and helps so that all the farm data and configurations are available for recovery, if that is required.

如需用於備份之工具的詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中規劃備份和修復>。For information about which tool to use for backups, see Plan for backup and recovery in SharePoint Server.

開始這項作業之前,請先檢閱下列如何協助您準備伺服器陣列備份的相關資訊:Before you begin this operation, review the following information to help you prepare your farm backup:

  • 您必須在本機電腦或網路上建立儲存備份的資料夾。若要獲得較佳的效能,建議您備份至本機電腦,然後再將備份檔案移至網路資料夾。如需如何建立備份資料夾的詳細資訊,請參閱在 SharePoint Server 中準備備份及還原伺服器陣列You must create a folder on the local computer or the network in which to store the backups. For better performance, we recommend that you back up to the local computer and then move the backup files to a network folder. For more information about how to create a backup folder, see Prepare to back up and restore farms in SharePoint Server.

  • 執行備份不會影響伺服器陣列的狀態。但這需要資源,而且可能會在執行備份時略微影響伺服器陣列的效能。在伺服器陣列使用率最低 (如下班時間) 的期間備份伺服器陣列,可以避免效能問題。Performing a backup does not affect the state of the farm. However, it does require resources and might slightly affect farm performance when the backup is running. You can avoid performance issues by backing up the farm during hours when farm use is lowest, such as outside office hours.

  • 伺服器陣列備份程序不會備份用來形成信任關係的任何憑證。請先確定您具有這些憑證的複本,再備份伺服器陣列。在還原伺服器陣列之後,您必須重新建立這些信任關係。The farm backup process does not back up any certificates that you used to form trust relationships. Ensure that you have copies of these certificates before you back up the farm. You must re-establish these trust relationships after restoring the farm.

  • 備份伺服器陣列會備份設定和管理中心內容資料庫,但是無法使用 SharePoint Server 工具還原這些項目。如需如何備份和還原所有伺服器陣列資料庫的詳細資訊,請參閱移動 SharePoint Server 中的所有資料庫Backing up the farm backs up the configuration and Central Administration content databases, but these cannot be restored using SharePoint Server tools. For more information about how to back up and restore all the farm databases, see Move all databases in SharePoint Server.

  • 因為已手動更新 Web.config 檔案以登錄成員資格和角色提供者,而且未備份 Web.config 檔案的手動變更,所以當您備份含有設定成使用表單型驗證之 Web 應用程式的伺服器陣列時,也必須使用檔案備份系統保護 Web.config 檔案。同樣地,當您還原 Web 應用程式時,不會還原 Web.config 檔案。復原後,您必須更新 Web.config 檔案並重新部署提供者。如需詳細資訊,請參閱在 SharePoint Server 中規劃使用者驗證方法When you back up a farm that contains a Web application that is configured to use forms-based authentication, you must also use a file backup system to protect the Web.config files because the Web.config files were updated manually to register the membership and role providers, and manual changes to the Web.config files are not backed up. Similarly, Web.config files are not restored when you restore a Web application. After recovery, you must update the Web.config files and redeploy the providers. For more information, see Plan for user authentication methods in SharePoint Server.

  • SharePoint Server 備份會備份 Business Data Connectivity Service 外部內容類型定義,但不會備份資料來源本身。若要保護資料,則應該在備份 Business Data Connectivity Service 或伺服器陣列時備份資料來源。SharePoint Server backup backs up the Business Data Connectivity service external content type definitions but does not back up the data source itself. To protect the data, you should back up the data source when you back up the Business Data Connectivity service or the farm.

    如果您還原 Business Data Connectivity Service 或伺服器陣列,然後將資料服務還原至不同位置,則必須在外部內容類型定義中變更位置資訊。否則,Business Data Connectivity Service 可能會找不到資料來源。If you restore the Business Data Connectivity service or the farm and then restore the data service to a different location, you must change the location information in the external content type definition. If you do not, the Business Data Connectivity service might be unable to locate the data source.

  • SharePoint Server 備份會備份遠端二進位大型物件 (BLOB) 存放區,但只有在您使用 FILESTREAM 遠端 BLOB 存放區提供者將資料放於遠端 BLOB 存放區時。SharePoint Server backup backs up remote Binary Large Object (BLOB) stores but only if you are using the FILESTREAM remote BLOB store provider to put data in remote BLOB stores.

    如果您使用其他提供者,則必須手動備份遠端 BLOB 存放區。If you are using another provider, you must manually back up the remote BLOB stores.

  • 如果您搭配使用 SQL Server 與透明資料加密 (TDE),而且使用 SharePoint 工具或 SQL Server 工具備份環境,則不會備份或還原 TDE 加密金鑰。您必須手動備份金鑰。還原時,您必須先手動還原金鑰,再還原資料。如需詳細資訊,請參閱透明資料加密 (TDE)If you are using SQL Server with Transparent Data Encryption (TDE), and you are backing up your environment by using either SharePoint tools or SQL Server tools, the TDE encryption key in not backed up or restored. You must back up the key manually. When restoring, you must manually restore the key before you restore the data. For more information, see Understanding Transparent Data Encryption (TDE).

使用 PowerShell 備份 SharePoint Server 中的伺服器陣列Use PowerShell to back up a farm in SharePoint Server

您可以使用 PowerShell 手動備份伺服器陣列,或透過可以依排程間隔執行的指令碼備份伺服器陣列。You can use PowerShell to back up the farm manually or as part of a script that can be run at scheduled intervals.

使用 PowerShell 備份伺服器陣列To back up a farm by using PowerShell

  1. 確認您具備下列成員身分:Verify that you have the following memberships:

    • SQL Server 執行個體上的 securityadmin 固定伺服器角色。securityadmin fixed server role on the SQL Server instance.

    • 所有要更新之資料庫上的 db_owner 固定資料庫角色。db_owner fixed database role on all databases that are to be updated.

    • 正在執行 PowerShell Cmdlet 之所在伺服器上的系統管理員群組。Administrators group on the server on which you are running the PowerShell cmdlets.

      系統管理員可以使用 Add-SPShellAdmin Cmdlet 授與使用 SharePoint Server Cmdlet 的權限。An administrator can use the Add-SPShellAdmin cmdlet to grant permissions to use SharePoint Server cmdlets.

      注意

      如果您不具備上述權限,請連絡安裝程式系統管理員或 SQL Server 系統管理員要求權限。如需 PowerShell 權限的其他資訊,請參閱 Add-SPShellAdminIf you do not have permissions, contact your Setup administrator or SQL Server administrator to request permissions. For additional information about PowerShell permissions, see Add-SPShellAdmin.

  2. 啟動 SharePoint 管理命令介面。Start the SharePoint Management Shell.

  3. 在 PowerShell 命令提示字元中,輸入下列命令:At the PowerShell command prompt, type the following command:

    Backup-SPFarm -Directory <BackupFolder> -BackupMethod {Full | Differential} [-Verbose]
    

    其中:Where:

    • <BackupFolder> 是您要用以儲存備份之本機電腦或網路上的資料夾路徑。<BackupFolder> is the path of a folder on the local computer or the network in which you want to store the backups.

      注意

      若是第一次備份伺服器陣列,必須使用 Full 選項。您必須先執行完整備份,才可執行差異備份。If you are backing up the farm for the first time, you must use the Full option. You must perform a full backup before you can perform a differential backup.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱<Backup-SPFarm>。For more information, see Backup-SPFarm.

注意

建議您在執行命令列管理工作時使用 Windows PowerShell。Stsadm 命令列工具已過時,但為與舊版產品相容,仍會隨附提供。We recommend that you use Microsoft PowerShell when performing command-line administrative tasks. The Stsadm command-line tool has been deprecated, but is included to support compatibility with previous product versions.

使用管理中心備份 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列Use Central Administration to back up a SharePoint Server farm

您可以使用管理中心備份伺服器陣列。You can use Central Administration to back up the farm.

使用管理中心備份伺服器陣列To back up a farm by using Central Administration

  1. 確認執行此程序的使用者帳戶為 SharePoint 伺服器陣列管理員群組的成員。Verify that the user account that is performing this procedure is a member of the Farm Administrators SharePoint group.

  2. 在管理中心首頁上,按一下 [備份與還原]**** 區段中的 [執行備份]*In Central Administration, on the home page, in the *Backup and Restore section, click Perform a backup.

  3. 在 [執行備份 - 步驟 2 之 1:選取要備份的元件] 頁面上,選取元件清單中的伺服器陣列,然後按 [下一步]*On the Perform a Backup — Step 1 of 2: Select Component to Back Up page, select the farm from the list of components, and then click *Next.

  4. 在 [開始備份 — 步驟 2 之 2: 選取備份選項] 頁面的 [備份類型]**** 區段中,選取 [完整]**** 或 [差異]*On the Start Backup — Step 2 of 2: Select Backup Options page, in the *Backup Type section, select either Full or Differential.

    注意

    若是第一次備份伺服器陣列,必須使用 Full 選項。您必須先執行完整備份,才可執行差異備份。If you are backing up the farm for the first time, you must use the Full option. You must perform a full backup before you can perform a differential backup.

  5. 在 [僅備份組態設定]**** 區段中,按一下 [備份內容與組態設定]*In the *Back Up Only Configuration Settings section, click Back up content and configuration settings.

  6. 在 [備份檔案位置]**** 區段中,輸入備份資料夾的 UNC 路徑,然後按一下 [開始備份]*In the *Backup File Location section, type the UNC path of the backup folder, and then click Start Backup.

  7. 您可以在 [備份與還原狀態] 頁面上方的 [整備]**** 區段中,檢視所有備份工作的一般狀態。在同頁面底部的 [備份]**** 區段中,則可檢視目前備份工作的狀態。狀態頁面每 30 秒會自動更新。只要按一下 [重新整理]*,即可手動更新狀態詳細資料。備份與復原都是計時器服務工作。因此,數秒之後才會開始備份。You can view the general status of all backup jobs at the top of the Backup and Restore Status page in the *Readiness section. You can view the status for the current backup job in the lower part of the page in the Backup section. The status page updates every 30 seconds automatically. You can manually update the status details by clicking Refresh. Backup and recovery are Timer service jobs. Therefore, it may take several seconds for the backup to start.

    如有收到錯誤,可以檢閱 [備份與還原工作狀態] 頁面的 [失敗訊息]**** 欄。也可以在步驟 6 所指定之 UNC 路徑下的 Spbackup.log 檔案中,找到詳細資料。If you receive any errors, you can review them in the Failure Message column of the Backup and Restore Job Status page. You can also find more details in the Spbackup.log file at the UNC path that you specified in step 6.

使用 SQL Server 工具來備份 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列Use SQL Server tools to back up a SharePoint Server farm

如果您想要備份完整伺服器陣列,則必須使用 PowerShell 或管理中心。因為您無法使用 SQL Server 工具來備份伺服器陣列的設定,所以您無法使用此工具備份完整伺服器陣列。但您可以備份所有與該伺服器陣列相關聯的資料庫。與伺服器陣列相關聯的資料庫是透過已安裝在伺服器陣列上的服務及功能所決定。If you want to back up the complete farm, you must use either PowerShell or Central Administration. You cannot back up the complete farm by using the SQL Server tools because you cannot use the tools to back up the farm's configuration. However, you can back up all the databases that are associated with the farm. The databases that are associated with the farm are determined by the services and features that you have installed on the farm.

使用 SQL Server 工具備份與伺服器陣列相關聯的資料庫To back up the databases associated with a farm by using SQL Server tools

  1. 確認執行此程序的使用者帳戶是要備份之所有資料庫上的 SQL Server db_owner 固定資料庫角色成員。Verify that the user account that is performing this procedure is a member of the SQL Server db_owner fixed database role on all databases that are to be backed up.

  2. 開啟 SQL Server Management Studio 並連線至正確的 SQL Server 資料庫引擎執行個體。Open SQL Server Management Studio and connect to the correct instance of the SQL Server Database Engine.

  3. 在 [物件總管] 中,展開 [資料庫]*In Object Explorer, expand *Databases.

  4. 在要備份的資料庫上按一下滑鼠右鍵,並指向 [工作]*,然後按一下 [備份]Right-click the database that you want to back up, point to **Tasks, and then click **Back Up*.

  5. 在 [備份資料庫]**** 對話方塊中,確認資料庫名稱。In the Back Up Database dialog box, confirm the database name.

  6. 下一步,從 [備份類型]**** 清單選取要執行的備份種類。如需要使用哪種備份類型的詳細資訊,請參閱復原模式 (SQL Server)Next, select the kind of backup that you want to perform from the Backup type list. For more information about which backup type to use, see Recovery Models (SQL Server) http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkID=715706&clcid=0x409.

  7. 在 [備份元件]**** 區域中,按一下 [資料庫]*In the *Backup component area, click Database.

  8. 在 [名稱]**** 文字方塊中,填入提供的預設名稱,或是另外指定備份組名稱。Either use the default name that is provided or specify a name for the backup set in the **Name **text box.

  9. 在 [目的地]**** 區域中,指定您要儲存備份的位置。In the Destination area, specify where you want to store the backup.

  10. 按一下 [確定]**** 備份資料庫。Click OK to back up the database.

  11. 針對每個伺服器陣列資料庫重複步驟 1-10。Repeat steps 1-10 for each farm database.

另請參閱See also