SharePoint 中的應用程式管理和控管Application management and governance in SharePoint

摘要:了解如何建立自訂原則及了解應用程式模型、品牌和生命週期管理,進而管理 SharePoint 的應用程式。Summary: Learn how to govern applications for SharePoint by creating a customization policy and understanding the app model, branding, and life-cycle management.

您要如何管理針對您的環境所開發的應用程式?您的應用程式中允許哪些自訂項目,以及您管理這些應用程式的程序為何?How will you manage the applications that are developed for your environment? What customization do you allow in your applications, and what are your processes for managing those applications?

對於有效且可管理的應用程式,您的組織應考慮下列事項:For effective and manageable applications, your organization should consider the following:

  • 自訂原則 SharePoint Server 2016 包含橫跨多個產品領域 (例如:商務智慧、表單、工作流程和內容管理) 的可自訂功能。自訂可能會帶來環境穩定性、維護和安全性的風險。若要支援自訂並同時控制其範圍,您應該開發自訂原則。Customization policy SharePoint Server 2016 includes customizable features and capabilities that span multiple product areas, such as business intelligence, forms, workflow, and content management. Customization can introduce risks to the stability, maintenance, and security of the environment. To support customization while controlling its scope, you should develop a customization policy.

  • 生命週期管理 遵循最佳作法以管理應用程式,並讓環境保持同步。Life-cycle management Follow best practices to manage applications and keep your environments in sync.

  • 品牌 如果您正在設計可供整個組織使用的資訊架構和一組網站,請考慮在您的治理計劃中納入品牌。一套正式的品牌原則有助於確保各網站一致使用企業圖像、字型、主題和其他設計元素。Branding If you are designing an information architecture and a set of sites to use across an organization, consider including branding in your governance plan. A formal set of branding policies helps ensure that sites consistently use enterprise imagery, fonts, themes, and other design elements.

  • SharePoint 的解決方案或應用程式? 決定解決方案或 SharePoint 相關應用程式 是否為特定自訂項目的最佳選擇。Solutions or apps for SharePoint? Decide whether a solution or an app for SharePoint would be the best choice for specific customizations.

自訂原則Customization policy

決定您要允許的自訂類型以及如何進行管理。您的自訂原則應包含:Determine the types of customizations you want to allow and how to manage them. Your customization policy should include:

  • 服務層級說明 在您的環境中用來支援及管理自訂項目的參數為何?請參閱 服務層級協議Service-level descriptions What are the parameters for supporting and managing customizations in your environments? See Service-level agreements.

  • 更新自訂項目的指導方針 如何管理自訂項目的變更,以及如何將這些變更推展至您的環境?請考量管理原始程式碼的方法,例如原始檔控制系統和用於記載程式碼的標準。Guidelines for updating customizations How do you manage changes to customizations, and how do you roll out those changes to your environments? Consider ways to manage source code, such as a source control system and standards for documenting the code.

  • 分析程序 如何了解特定自訂項目在您的環境中是否運作正常,以及如何決定要建立、變更或淘汰哪些自訂項目?retire?Processes for analyzing How do you understand whether a particular customization is working well in your environment, or how do you decide which ones to create, change, or retire?

  • 核准的自動工具 請考量開發標準,例如您將用於整個組織的編碼最佳作法和工具。舉例而言,您應決定是否允許使用 SharePoint Designer 2013 和 設計管理員,以及指定可由誰自訂哪些網站元素。Approved tools for customization Consider development standards, such as coding best practices and the tools that you will to use across your organization. For example, you should decide whether to allow the use of SharePoint Designer 2013 and Design Manager, and specify which site elements can be customized and by whom.

  • 試驗和測試自訂項目的程序 如何測試和部署自訂項目?試驗測試群組中應有多少人?測試和驗證自訂項目的標準為何?Process for piloting and testing customizations How do you test and deploy customizations? How many people should be in a pilot testing group? What are your standards for testing and validating customizations?

  • 誰負責進行持續支援 誰將負責支援您的環境中的自訂項目 - 個別小組或中央團隊?Who is responsible for ongoing support Who will be responsible for supporting customizations in your environments—individual teams or a central group?

  • 封裝和部署自訂項目的指導方式 每個功能或解決方案是否有個別的套件,或一個功能或解決方案是否包含數個套件?哪些自訂項目應為 SharePoint 應用程式而非解決方案?如何確保一個環境中的自訂項目不會影響其餘的 SharePoint 實作?Guidelines for packaging and deploying customizations Do you have individual packages for each, or do you include several in a feature or solution? Which customizations should be apps for SharePoint instead of solutions? How do you ensure that customizations in one environment do not affect the rest of your SharePoint implementation?

  • 有關每種可能自訂項目類型的特定原則 您允許哪些類型的自訂項目?Specific policies regarding each potential type of customization What types of customizations do you allow?

    如需有關自訂項目種類與其潛在風險的詳細資訊,請參閱本文稍後的「自訂項目」表格。如需用於管理自訂項目之程序的詳細資訊,請參閱 SharePoint 產品與技術自訂原則白皮書。此內容大部分仍適用於 SharePoint Server 2016。For more information about kinds of customizations and their potential risks, see the Customizations table later in this article. For more information about processes for managing customizations, see the white paper SharePoint Products and Technologies customization policy. Most of this content still applies to SharePoint Server 2016.

  • 使用 應用程式目錄 與SharePoint 市集的相關原則 您希望將哪些 SharePoint 應用程式可供貴組織使用?使用者是否可以直接購買應用程式?如需詳細資訊,請參閱本文稍後的 SharePoint 的解決方案或應用程式?Policies around using the App Catalog and SharePoint Store Which apps for SharePoint do you want to make available to your organization? Can users purchase apps directly? See Solutions or apps for SharePoint? later in this article for more information.

SharePoint 產品可高度自訂的設計讓您能提供符合業務需求的外觀、行為或功能。自訂項目可能會為您的環境帶來一些風險,不論是對於環境效能、可用性或支援能力的風險。反過來說,「無自訂項目」原則會嚴格限制貴組織利用 SharePoint 平台的能力。The highly customizable design of SharePoint products enables you to provide the look, behavior, or functionality that meets your business needs. Customizations can introduce risk to your environment, whether that risk is to the environment's performance, availability, or supportability. Conversely, a "no customizations" policy severely restricts your organization's ability to take advantage of the SharePoint platform.

所有自訂項目都不相同。您必須小心決定您的環境中允許哪些自訂項目種類。您必須確保這些自訂項目支援您的環境所需的效能、可用性和支援能力。您的治理原則應平衡可接受的風險等級與貴組織的業務需求。All customizations are not the same. You must decide carefully which kinds of customizations to allow in your environment. You must ensure the customizations support the performance, availability, and supportability you want for your environment. Your governance policy should balance a level of acceptable risk against the business needs for your organization.

何謂自訂項目?下列為 SharePoint 產品中的自訂項目種類:What is considered a customization? All of the following are considered kinds of customizations in SharePoint products:

  • 設定 使用 SharePoint 使用者介面來設定 SharePoint 產品。Configuration Using the SharePoint user interface to configure SharePoint products.

  • 品牌 變更標誌、樣式、顏色、主版頁面和頁面配置等,為您的 SharePoint 網站建立自訂外觀。深入了解 品牌Branding Changing logos, styles, colors, master pages and page layouts, and so on to create a custom look for your SharePoint sites. See more about Branding.

  • 自訂程式碼 使用開發人員工具來新增或變更 SharePoint 產品的功能,或與其他應用程式互動。風險可隨著功能種類和信任層級而有所不同 (完全信任解決方案應該很少使用;請先考慮 SharePoint 應用程式)。Custom code Using developer tools to add or change functionality in SharePoint products or to interact with other applications. Risk can vary depending on kind of functionality and level of trust (full trust solutions should be rarely used; consider apps for SharePoint first).

    提示

    在此版本中沙箱解決方案已被取代,所以不是自訂程式碼的長期最佳選項。Sandboxed solutions are deprecated in this release, so they are not the best option for custom code in the long term

一些自訂項目對您的環境帶來的風險或影響非常小。其他自訂項目的風險和影響可能高出許多。下表提供各種自訂項目的範例、與該自訂項目種類相關聯的風險層級,以及您允許該種類之自訂項目時可能遭遇的潛在問題。Some customizations have very little risk or impact on your environment. Others have the potential for much higher risk and impact. The following table provides examples of different kinds of customizations, the risk level associated with that kind of customization, and potential issues that you might face if you allow that kind of customization.

自訂項目Customizations

風險層級Risk level 自訂項目類型和範例Types of customizations and examples 考量或影響Considerations or impact
不支援/高Unsupported/High
不支援的自訂項目,例如:對資料庫結構描述的直接變更或修改檔案系統上的檔案。Unsupported customizations such as direct changes to the database schema or modifying files on the file system.
不會透過 Microsoft 客戶支援部門提供支援。Will not be supported through Microsoft Customer Support.
將無法升級。Will be unable to upgrade.
請勿使用。Do not use.
中到高Moderate to high
建立應用程式,以便與重要管線中的動作互動或將其重新導向,例如事件、宣告等等。Creating applications that interact with or redirect actions in key pipelines, such as events, claims, and so on.
可能造成服務中斷或效能問題。Potential for service outage or performance issues.
可能需要在升級時重新作業Might require rework at upgrade
中到低Moderate to low
在沙箱環境外部使用自訂網頁組件、建立自訂動作 (例如新增功能表項目),或建立自訂網站佈建程序。Using a custom Web Part outside a sandbox environment, creating custom actions such as adding a menu item, or creating a custom site provisioning process.
短期或長期的效能問題或網頁錯誤。Short or long-term performance issues or page errors.
可能需要在升級時重新作業。Might require rework at upgrade.
Low
在沙箱環境中使用解決方案。Using solutions in a sandbox environment.
短期的效能問題;您可以利用資源節流和配額來避免一些效能問題。Short-term performance issues; you can avoid some performance issues by using resource throttling and quotas.
非常低到沒有風險Very low to no risk
使用 SharePoint 應用程式 或使用產品內的功能或設定,例如建立工作流程與清單的關聯,或使用內建網頁組件的執行個體。Using apps for SharePoint or using functionality within the product or configurations, such as associating a workflow with a list or using an instance of a built in Web Part.
必須處理的次要設定或分頁錯誤。可將應用程式解除安裝或予以更新。Minor configuration or page errors that would have to be addressed. Apps can be uninstalled or updated.

注意

如需有關自訂項目和升級的詳細資訊,請參閱Create a plan for current customizations during upgrade to SharePoint 2013For more information about customizations and upgrade, see Create a plan for current customizations during upgrade to SharePoint 2013.

此外,當您思考環境中所要允許的自訂項目時,請仔細考慮是否需要特定自訂項目。如果該自訂項目重建產品中已有的功能 (例如建立作用如同內容編輯器網頁組件或依查詢顯示內容網頁組件的網頁組件),則可能是非必要工作。請先考慮標準功能是否可達到您所要的效果,或檢查 SharePoint 市集 看看是否有符合您需求的 SharePoint 相關應用程式。Also, when you think through the customizations to allow in your environment, consider carefully whether a particular customization is necessary. If it recreates functionality that is already available in the product (such as creating a Web Part that does the same thing as the Content Editor Web Part or the Content by Query Web Part), then that might be unnecessary work. Consider first whether the standard functionality can do what you want, or check the SharePoint Store to see if there is an app for SharePoint available that does what you need.

生命週期管理Life-cycle management

遵循下列最佳作法,管理生命週期內以 SharePoint Server 2016 為基礎的應用程式:Follow these best practices to manage applications based on SharePoint Server 2016 throughout their life cycle:

  • 使用個別的開發、前期製作和生產環境,並且儘可能讓這些環境保持同步,以便您精確測試自訂項目。Use separate development, preproduction, and production environments, and keep these environments as synchronized as possible so that you can accurately test your customizations.

  • 在首次發行之前,以及在發行至生產環境前已執行任何更新之後,測試所有的自訂項目。Test all customizations before releasing the first time and after any updates have been made before you release them to your production environment.

  • 使用原始程式碼控制及解決方案和功能版本設定來追蹤程式碼的變更。Use source code control and solution and feature versioning to track changes to code.

品牌Branding

具有企業風格規範的一致品牌,讓網站外觀更具凝聚力且更容易開發。在主題庫中儲存已核准的主題,以達到一致性,如此一來,使用者在造訪網站時才知道他們位於正確位置。Consistent branding with a corporate style guide makes for more cohesive-looking sites and easier development. Store approved themes in the theme gallery for consistency so that users will know when they visit the site that they are in the right place.

SharePoint Server 2016 包括要用於建立品牌的新功能,即設計管理員。使用設計管理員,您即可透過任何 Web 設計工具或您喜愛的 HTML 編輯器,為您的網站進行視覺設計,然後將該設計上傳到 SharePoint 中。設計管理員是中央樞紐與介面,可供您管理自訂設計的各個層面。SharePoint Server 2016 includes a new feature to use for branding, Design Manager. By using Design Manager, you can create a visual design for your website with whatever web design tool or HTML editor you prefer and then upload that design into SharePoint. Design Manager is the central hub and interface where you manage all aspects of a custom design.

SharePoint 的解決方案或應用程式?Solutions or apps for SharePoint?

SharePoint Server 2016 的新開發模型是以 SharePoint 應用程式為基礎。SharePoint 相關應用程式屬於獨立性功能,可擴充 SharePoint 網站的功能。應用程式可以包含 SharePoint 功能,例如清單、工作流程和網頁,但也可以在 SharePoint 中使用遠端 Web 應用程式和遠端資料。除了平台內建的軟體以外,應用程式很少或完全不相依於其安裝所在裝置或平台上的任何其他軟體。應用程式沒有在 SharePoint 伺服器上執行的自訂程式碼。SharePoint Server 2016 has a new development model based on apps for SharePoint. Apps for SharePoint are self-contained pieces of functionality that extend the capabilities of a SharePoint website. An app may include SharePoint features such as lists, workflows, and site pages, but it can also use a remote web application and remote data in SharePoint. An app has few or no dependencies on any other software on the device or platform where it is installed, other than what is built into the platform. Apps have no custom code that runs on the SharePoint servers.

使用 SharePoint 應用程式還是 SharePoint 應用程式的指引:The guidance for whether to use apps for SharePoint or SharePoint solutions is to:

  • 為使用者設計應用程式Design apps for end users

    SharePoint 相關應用程式:Apps for SharePoint:

    • 可讓使用者 (租用戶管理員和網站擁有者) 輕鬆探索和安裝。Are easy for users (tenant administrators and site owners) to discover and install.

    • 使用安全的 SharePoint 延伸模組。Use safe SharePoint extensions.

    • 提供可開發未來升級的彈性。Provide the flexibility to develop future upgrades.

    • 可與雲端資源整合。Can integrate with cloud-based resources.

    • 可供 SharePoint Online 與內部部署 SharePoint 網站使用。Are available for both SharePoint Online and on-premises SharePoint sites.

  • 對系統管理員使用伺服器陣列解決方案Use farm solutions for administrators

    SharePoint 解決方案:SharePoint solutions:

    • 可以存取要延伸 SharePoint 管理、設定和安全性所需的伺服器端物件模型 API。Can access the server-side object-model APIs that are needed to extend SharePoint management, configuration, and security

    • 可以延伸管理中心、Microsoft PowerShell Cmdlet、計時器工作、自訂備份等等。Can extend Central Administration, Microsoft PowerShell cmdlets, timer jobs, custom backups, and so on.

    • 由系統管理員安裝。Are installed by administrators.

    • 可以有伺服器陣列、Web 應用程式或網站集合範圍。Can have farm, web application, or site-collection scope.

有關新開發模型與 SharePoint 解決方案比較的 SharePoint 相關應用程式,以及SharePoint 相關應用程式與 SharePoint 解決方案之間的抉擇的詳細資訊。For more information about the new development model, Apps for SharePoint compared with SharePoint solutions, and Deciding between apps for SharePoint and SharePoint solutions.

設定在組織中使用 SharePoint 應用程式 的原則。使用者是否可以購買和下載應用程式?如何讓組織的應用程式可供使用?如何分辨應用程式是否使用中?Set a policy for using apps for SharePoint in your organization. Can users purchase and download apps? How do you make your organization's apps available? How do you tell if they're being used?

  • SharePoint 市集 決定使用者是否可以從 SharePoint 市集購買或下載應用程式。SharePoint Store Determine whether users can purchase or download apps from the SharePoint Store.

  • 應用程式目錄 將特定 SharePoint 應用程式新增到應用程式目錄以供您的使用者使用。App Catalog Make specific apps for SharePoint available to your users by adding them to the App Catalog.

  • 應用程式要求 設定應用程式要求,以控制哪些應用程式已購買以及有多少授權可用。App requests Configure app requests to control which apps are purchased and how many licenses are available.

  • 監控應用程式 在 SharePoint Server 2016 中監控特定應用程式,以檢查錯誤和追蹤使用情況。Monitor apps Monitor specific apps in SharePoint Server 2016 to check for errors and to track usage.