什麼是 Azure SQL Database 服務?What is the Azure SQL Database service?

Azure SQL Database 是一般用途的關係資料庫,以受控服務形式提供。Azure SQL Database is a general-purpose relational database, provided as a managed service. 有了此功能,您可以為 Azure 中的應用程式和解決方案建立高度可用且高效能的資料儲存層。With it, you can create a highly available and high-performance data storage layer for the applications and solutions in Azure. SQL Database 可以是適用于各種新式雲端應用程式的正確選擇,因為它可讓您處理關聯式資料和非關聯式結構,例如圖形、JSON、空間和 XML。SQL Database can be the right choice for a variety of modern cloud applications because it enables you to process both relational data and non-relational structures, such as graphs, JSON, spatial, and XML.

它是以Microsoft SQL Server 資料庫引擎的最新穩定版本為基礎。It's based on the latest stable version of the Microsoft SQL Server database engine. 您可以使用先進的查詢處理功能,例如高效能的記憶體內部技術智慧型查詢處理You can use advanced query processing features, such as high-performance in-memory technologies and intelligent query processing. 事實上,SQL Server 的最新功能會先發行至 SQL Database,然後再 SQL Server 本身。In fact, the newest capabilities of SQL Server are released first to SQL Database, and then to SQL Server itself. 您可以取得最新的 SQL Server 功能,而不需額外的修補或升級,即可跨數百萬個資料庫進行測試。You get the newest SQL Server capabilities with no overhead for patching or upgrading, tested across millions of databases.

SQL Database 可讓您在兩種不同的購買模型內輕鬆定義和調整效能: 以vCore 為基礎的購買模型和以 DTU 為基礎的購買模型SQL Database enables you to easily define and scale performance within two different purchasing models: a vCore-based purchasing model and a DTU-based purchasing model. SQL Database 是完全受控的服務,具有內建的高可用性、備份和其他常見的維護作業。SQL Database is a fully managed service that has built-in high availability, backups, and other common maintenance operations. Microsoft 會處理所有的 SQL 和作業系統程式碼修補和更新。Microsoft handles all patching and updating of the SQL and operating system code. 您不需要管理基礎結構。You don't have to manage the underlying infrastructure.

注意

如需相關的詞彙及其定義,請參閱SQL Database 詞彙詞彙For relevant terms and their definitions, see the SQL Database terms glossary.

部署模型Deployment models

Azure SQL Database 為 Azure SQL 資料庫提供下列部署選項:Azure SQL Database provides the following deployment options for an Azure SQL database:

部署選項的圖表

  • 單一資料庫代表完全受控、隔離的資料庫。Single database represents a fully managed, isolated database. 如果您有需要單一可靠資料來源的新式雲端應用程式和微服務,您可以使用此選項。You might use this option if you have modern cloud applications and microservices that need a single reliable data source. 單一資料庫與Microsoft SQL Server 資料庫引擎中的自主資料庫類似。A single database is similar to a contained database in Microsoft SQL Server Database Engine.
  • 受控實例Microsoft SQL Server 資料庫引擎的完全受控實例。Managed instance is a fully managed instance of the Microsoft SQL Server Database Engine. 其中包含一組可以一起使用的資料庫。It contains a set of databases that can be used together. 使用此選項可輕鬆地將內部部署 SQL Server 資料庫移轉至 Azure 雲端,並適用于需要使用 SQL Server 資料庫引擎所提供之資料庫功能的應用程式。Use this option for easy migration of on-premises SQL Server databases to the Azure cloud, and for applications that need to use the database features that SQL Server Database Engine provides.
  • 彈性集區是具有一組共用資源(例如 CPU 或記憶體)的單一資料庫集合。Elastic pool is a collection of single databases with a shared set of resources, such as CPU or memory. 單一資料庫可以移入和移出彈性集區。Single databases can be moved into and out of an elastic pool.

重要

若要瞭解 SQL Database 和 SQL Server 之間的功能差異,以及不同 Azure SQL Database 部署選項之間的差異,請參閱SQL Database 功能To understand the feature differences between SQL Database and SQL Server, as well as the differences among different Azure SQL Database deployment options, see SQL Database features.

SQL Database 提供多個資源類型、服務層級和計算大小的可預測效能。SQL Database delivers predictable performance with multiple resource types, service tiers, and compute sizes. 它提供無停機時間的動態擴充功能、內建智慧型優化、全域擴充性和可用性,以及先進的安全性選項。It provides dynamic scalability with no downtime, built-in intelligent optimization, global scalability and availability, and advanced security options. 這些功能可讓您專注于快速開發應用程式,並加快上市時間,而不是管理虛擬機器和基礎結構。These capabilities allow you to focus on rapid app development and accelerating your time-to-market, rather than on managing virtual machines and infrastructure. SQL Database 服務目前位於全球38個資料中心,因此您可以在附近的資料中心內執行資料庫。The SQL Database service is currently in 38 datacenters around the world, so you can run your database in a datacenter near you.

可擴充的效能和集區Scalable performance and pools

您可以定義指派的資源數量。You can define the amount of resources assigned.

  • 使用單一資料庫時,每個資料庫會與其他資料庫隔離,而且可移植。With single databases, each database is isolated from others and is portable. 每個都有自己保證的計算、記憶體和儲存體資源量。Each has its own guaranteed amount of compute, memory, and storage resources. 指派給資料庫的資源數量專門用於該資料庫,而且不會與 Azure 中的其他資料庫共用。The amount of the resources assigned to the database is dedicated to that database, and isn't shared with other databases in Azure. 您可以動態地相應增加或相應減少單一資料庫資源You can dynamically scale single database resources up and down. 單一資料庫選項會針對不同的需求提供不同的計算、記憶體和儲存體資源。The single database option provides different compute, memory, and storage resources for different needs. 例如,您可以從1到80虛擬核心,或 32 GB 到 4 TB。For example, you can get 1 to 80 vCores, or 32 GB to 4 TB. 單一資料庫的超大規模資料庫服務層級可讓您使用快速的備份和還原功能, 調整為 100 TB。The hyperscale service tier for single database enables you to scale to 100 TB, with fast backup and restore capabilities.
  • 有了彈性集區,您就可以指派由集區中的所有資料庫共用的資源。With elastic pools, you can assign resources that are shared by all databases in the pool. 您可以建立新的資料庫,或將現有的單一資料庫移至資源集區,以充分利用資源並節省成本。You can create a new database, or move the existing single databases into a resource pool to maximize the use of resources and save money. 此選項也可讓您以動態方式向上和向下調整彈性集區資源This option also gives you the ability to dynamically scale elastic pool resources up and down.
  • 使用受控執行個體,每個執行個體會利用保證的資源與其他執行個體隔離。With managed instances, each managed instance is isolated from other instances with guaranteed resources. 在受控實例內,實例資料庫會共用一組資源。Within a managed instance, the instance databases share a set of resources. 您可以動態擴充受控實例資源You can dynamically scale managed instance resources up and down.

您可以在一般用途服務層級中,以低成本每月,在小型單一資料庫上建立第一個應用程式。You can build your first app on a small, single database at a low cost per month in the general-purpose service tier. 接著,您可以隨時以手動或程式設計方式將其服務層級變更為業務關鍵服務層級,以符合解決方案的需求。You can then change its service tier manually or programmatically at any time to the business-critical service tier, to meet the needs of your solution. 您的應用程式或客戶皆無須停機,即可調整效能。You can adjust performance without downtime to your app or to your customers. 動態延展性可讓您的資料庫以透明的方式回應快速變化的資源需求。Dynamic scalability enables your database to transparently respond to rapidly changing resource requirements. 您只需為需要的資源付費。You pay for only the resources that you need when you need them.

動態擴充性不同于自動調整。Dynamic scalability is different from autoscale. 自動調整規模是指服務根據準則來自動調整規模,而動態延展性則允許在不停機的狀況下手動調整規模。Autoscale is when a service scales automatically based on criteria, whereas dynamic scalability allows for manual scaling without downtime. 單一資料庫選項支援手動動態擴充性,但無法自動調整。The single database option supports manual dynamic scalability, but not autoscale. 若要獲得更多的自動化體驗,請考慮使用彈性集區,讓資料庫能夠根據個別的資料庫需求,共用集區中的資源。For a more automatic experience, consider using elastic pools, which allow databases to share resources in a pool based on individual database needs. 另一個選項是使用可協助將單一資料庫的擴充性自動化的腳本。Another option is to use scripts that can help automate scalability for a single database. 如需範例,請參閱使用 PowerShell 來監視和調整單一資料庫的規模For an example, see Use PowerShell to monitor and scale a single database.

購買模型Purchasing models

SQL Database 提供下列購買模型:SQL Database offers the following purchasing models:

  • VCore 為基礎的購買模型可讓您選擇虛擬核心的數目、記憶體數量,以及儲存體的數量和速度。The vCore-based purchasing model lets you choose the number of vCores, the amount of memory, and the amount and speed of storage. 以虛擬核心為基礎的購買模型也可讓您使用適用於 SQL Server 的 Azure Hybrid Benefit,以節省成本。The vCore-based purchasing model also allows you to use Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server to gain cost savings. 如需 Azure Hybrid Benefit 的詳細資訊,請參閱本文稍後的「常見問題」一節。For more information about the Azure Hybrid Benefit, see the "Frequently asked questions" section later in this article.
  • DTU 為基礎的購買模型提供三個服務層級中的計算、記憶體和 i/o 資源混合,以支援輕量到繁重的資料庫工作負載。The DTU-based purchasing model offers a blend of compute, memory, and I/O resources in three service tiers, to support light to heavy database workloads. 各層內的計算大小分別提供這些資源的不同混用方式,而且您可以為其新增額外的儲存體資源。Compute sizes within each tier provide a different mix of these resources, to which you can add additional storage resources.
  • 無伺服器模型會根據工作負載需求自動調整計算,並以每秒使用的計算量來計費。The serverless model automatically scales compute based on workload demand, and bills for the amount of compute used per second. 無伺服器計算層也會在只有儲存體計費時,自動在非使用中期間暫停資料庫,並在活動傳回時自動繼續資料庫。The serverless compute tier also automatically pauses databases during inactive periods when only storage is billed, and automatically resumes databases when activity returns.

服務層Service tiers

Azure SQL Database 提供三個針對不同類型的應用程式所設計的服務層級:Azure SQL Database offers three service tiers that are designed for different types of applications:

  • 專為一般工作負載而設計的一般用途/標準服務層級。General Purpose/Standard service tier designed for common workloads. 它提供預算導向的平衡計算和儲存體選項。It offers budget-oriented balanced compute and storage options.
  • 針對具有高交易率和最低延遲 i/o 的 OLTP 應用程式而設計的商務關鍵/高階服務層級。Business Critical/Premium service tier designed for OLTP applications with high transaction rate and lowest-latency I/O. 它可以使用數個隔離的複本,為失敗提供最高的復原能力。It offers the highest resilience to failures by using several isolated replicas.
  • 超大規模資料庫服務層級是針對非常大型的 OLTP 資料庫所設計,而且能夠自動調整儲存體和調整計算流暢地。Hyperscale service tier designed for very large OLTP database and the ability to auto-scale storage and scale compute fluidly.

可將資源使用量最大化的彈性集區Elastic pools to maximize resource utilization

對於許多企業和應用程式而言,只要能夠建立單一資料庫,並依需求調高或調低的效能即可,尤其是當使用模式相當容易預測時更是如此。For many businesses and applications, being able to create single databases and dial performance up or down on demand is enough, especially if usage patterns are relatively predictable. 無法預測的使用模式可能會讓您難以管理成本和您的商務模型。Unpredictable usage patterns can make it hard to manage costs and your business model. 彈性集區的設計可解決此問題。Elastic pools are designed to solve this problem. 您可將效能資源配置給集區,而不是個別的資料庫。You allocate performance resources to a pool rather than an individual database. 您需支付集區的集體效能資源,而不是單一資料庫效能的費用。You pay for the collective performance resources of the pool rather than for single database performance.

顯示基本、標準和 premium 版本彈性集區的圖形

使用彈性集區,您就不必隨著資源的需求波動,專注於調高或調低資料庫效能。With elastic pools, you don’t need to focus on dialing database performance up and down as demand for resources fluctuates. 集區資料庫會視需要取用彈性集區的效能資源。The pooled databases consume the performance resources of the elastic pool as needed. 集區資料庫會取用集區的資源,但不會超過其限制,因此您的成本可在個別資料庫使用情形無法預測的狀況下維持可預測性。Pooled databases consume but don’t exceed the limits of the pool, so your cost remains predictable even if individual database usage doesn’t.

您可以在集區中新增和移除資料庫,將您的應用程式從數個資料庫擴充至上千個,全都在您所控制的預算內。You can add and remove databases to the pool, scaling your app from a handful of databases to thousands, all within a budget that you control. 您也可以控制集區中資料庫可用的最小和最大資源,以確保集區中的資料庫不會使用所有的集區資源,而且每個集區資料庫都有保證的最低資源數量。You can also control the minimum and maximum resources available to databases in the pool, to ensure that no database in the pool uses all the pool resources, and that every pooled database has a guaranteed minimum amount of resources. 若要深入瞭解使用彈性集區的軟體即服務(SaaS)應用程式的設計模式,請參閱使用 SQL Database 多租使用者 SaaS 應用程式的設計模式To learn more about design patterns for software as a service (SaaS) applications that use elastic pools, see Design patterns for multi-tenant SaaS applications with SQL Database.

指令碼可協助您監視及調整彈性集區的規模。Scripts can help with monitoring and scaling elastic pools. 如需範例,請參閱在 Azure SQL Database 中使用 PowerShell 來監視和調整 SQL 彈性集區。For an example, see Use PowerShell to monitor and scale a SQL elastic pool in Azure SQL Database.

重要

受控實例不支援彈性集區。A managed instance doesn't support elastic pools. 相反地,受控執行個體是共用受控執行個體資源的執行個體資料庫集合。Rather, a managed instance is a collection of instance databases that share managed instance resources.

混合使用單一資料庫與集區資料庫Blend single databases with pooled databases

您可以混合使用單一資料庫與彈性集區,並變更單一資料庫和彈性集區的服務層級,以適應您的情況。You can blend single databases with elastic pools, and change the service tiers of single databases and elastic pools to adapt to your situation. 您也可以使用 SQL Database 來混合和比對其他 Azure 服務,以符合您獨特的應用程式設計需求、提高成本與資源的效率,以及將新的商機發揮到功效。You can also mix and match other Azure services with SQL Database to meet your unique app design needs, drive cost and resource efficiencies, and unlock new business opportunities.

廣泛的監視和警示功能Extensive monitoring and alerting capabilities

Azure SQL Database 提供先進的監視和疑難排解功能,可協助您取得更深入的工作負載特性見解。Azure SQL Database provides advanced monitoring and troubleshooting features that help you get deeper insights into workload characteristics. 這些功能和工具組括:These features and tools include:

  • 最新版 SQL Server 資料庫引擎所提供的內建監視功能。The built-in monitoring capabilities provided by the latest version of SQL Server Database Engine. 它們可讓您尋找即時效能深入解析。They enable you to find real-time performance insights.
  • Azure 提供的 PaaS 監視功能,可讓您監視和疑難排解大量的資料庫實例。PaaS monitoring capabilities provided by Azure that enable you to monitor and troubleshoot a large number of database instances.

查詢存放區是內建 SQL Server 監視功能,可即時記錄查詢的效能,並可讓您找出潛在的效能問題和最上層的資源取用者。Query Store, a built-in SQL Server monitoring feature, records the performance of your queries in real time, and enables you to identify the potential performance issues and the top resource consumers. 自動調整和建議提供有關具有回歸效能和遺失或重複索引之查詢的建議。Automatic tuning and recommendations provide advice regarding the queries with the regressed performance and missing or duplicated indexes. SQL Database 中的自動調整可讓您手動套用可修正問題的腳本,或讓 SQL Database 套用修正程式。Automatic tuning in SQL Database enables you to either manually apply the scripts that can fix the issues, or let SQL Database apply the fix. SQL Database 也可以測試並驗證修正是否提供一些好處,並根據結果保留或還原變更。SQL Database can also test and verify that the fix provides some benefit, and retain or revert the change depending on the outcome. 除了查詢存放區和自動調整功能以外,您還可以使用標準dmv 和 XEvent來監視工作負載效能。In addition to Query Store and automatic tuning capabilities, you can use standard DMVs and XEvent to monitor the workload performance.

Azure 提供內建的效能監視警示工具,並結合效能評等,讓您監視上千個資料庫的狀態。Azure provides built-in performance monitoring and alerting tools, combined with performance ratings, that enable you to monitor the status of thousands of databases. 使用這些工具,您可以根據目前或預測的效能需求,快速評估相應增加或減少的影響。Using these tools, you can quickly assess the impact of scaling up or down, based on your current or projected performance needs. 此外,SQL Database 可以發出計量和診斷記錄以便進行監視。Additionally, SQL Database can emit metrics and diagnostic logs for easier monitoring. 您可以將 SQL Database 設定為將資源使用量、背景工作與工作階段及連線儲存到下列其中一項 Azure 資源:You can configure SQL Database to store resource usage, workers and sessions, and connectivity into one of these Azure resources:

  • Azure 儲存體:用於封存大量遙測,價格較小。Azure Storage: For archiving vast amounts of telemetry for a small price.
  • Azure 事件中樞:用於整合 SQL Database 遙測與您的自訂監視解決方案或熱門管線。Azure Event Hubs: For integrating SQL Database telemetry with your custom monitoring solution or hot pipelines.
  • Azure 監視器記錄:適用于具有報告、警示及緩和功能的內建監視解決方案。Azure Monitor logs: For a built-in monitoring solution with reporting, alerting, and mitigating capabilities.

Azure 監視架構的圖表

可用性功能Availability capabilities

在傳統的 SQL Server 環境中,您通常會在本機設定至少兩部電腦。In a traditional SQL Server environment, you generally have at least two machines locally set up. 這些機器具有完全保持同步的資料複本,以防止單一機器或元件失敗。These machines have exact, synchronously maintained, copies of the data to protect against a failure of a single machine or component. 此環境可提供高可用性,但無法防止自然災害損毀您的資料中心。This environment provides high availability, but it doesn't protect against a natural disaster destroying your datacenter.

嚴重損壞修復會假設有一個重大事件在地理上已有足夠的當地語系化,可讓另一部電腦或一組電腦的資料複製到最遠的地方。Disaster recovery assumes that a catastrophic event is geographically localized enough to have another machine or set of machines with a copy of your data far away. 在 SQL Server 中,您可以使用以非同步模式執行的 Always On 可用性群組來取得這項功能。In SQL Server, you can use Always On Availability Groups running in async mode to get this capability. 人們通常不想等待複寫在認可交易之前就消失,因此當您進行非計畫的容錯移轉時,可能會遺失資料。People often don't want to wait for replication to happen that far away before committing a transaction, so there's potential for data loss when you do unplanned failovers.

Premium 和商務關鍵性服務層級中的資料庫已經與可用性群組的同步處理非常類似Databases in the premium and business critical service tiers already do something very similar to the synchronization of an availability group. 較低服務層級中的資料庫使用不同但對等的機制,透過儲存體提供冗余。Databases in lower service tiers provide redundancy through storage by using a different but equivalent mechanism. 內建邏輯有助於防止單一電腦失敗。Built-in logic helps protect against a single machine failure. 「主動式異地複寫」功能可讓您保護整個區域終結的嚴重損壞。The active geo-replication feature gives you the ability to protect against disaster where a whole region is destroyed.

Azure 可用性區域會嘗試防止在單一區域內建立單一資料中心的中斷。Azure Availability Zones tries to protect against the outage of a single datacenter building within a single region. 它可協助您保護建築物不會遺失電源或網路。It helps you protect against the loss of power or network to a building. 在 SQL Database 中,您會將不同的複本放在不同的可用性區域中(以不同的建築為效益)。In SQL Database, you place the different replicas in different availability zones (different buildings, effectively).

事實上,Azure 的服務等級協定(SLA)是由 Microsoft 管理的全球資料中心網路所提供,可協助讓您的應用程式執行24/7。In fact, the service level agreement (SLA) of Azure, powered by a global network of Microsoft-managed datacenters, helps keep your app running 24/7. Azure 平臺可完全管理每個資料庫,並保證不會遺失資料,也不會有高百分比的資料可用性。The Azure platform fully manages every database, and it guarantees no data loss and a high percentage of data availability. Azure 會自動處理修補、備份、複寫、失敗偵測,基礎潛在硬體、軟體或網路失敗、部署錯誤修正、容錯移轉、資料庫升級和其他維護工作。Azure automatically handles patching, backups, replication, failure detection, underlying potential hardware, software or network failures, deploying bug fixes, failovers, database upgrades, and other maintenance tasks. 隔離計算和儲存圖層可達成標準可用性。Standard availability is achieved by a separation of compute and storage layers. 藉由整合單一節點上的計算和儲存以取得效能,然後執行類似于 Always On 可用性群組的技術,即可達成高階可用性。Premium availability is achieved by integrating compute and storage on a single node for performance, and then implementing technology similar to Always On Availability Groups. 如需 Azure SQL Database 高可用性功能的完整討論,請參閱 SQL Database 可用性For a full discussion of the high availability capabilities of Azure SQL Database, see SQL Database availability.

此外,SQL Database 提供內建的商務持續性和全球擴充性功能。In addition, SQL Database provides built-in business continuity and global scalability features. 它們包括:These include:

  • 自動備份Automatic backups:

    SQL Database 會自動執行 SQL 資料庫的完整、差異和交易記錄備份,讓您能夠還原到任何時間點。SQL Database automatically performs full, differential, and transaction log backups of SQL databases to enable you to restore to any point in time. 針對單一資料庫和集區資料庫,您可以設定 SQL Database 將完整資料庫備份儲存至 Azure 儲存體以進行長期備份保留。For single databases and pooled databases, you can configure SQL Database to store full database backups to Azure Storage for long-term backup retention. 對於受控執行個體,您也可以對僅複製備份執行長期備份保留。For managed instances, you can also perform copy-only backups for long-term backup retention.

  • 時間點還原Point-in-time restores:

    所有 SQL Database 部署選項都支援復原到任何 SQL Database 之自動備份保留期間內的任何時間點。All SQL Database deployment options support recovery to any point in time within the automatic backup retention period for any SQL database.

  • 主動式異地複寫Active geo-replication:

    單一資料庫和集區資料庫選項可讓您在相同或全域分散的 Azure 資料中心內最多設定4個可讀取的次要資料庫。The single database and pooled databases options allow you to configure up to four readable secondary databases in either the same or globally distributed Azure datacenters. 例如,如果您的 SaaS 應用程式具有大量並行唯讀交易的目錄資料庫,請使用主動式異地複寫來啟用全域讀取規模。For example, if you have a SaaS application with a catalog database that has a high volume of concurrent read-only transactions, use active geo-replication to enable global read scale. 這會移除主要複本因讀取工作負載而造成的瓶頸。This removes bottlenecks on the primary that are due to read workloads. 對於受控執行個體,請使用自動容錯移轉群組。For managed instances, use auto-failover groups.

  • 自動容錯移轉群組Auto-failover groups:

    所有 SQL Database 部署選項都可讓您使用容錯移轉群組,以全球規模啟用高可用性和負載平衡。All SQL Database deployment options allow you to use failover groups to enable high availability and load balancing at global scale. 這包括對大型資料庫、彈性集區和受控實例的透明異地複寫和容錯移轉。This includes transparent geo-replication and failover of large sets of databases, elastic pools, and managed instances. 容錯移轉群組可讓您建立全域散發的 SaaS 應用程式,並將系統管理負擔降到最低。Failover groups enable the creation of globally distributed SaaS applications, with minimal administration overhead. 這會讓所有複雜的監視、路由及容錯移轉協調流程保持 SQL Database。This leaves all the complex monitoring, routing, and failover orchestration to SQL Database.

  • 區域多餘的資料庫Zone-redundant databases:

    SQL Database 可讓您跨多個可用性區域佈建進階或業務關鍵資料庫或彈性集區。SQL Database allows you to provision premium or business critical databases or elastic pools across multiple availability zones. 因為這些資料庫和彈性集區有多個重複的複本可提供高可用性,所以將這些複本放在多個可用性區域中,可以提高復原能力。Because these databases and elastic pools have multiple redundant replicas for high availability, placing these replicas into multiple availability zones provides higher resilience. 這包括能夠從資料中心規模的失敗中自動復原,而不會遺失資料。This includes the ability to recover automatically from the datacenter scale failures, without data loss.

內建智慧Built-in intelligence

有了 SQL Database,您就可以取得內建智慧功能,協助您大幅降低執行和管理資料庫的成本,並將應用程式的效能和安全性最大化。With SQL Database, you get built-in intelligence that helps you dramatically reduce the costs of running and managing databases, and that maximizes both performance and security of your application. 執行以百萬計的客戶工作負載,SQL Database 會收集及處理大量的遙測資料,同時也完全尊重客戶隱私權。Running millions of customer workloads around the clock, SQL Database collects and processes a massive amount of telemetry data, while also fully respecting customer privacy. 各種演算法會持續評估遙測資料,讓服務能夠學習及適應您的應用程式。Various algorithms continuously evaluate the telemetry data so that the service can learn and adapt with your application.

自動的效能監視和微調Automatic performance monitoring and tuning

SQL Database 會提供您需要監視之查詢的詳細解析。SQL Database provides detailed insight into the queries that you need to monitor. SQL Database 學習資料庫模式,並讓您將資料庫架構調整成您的工作負載。SQL Database learns about your database patterns, and enables you to adapt your database schema to your workload. SQL Database 提供效能微調建議,您可以在其中檢閱微調動作並加以套用。SQL Database provides performance tuning recommendations, where you can review tuning actions and apply them.

不過,持續監控資料庫是一項困難又繁瑣的工作,特別是在處理許多資料庫時。However, constantly monitoring a database is a hard and tedious task, especially when dealing with many databases. Intelligent Insights會自動監視大規模的 SQL Database 效能,為您執行這項工作。Intelligent Insights does this job for you by automatically monitoring SQL Database performance at scale. 它會通知您效能降低的問題,它會識別每個問題的根本原因,並盡可能提供效能改進建議。It informs you of performance degradation issues, it identifies the root cause of each issue, and provides performance improvement recommendations when possible.

即使使用 SQL Database 和 Azure 提供的所有可用工具和報告,也可能無法有效率地管理大量資料庫。Managing a huge number of databases might be impossible to do efficiently even with all available tools and reports that SQL Database and Azure provide. 您可以考慮使用自動調整,將一些監視和微調動作委派給 SQL Database,而不是手動監視和調整資料庫。Instead of monitoring and tuning your database manually, you might consider delegating some of the monitoring and tuning actions to SQL Database by using automatic tuning. SQL Database 會自動套用建議、測試及驗證其每個調整動作, 以確保效能持續提升。SQL Database automatically applies recommendations, tests, and verifies each of its tuning actions to ensure the performance keeps improving. 如此一來,SQL Database 會以受控制且安全的方式自動調整您的工作負載。This way, SQL Database automatically adapts to your workload in a controlled and safe way. 自動調整表示在每次調整動作前後,會仔細監視資料庫的效能並進行比較。Automatic tuning means that the performance of your database is carefully monitored and compared before and after every tuning action. 如果效能沒有改善,則會還原調整動作。If the performance doesn’t improve, the tuning action is reverted.

在 SQL Database 上執行SaaS 多租使用者應用程式的許多合作夥伴都依賴自動效能微調,以確保其應用程式一律具有穩定且可預測的效能。Many of our partners that run SaaS multi-tenant apps on top of SQL Database are relying on automatic performance tuning to make sure their applications always have stable and predictable performance. 對他們而言,這項功能可大幅降低夜間發生效能事件的風險。For them, this feature tremendously reduces the risk of having a performance incident in the middle of the night. 此外,因為其部分客戶基底也使用 SQL Server,所以他們會使用 SQL Database 所提供的相同索引建議來協助其 SQL Server 客戶。In addition, because part of their customer base also uses SQL Server, they're using the same indexing recommendations provided by SQL Database to help their SQL Server customers.

SQL Database 提供兩個自動調整的層面:Two automatic tuning aspects are available in SQL Database:

  • 自動索引管理:識別應加入您資料庫的索引,以及應移除的索引。Automatic index management: Identifies indexes that should be added in your database, and indexes that should be removed.
  • 自動計劃修正:識別有問題的計畫並修正 SQL 計畫效能問題。Automatic plan correction: Identifies problematic plans and fixes SQL plan performance problems.

自適性查詢處理Adaptive query processing

您可以使用彈性查詢處理,包括交錯執行多重語句資料表值函式、批次模式記憶體授與意見反應,以及批次模式的自我調整聯結。You can use adaptive query processing, including interleaved execution for multi-statement table-valued functions, batch mode memory grant feedback, and batch mode adaptive joins. 每個自適性查詢處理功能都會應用類似的「了解並適應」技術,協助進一步解決與過去很棘手的查詢最佳化問題相關的效能問題。Each of these adaptive query processing features applies similar “learn and adapt” techniques, helping further address performance issues related to historically intractable query optimization problems.

進階安全性與合規性Advanced security and compliance

SQL Database 提供了各式各樣的內建安全性與合規性功能,協助您的應用程式符合各種安全性與合規性需求。SQL Database provides a range of built-in security and compliance features to help your application meet various security and compliance requirements.

重要

Microsoft 已認證 Azure SQL Database (所有部署選項)符合多種合規性標準。Microsoft has certified Azure SQL Database (all deployment options) against a number of compliance standards. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱Microsoft Azure 信任中心,您可以在此找到最新的 SQL Database 合規性認證清單。For more information, see the Microsoft Azure Trust Center, where you can find the most current list of SQL Database compliance certifications.

預先威脅防護Advance threat protection

進階資料安全性是進階 SQL 安全性功能的整合套件。Advanced data security is a unified package for advanced SQL security capabilities. 其中包含探索及分類敏感性資料、管理資料庫弱點,以及偵測可能表示對資料庫有威脅之異常活動的功能。It includes functionality for discovering and classifying sensitive data, managing your database vulnerabilities, and detecting anomalous activities that might indicate a threat to your database. 此套件可讓您從單一點位置啟用及管理前述功能。It provides a single location for enabling and managing these capabilities.

  • 資料探索與分類Data discovery and classification:

    這項功能提供了內建于 Azure SQL Database 的功能,可用來探索、分類、標記和保護資料庫中的敏感性資料。This feature provides capabilities built into Azure SQL Database for discovering, classifying, labeling, and protecting the sensitive data in your databases. 它會提供您資料庫分類狀態的可見度,並追蹤資料庫中敏感性資料的存取權,以及其外框線。It provides visibility into your database classification state, and tracks the access to sensitive data within the database and beyond its borders.

  • 弱點評量Vulnerability assessment:

    這個服務可以探索、追蹤並協助您修復潛在的資料庫弱點。This service can discover, track, and help you remediate potential database vulnerabilities. 它可讓您檢視安全性狀態,且包含解決安全性問題和增強資料庫防護性的可行步驟。It provides visibility into your security state, and includes actionable steps to resolve security issues, and enhance your database fortifications.

  • 威脅偵測Threat detection:

    這項功能會偵測異常活動,指出不尋常且可能有害的嘗試存取或惡意探索您的資料庫。This feature detects anomalous activities that indicate unusual and potentially harmful attempts to access or exploit your database. 它會持續監視您的資料庫是否有可疑的活動,並在發現潛在弱點、SQL 插入式攻擊和異常資料庫存取模式時提供即時安全性警示。It continuously monitors your database for suspicious activities, and provides immediate security alerts on potential vulnerabilities, SQL injection attacks, and anomalous database access patterns. 威脅偵測警示會提供可疑活動的詳細資料,以及建議如何調查和緩和威脅的動作。Threat detection alerts provide details of the suspicious activity, and recommend action on how to investigate and mitigate the threat.

合規性和安全性稽核Auditing for compliance and security

稽核會追蹤資料庫事件,並將它們寫入至您 Azure 儲存體帳戶中的稽核記錄。Auditing tracks database events and writes them to an audit log in your Azure storage account. 稽核可協助您保持法規合規性、了解資料庫活動,以及取得可能指出商務考量或疑似安全違規的不一致和異常見解。Auditing can help you maintain regulatory compliance, understand database activity, and gain insight into discrepancies and anomalies that might indicate business concerns or suspected security violations.

資料加密Data encryption

SQL Database 藉由提供加密來協助保護您的資料。SQL Database helps secure your data by providing encryption. 對於移動中的資料,它會使用傳輸層安全性For data in motion, it uses transport layer security. 若是待用資料,則會使用透明資料加密For data at rest, it uses transparent data encryption. 對於使用中的資料,它會使用always encryptedFor data in use, it uses always encrypted.

Azure Active Directory 整合和多重要素驗證Azure Active Directory integration and multi-factor authentication

SQL Database 可讓您透過 Azure Active Directory 整合,集中管理資料庫使用者和其他 Microsoft 服務的身分識別。SQL Database enables you to centrally manage identities of database user and other Microsoft services with Azure Active Directory integration. 這項功能簡化了權限管理並增強安全性。This capability simplifies permission management and enhances security. Azure Active Directory 支援多重要素驗證,以增加資料和應用程式安全性,同時支援單一登入進程。Azure Active Directory supports multi-factor authentication to increase data and application security, while supporting a single sign-in process.

容易使用Easy-to-use tools

SQL Database 讓應用程式的建置及維護更簡易也更有生產力。SQL Database makes building and maintaining applications easier and more productive. SQL Database 讓您將精力集中於拿手項目:建置絕佳的應用程式。SQL Database allows you to focus on what you do best: building great apps. 您可以使用現有的工具和技能,在 SQL Database 中進行管理和開發。You can manage and develop in SQL Database by using tools and skills you already have.

  • Azure 入口網站The Azure portal:

    用於管理所有 Azure 服務的 web 應用程式。A web-based application for managing all Azure services.

  • SQL Server Management StudioSQL Server Management Studio:

    一種可下載的免費用戶端應用程式,可用於管理任何 SQL 基礎結構,從 SQL Server 到 SQL Database。A free, downloadable client application for managing any SQL infrastructure, from SQL Server to SQL Database.

  • Visual Studio 中的 SQL Server Data ToolsSQL Server Data Tools in Visual Studio:

    可下載的免費用戶端應用程式,可用於開發 SQL Server 關係資料庫、SQL 資料庫、Integration Services 封裝、Analysis Services 資料模型和 Reporting Services 報表。A free, downloadable client application for developing SQL Server relational databases, SQL databases, Integration Services packages, Analysis Services data models, and Reporting Services reports.

  • Visual Studio CodeVisual Studio Code:

    適用于 Windows、macOS 和 Linux 的免費、可下載、開放原始碼程式碼編輯器。A free, downloadable, open-source code editor for Windows, macOS, and Linux. 它支援延伸模組,包括用於查詢 Microsoft SQL Server、Azure SQL Database 和 Azure SQL 資料倉儲的mssql 擴充功能。It supports extensions, including the mssql extension for querying Microsoft SQL Server, Azure SQL Database, and Azure SQL Data Warehouse.

SQL Database 支援在 macOS、Linux 和 Windows 上使用 Python、JAVA、node.js、PHP、Ruby 和 .NET 來建立應用程式。SQL Database supports building applications with Python, Java, Node.js, PHP, Ruby, and .NET on macOS, Linux, and Windows. SQL Database 支援與 SQL Server 相同的連線庫SQL Database supports the same connection libraries as SQL Server.

使用 Azure 入口網站建立及管理 Azure SQL 資源Create and manage Azure SQL resources with the Azure portal

Azure 入口網站提供單一頁面, 您可以在其中管理所有的 AZURE sql 資源, 包括您的 SQL 虛擬機器。The Azure portal provides a single page where you can manage all of your Azure SQL resources including your SQL virtual machines.

若要存取AZURE sql 資源頁面, 請在 Azure 入口網站的左側功能表中選取 [ azure sql ]。To access the Azure SQL resources page, select Azure SQL in the left-hand menu of the Azure portal. 如果AZURE SQL不在清單中, 請選取 [所有服務], 然後在搜尋方塊中輸入azure sqlIf Azure SQL is not in the list, select All services, then type Azure SQL in the search box.

注意

AZURE SQL提供快速且輕鬆的方式來存取您的所有 SQL 資料庫、彈性集區、資料庫伺服器、sql 受控實例和 sql 虛擬機器。Azure SQL provides a quick and easy way to access all of your SQL databases, elastic pools, database servers, SQL managed instances, and SQL virtual machines. Azure SQL 不是服務或資源。Azure SQL is not a service or resource.

若要管理現有的資源, 請在清單中選取所需的專案。To manage existing resources, select the desired item in the list. 若要建立新的 Azure SQL 資源, 請選取 [ + 新增]。To create new Azure SQL resources, select + Add.

Azure SQL 入口網站頁面

選取 [ + 新增] 之後, 請選取任何磚上的 [顯示詳細資料], 以查看有關不同選項的其他資訊。After selecting + Add, view additional information about the different options by selecting Show details on any tile.

資料庫磚詳細資料

如需詳細資訊,請參閱:For details, see:

SQL Database 常見問題SQL Database frequently asked questions

最新的 SQL Database 版本為何?What is the current version of SQL Database?

最新的 SQL Database 版本是 V12。The current version of SQL Database is V12. 版本 V11 已被淘汰。Version V11 has been retired.

我可以控制何時發生修補停機?Can I control when patching downtime occurs?

資料分割No. 如果您在應用程式中採用重試邏輯,修補的影響通常不明顯。The impact of patching is generally not noticeable if you employ retry logic in your app. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱在 Azure SQL Database 中規劃 Azure 維護事件For more information, see Planning for Azure maintenance events in Azure SQL Database.

Azure Hybrid Benefit 問題Azure Hybrid Benefit questions

適用於 SQL Server 的 Azure Hybrid Benefit 是否有雙重使用權?Are there dual-use rights with Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server?

對於此授權,您具有 180 天的雙重使用權,以確保移轉能順暢地執行。You have 180 days of dual use rights of the license to ensure migrations are running seamlessly. 在該180天的期間之後,您只能在 SQL Database 的雲端中使用 SQL Server 授權。After that 180-day period, you can only use the SQL Server license in the cloud in SQL Database. 您不再具有內部部署和雲端中的雙重使用權利。You no longer have dual use rights on-premises and in the cloud.

適用於 SQL Server 的 Azure Hybrid Benefit 與授權行動性有何不同?How does Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server differ from license mobility?

我們提供授權行動性權益,以 SQL Server 具有軟體保證的客戶。We offer license mobility benefits to SQL Server customers with Software Assurance. 這可將其授權重新指派給合作夥伴的共用伺服器。This allows reassignment of their licenses to a partner's shared servers. 您可以在 Azure IaaS 和 AWS EC2 上使用此權益。You can use this benefit on Azure IaaS and AWS EC2.

適用於 SQL Server 的 Azure Hybrid Benefit 主要在以下兩方面與授權行動性有所差異:Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server differs from license mobility in two key areas:

  • 它提供將高度虛擬化工作負載移轉至 Azure 的經濟效益。It provides economic benefits for moving highly virtualized workloads to Azure. SQL Server Enterprise Edition 客戶可以在一般用途 SKU 中,針對他們在內部部署環境中擁有的每個核心,針對高度虛擬化的應用程式,在 Azure 中取得四個核心。SQL Server Enterprise Edition customers can get four cores in Azure in the General Purpose SKU for every core they own on-premises for highly virtualized applications. 授權流動性不允許將虛擬化工作負載移至雲端的任何特殊成本優勢。License mobility doesn't allow any special cost benefits for moving virtualized workloads to the cloud.
  • 它提供 Azure 上的 PaaS 目的地(SQL Database 受控實例),與內部部署 SQL Server 高度相容。It provides for a PaaS destination on Azure (SQL Database managed instance) that's highly compatible with SQL Server on-premises.

適用於 SQL Server 的 Azure Hybrid Benefit 有哪些明確的權利?What are the specific rights of the Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server?

SQL Database 客戶具有與 SQL Server Azure Hybrid Benefit 相關聯的下列許可權:SQL Database customers have the following rights associated with Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server:

授權情形License footprint Azure Hybrid Benefit 的 SQL Server 可讓您獲得哪些協助?What does Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server get you?
具有 SA 的 SQL Server Enterprise Edition 核心客戶SQL Server Enterprise Edition core customers with SA
  • 可以根據一般用途或業務關鍵 SKU 來支付基本費率Can pay base rate on either General Purpose or Business Critical SKU

  • 1 個內部部署核心 = 一般目的 SKU 中的 4 個核心1 core on-premises = 4 cores in General Purpose SKU

  • 1 個內部部署核心 = 業務關鍵 SKU 中的 1 個核心1 core on-premises = 1 core in Business Critical SKU
  • 具有 SA 的 SQL Server Standard Edition 核心客戶SQL Server Standard Edition core customers with SA
  • 只能針對一般用途 SKU 支付基本費率Can pay base rate on General Purpose SKU only

  • 1 個內部部署核心 = 一般目的 SKU 中的 1 個核心1 core on-premises = 1 core in General Purpose SKU
  • 洽詢 SQL Server 工程團隊Engage with the SQL Server engineering team

    後續步驟Next steps