Array.Sort 方法

定義

排序一維陣列中的項目。Sorts the elements in a one-dimensional array.

多載

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中項目範圍內的項目。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in a one-dimensional Array using the specified IComparer.

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer.

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序一維 Array 中某個項目範圍內的項目。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in a one-dimensional Array using the IComparable implementation of each element of the Array.

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable implementation of each key.

Sort(Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in a one-dimensional Array using the specified IComparer.

Sort(Array, Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer.

Sort(Array, Array)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable implementation of each key.

Sort(Array)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序整個一維 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an entire one-dimensional Array using the IComparable implementation of each element of the Array.

Sort<T>(T[])

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序整個 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an entire Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element of the Array.

Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,排序 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>)

使用指定的 Comparison<T>,排序 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an Array using the specified Comparison<T>.

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序 Array 中某個項目範圍中的項目。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in an Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element of the Array.

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,對 Array 中的某個項目範圍內的項目進行排序。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in an Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each key.

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each key.

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中項目範圍內的項目。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in a one-dimensional Array using the specified IComparer.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array, int index, int length, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array array, int index, int length, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
static member Sort : Array * int * int * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional Array to sort.

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

comparer
IComparer

比較項目時所要使用的 IComparer 實作。The IComparer implementation to use when comparing elements.

-或--or- null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。null to use the IComparable implementation of each element.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

array 是多維的。array is multidimensional.

index 小於 array 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of array.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in array.

-或--or- comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

comparernull,而且 array 中的一或多個項目沒有實作 IComparable 介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何使用預設的比較子,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子,來排序 Array 中的值。The following code example shows how to sort the values in an Array using the default comparer and a custom comparer that reverses the sort order. 請注意,結果可能會根據目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。Note that the result might vary depending on the current CultureInfo.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer  
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)  
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example 
{
   public static void Main()  
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array. 
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();
 
      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);
 
      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }
 
   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)  
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//    
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN    
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

如果 null``comparer,則 array 中指定專案範圍內的每個專案都必須實 IComparable 介面,才能與 array中的每個其他元素進行比較。If comparer is null, each element within the specified range of elements in array must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

.NET Framework 包含下表所列的預先定義 IComparer 實。The .NET Framework includes predefined IComparer implementations listed in the following table.

實作Implementation 說明Description
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較兩個物件,但執行字串的不區分大小寫比較。Compares any two objects, but performs a case-insensitive comparison of strings.
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the current culture.
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不因文化特性而異的排序慣例,來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the invariant culture.
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較 T 類型的兩個物件。Compares two objects of type T by using the type's default sort order.

您也可以提供自己的 IComparer 的實例給 comparer 參數,以支援自訂比較。You can also support custom comparisons by providing an instance of your own IComparer implementation to the comparer parameter. 此範例的目的是定義 ReverseComparer 類別,以反轉類型實例的預設排序次序,並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。The example does this by defining a ReverseComparer class that reverses the default sort order for instances of a type and performs case-insensitive string comparison.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items, int index, int length, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items, int index, int length, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
static member Sort : Array * Array * int * int * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array, index As Integer, length As Integer, comparer As IComparer)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。The one-dimensional Array that contains the items that correspond to each of the keys in the keysArray.

-或--or- null 表示只排序 keysArraynull to sort only the keysArray.

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

comparer
IComparer

比較項目時所要使用的 IComparer 實作。The IComparer implementation to use when comparing elements.

-或--or- null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。null to use the IComparable implementation of each element.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

keysArray 是多維的。The keysArray is multidimensional.

-或--or- itemsArray 是多維的。The itemsArray is multidimensional.

index 小於 keys 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of keys.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。items is not null, and the lower bound of keys does not match the lower bound of items.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

-或--or- indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in the keysArray.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。items is not null, and index and length do not specify a valid range in the itemsArray.

-或--or- comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。The following code example shows how to sort two associated arrays where the first array contains the keys and the second array contains the values. 排序是使用預設的比較子,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子來完成。Sorts are done using the default comparer and a custom comparer that reverses the sort order. 請注意,結果可能會根據目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。Note that the result might vary depending on the current CultureInfo.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {
 
   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }

   }

   public static void Main()  {
 
      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();
 
      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
 
      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   }
 
   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/

Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

如果 null``comparer,則 keysArray 中指定專案範圍內的每個索引鍵都必須實 IComparable 介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。If comparer is null, each key within the specified range of elements in the keysArray must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

.NET Framework 包含下表所列的預先定義 IComparer 實。The .NET Framework includes predefined IComparer implementations listed in the following table.

實作Implementation 說明Description
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較兩個物件,但執行字串的不區分大小寫比較。Compares any two objects, but performs a case-insensitive comparison of strings.
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the current culture.
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不因文化特性而異的排序慣例,來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the invariant culture.
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較 T 類型的兩個物件。Compares two objects of type T by using the type's default sort order.

您也可以提供自己的 IComparer 的實例給 comparer 參數,以支援自訂比較。You can also support custom comparisons by providing an instance of your own IComparer implementation to the comparer parameter. 此範例會定義自訂的 IComparer 的實值,以反轉預設排序次序並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。The example does this by defining a custom IComparer implementation that reverses the default sort order and performs case-insensitive string comparison.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

Sort(Array, Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序一維 Array 中某個項目範圍內的項目。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in a one-dimensional Array using the IComparable implementation of each element of the Array.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array, int index, int length);
public static void Sort (Array array, int index, int length);
static member Sort : Array * int * int -> unit

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional Array to sort.

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

array 是多維的。array is multidimensional.

index 小於 array 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of array.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in array.

array 中的一或多個項目未實作 IComparable 介面。One or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何使用預設的比較子,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子,來排序 Array 中的值。The following code example shows how to sort the values in an Array using the default comparer and a custom comparer that reverses the sort order. 請注意,結果可能會根據目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。Note that the result might vary depending on the current CultureInfo.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer  
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)  
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example 
{
   public static void Main()  
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array. 
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();
 
      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);
 
      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }
 
   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)  
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//    
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN    
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

array 中指定之專案範圍內的每個專案都必須執行 IComparable 介面,才能與 array中的每個其他專案進行比較。Each element within the specified range of elements in array must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

另請參閱

Sort(Array, Array, Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable implementation of each key.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items, int index, int length);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items, int index, int length);
static member Sort : Array * Array * int * int -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array, index As Integer, length As Integer)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。The one-dimensional Array that contains the items that correspond to each of the keys in the keysArray.

-或--or- null 表示只排序 keysArraynull to sort only the keysArray.

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的元素數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

keysArray 是多維的。The keysArray is multidimensional.

-或--or- itemsArray 是多維的。The itemsArray is multidimensional.

index 小於 keys 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of keys.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

-或--or- indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in the keysArray.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。items is not null, and index and length do not specify a valid range in the itemsArray.

keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。One or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。The following code example shows how to sort two associated arrays where the first array contains the keys and the second array contains the values. 排序是使用預設的比較子,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子來完成。Sorts are done using the default comparer and a custom comparer that reverses the sort order. 請注意,結果可能會根據目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。Note that the result might vary depending on the current CultureInfo.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {
 
   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }

   }

   public static void Main()  {
 
      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();
 
      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
 
      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   }
 
   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/

Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

keysArray 中指定專案範圍內的每個索引鍵都必須執行 IComparable 介面,才能與每個其他索引鍵進行比較。Each key within the specified range of elements in the keysArray must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

另請參閱

Sort(Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,排序一維 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in a one-dimensional Array using the specified IComparer.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array array, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
static member Sort : Array * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維陣列。The one-dimensional array to sort.

comparer
IComparer

比較元素時所要使用的實作。The implementation to use when comparing elements.

-或--or- null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。null to use the IComparable implementation of each element.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

array 是多維的。array is multidimensional.

comparernull,而且 array 中的一或多個項目沒有實作 IComparable 介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable interface.

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

範例

下列範例會使用預設的比較子來排序字串陣列中的值。The following example sorts the values in a string array by using the default comparer. 它也會定義名為 ReverseComparer 的自訂 IComparer 實值,以在執行不區分大小寫的字串比較時,反轉物件的預設排序次序。It also defines a custom IComparer implementation named ReverseComparer that reverses an object's default sort order while performing a case-insensitive string comparison. 請注意,輸出可能會根據目前的文化特性而有所不同。Note that the output might vary depending on the current culture.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer  
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)  
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example 
{
   public static void Main()  
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array. 
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();
 
      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);
 
      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }
 
   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)  
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//    
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN    
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

如果 null``comparer,則 array 的每個元素都必須實 IComparable 介面,才能與 array中的每個其他元素進行比較。If comparer is null, each element of array must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 narrayLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

.NET Framework 包含下表所列的預先定義 IComparer 實。The .NET Framework includes predefined IComparer implementations listed in the following table.

實作Implementation 說明Description
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較兩個物件,但執行字串的不區分大小寫比較。Compares any two objects, but performs a case-insensitive comparison of strings.
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the current culture.
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不因文化特性而異的排序慣例,來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the invariant culture.
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較 T 類型的兩個物件。Compares two objects of type T by using the type's default sort order.

您也可以提供自己的 IComparer 的實例給 comparer 參數,以支援自訂比較。You can also support custom comparisons by providing an instance of your own IComparer implementation to the comparer parameter. 此範例的目的是定義 ReverseComparer 類別,以反轉類型實例的預設排序次序,並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較。The example does this by defining a ReverseComparer class that reverses the default sort order for instances of a type and performs case-insensitive string comparison.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

Sort(Array, Array, IComparer)

使用指定的 IComparer,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items, System::Collections::IComparer ^ comparer);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items, System.Collections.IComparer comparer);
static member Sort : Array * Array * System.Collections.IComparer -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array, comparer As IComparer)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。The one-dimensional Array that contains the items that correspond to each of the keys in the keysArray.

-或--or- null 表示只排序 keysArraynull to sort only the keysArray.

comparer
IComparer

比較項目時所要使用的 IComparer 實作。The IComparer implementation to use when comparing elements.

-或--or- null 表示會使用每個項目的 IComparable 實作。null to use the IComparable implementation of each element.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

keysArray 是多維的。The keysArray is multidimensional.

-或--or- itemsArray 是多維的。The itemsArray is multidimensional.

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

-或--or- comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable interface.

範例

下列範例顯示如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。The following example shows how to sort two associated arrays where the first array contains the keys and the second array contains the values. 排序是使用預設的比較子,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子來完成。Sorts are done using the default comparer and a custom comparer that reverses the sort order. 請注意,結果可能會根據目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。Note that the result might vary depending on the current CultureInfo.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {
 
   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }

   }

   public static void Main()  {
 
      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();
 
      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
 
      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   }
 
   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/

Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

如果 null``comparer,則Array keys中的每個索引鍵都必須執行 IComparable 介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。If comparer is null, each key in the keysArray must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

.NET Framework 包含下表所列的預先定義 IComparer 實。The .NET Framework includes predefined IComparer implementations listed in the following table.

實作Implementation 說明Description
System.Collections.CaseInsensitiveComparer 比較兩個物件,但執行字串的不區分大小寫比較。Compares any two objects, but performs a case-insensitive comparison of strings.
Comparer.Default 使用目前文化特性的排序慣例來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the current culture.
Comparer.DefaultInvariant 使用不因文化特性而異的排序慣例,來比較兩個物件。Compares any two objects by using the sorting conventions of the invariant culture.
Comparer<T>.Default 使用類型的預設排序次序,比較 T 類型的兩個物件。Compares two objects of type T by using the type's default sort order.

您也可以提供自己的 IComparer 的實例給 comparer 參數,以支援自訂比較。You can also support custom comparisons by providing an instance of your own IComparer implementation to the comparer parameter. 這個範例會定義 IComparer 的執行,以反轉預設排序次序並執行不區分大小寫的字串比較,來完成這項工作。The example does this by defining an IComparer implementation that reverses the default sort order and performs case-insensitive string comparison.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 nkeysLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of keys.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

Sort(Array, Array)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable 實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對一維的 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of one-dimensional Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable implementation of each key.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ keys, Array ^ items);
public static void Sort (Array keys, Array items);
static member Sort : Array * Array -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort (keys As Array, items As Array)

參數

keys
Array

一維 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
Array

一維 Array,包含對應至 keysArray 中每個索引鍵的項目。The one-dimensional Array that contains the items that correspond to each of the keys in the keysArray.

-或--or- null 表示只排序 keysArraynull to sort only the keysArray.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

keysArray 是多維的。The keysArray is multidimensional.

-或--or- itemsArray 是多維的。The itemsArray is multidimensional.

items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

keysArray 中的一或多個元素不會實作 IComparable 介面。One or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable interface.

範例

下列範例顯示如何排序兩個相關聯的陣列,其中第一個陣列包含索引鍵,而第二個數組包含值。The following example shows how to sort two associated arrays where the first array contains the keys and the second array contains the values. 排序是使用預設的比較子,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子來完成。Sorts are done using the default comparer and a custom comparer that reverses the sort order. 請注意,結果可能會根據目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。Note that the result might vary depending on the current CultureInfo.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class myReverserClass: public IComparer
{
private:

   // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare( Object^ x, Object^ y ) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare( y, x ));
   }
};

void PrintKeysAndValues( array<String^>^myKeys, array<String^>^myValues )
{
   for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( " {0, -10}: {1}", myKeys[ i ], myValues[ i ] );
   }
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^myKeys = {"red","GREEN","YELLOW","BLUE","purple","black","orange"};
   array<String^>^myValues = {"strawberries","PEARS","LIMES","BERRIES","grapes","olives","cantaloupe"};
   IComparer^ myComparer = gcnew myReverserClass;

   // Displays the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );

   // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
   PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class SamplesArray  {
 
   public class myReverserClass : IComparer  {

      // Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      int IComparer.Compare( Object x, Object y )  {
          return( (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare( y, x ) );
      }

   }

   public static void Main()  {
 
      // Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      String[] myKeys = { "red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange" };
      String[] myValues = { "strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe" };
      IComparer myComparer = new myReverserClass();
 
      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Array initially contains the following values:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );
 
      // Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3 );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

      // Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort( myKeys, myValues, myComparer );
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:" );
      PrintKeysAndValues( myKeys, myValues );

   }
 
   public static void PrintKeysAndValues( String[] myKeys, String[] myValues )  {
      for ( int i = 0; i < myKeys.Length; i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys[i], myValues[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}


/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   red       : strawberries
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   purple    : grapes
   black     : olives
   orange    : cantaloupe

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   black     : olives
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   GREEN     : PEARS
   orange    : cantaloupe
   purple    : grapes
   red       : strawberries
   YELLOW    : LIMES

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   YELLOW    : LIMES
   red       : strawberries
   purple    : grapes
   orange    : cantaloupe
   GREEN     : PEARS
   BLUE      : BERRIES
   black     : olives

*/

Imports System.Collections

Public Class SamplesArray

   Public Class myReverserClass
      Implements IComparer

      ' Calls CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
      Function Compare(x As [Object], y As [Object]) As Integer _
         Implements IComparer.Compare
         Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
      End Function 'IComparer.Compare

   End Class


   Public Shared Sub Main()

      ' Creates and initializes a new Array and a new custom comparer.
      Dim myKeys As [String]() =  {"red", "GREEN", "YELLOW", "BLUE", "purple", "black", "orange"}
      Dim myValues As [String]() =  {"strawberries", "PEARS", "LIMES", "BERRIES", "grapes", "olives", "cantaloupe"}
      Dim myComparer = New myReverserClass()

      ' Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine("The Array initially contains the following values:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, 1, 3, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

      ' Sorts the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(myKeys, myValues, myComparer)
      Console.WriteLine("After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys, myValues)

   End Sub


   Public Shared Sub PrintKeysAndValues(myKeys() As [String], myValues() As [String])

      Dim i As Integer
      For i = 0 To myKeys.Length - 1
         Console.WriteLine("   {0,-10}: {1}", myKeys(i), myValues(i))
      Next i
      Console.WriteLine()

   End Sub

End Class


'This code produces the following output.
'
'The Array initially contains the following values:
'   red       : strawberries
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   purple    : grapes
'   black     : olives
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
'   black     : olives
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   purple    : grapes
'   red       : strawberries
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'
'After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'   YELLOW    : LIMES
'   red       : strawberries
'   purple    : grapes
'   orange    : cantaloupe
'   GREEN     : PEARS
'   BLUE      : BERRIES
'   black     : olives

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵都必須執行 IComparable 介面,才能與每個其他索引鍵進行比較。Each key in the keysArray must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 nkeysLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of keys.

另請參閱

Sort(Array)

使用 Array 的每個項目的 IComparable 實作,排序整個一維 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an entire one-dimensional Array using the IComparable implementation of each element of the Array.

public:
 static void Sort(Array ^ array);
public static void Sort (Array array);
static member Sort : Array -> unit

參數

array
Array

要排序的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional Array to sort.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

array 是多維的。array is multidimensional.

array 中的一或多個項目未實作 IComparable 介面。One or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範如何使用預設的比較子,以及反轉排序次序的自訂比較子,來排序 Array 中的值。The following code example shows how to sort the values in an Array using the default comparer and a custom comparer that reverses the sort order. 請注意,結果可能會根據目前的 CultureInfo 而有所不同。Note that the result might vary depending on the current CultureInfo.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

public ref class ReverseComparer : IComparer
{
public:
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer::Compare with the parameters reversed.
   virtual int Compare(Object^ x, Object^ y) = IComparer::Compare
   {
      return ((gcnew CaseInsensitiveComparer)->Compare(y, x));
   }
};

void DisplayValues(array<String^>^ arr)
{
   for (int i = arr->GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr->GetUpperBound(0); i++)
      Console::WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[ i ] );

   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   // Create and initialize a new array. and a new custom comparer.
   array<String^>^ words = { "The","QUICK","BROWN","FOX","jumps",
                             "over","the","lazy","dog" };
   // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
   IComparer^ revComparer = gcnew ReverseComparer();
   
   // Display the values of the Array.
   Console::WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
   Array::Sort(words);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);

   // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
   Array::Sort(words, revComparer);
   Console::WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
   DisplayValues(words);
}

/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Array initially contains the following values:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : BROWN
   [3] : FOX
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : BROWN
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : QUICK
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting a section of the Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : The
   [1] : QUICK
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : BROWN
   [4] : jumps
   [5] : over
   [6] : the
   [7] : lazy
   [8] : dog

After sorting the entire Array using the default comparer:
   [0] : BROWN
   [1] : dog
   [2] : FOX
   [3] : jumps
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : over
   [6] : QUICK
   [7] : the
   [8] : The

After sorting the entire Array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
   [0] : the
   [1] : The
   [2] : QUICK
   [3] : over
   [4] : lazy
   [5] : jumps
   [6] : FOX
   [7] : dog
   [8] : BROWN

*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

public class ReverseComparer : IComparer  
{
   // Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   public int Compare(Object x, Object y)  
   {
       return (new CaseInsensitiveComparer()).Compare(y, x );
   }
}

public class Example 
{
   public static void Main()  
   {
      // Create and initialize a new array. 
      String[] words = { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                         "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" };
      // Instantiate the reverse comparer.
      IComparer revComparer = new ReverseComparer();
 
      // Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" );
      DisplayValues(words);
 
      // Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);

      // Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer);
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:");
      DisplayValues(words);
   }
 
   public static void DisplayValues(String[] arr)  
   {
      for ( int i = arr.GetLowerBound(0); i <= arr.GetUpperBound(0);
            i++ )  {
         Console.WriteLine( "   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr[i] );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The original order of elements in the array:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : BROWN
//       [3] : FOX
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : BROWN
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : QUICK
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : The
//       [1] : QUICK
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : BROWN
//       [4] : jumps
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : the
//       [7] : lazy
//       [8] : dog
//    
//    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
//       [0] : BROWN
//       [1] : dog
//       [2] : FOX
//       [3] : jumps
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : over
//       [6] : QUICK
//       [7] : the
//       [8] : The
//    
//    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
//       [0] : the
//       [1] : The
//       [2] : QUICK
//       [3] : over
//       [4] : lazy
//       [5] : jumps
//       [6] : FOX
//       [7] : dog
//       [8] : BROWN    
Imports System.Collections

Public Class ReverseComparer : Implements IComparer
   ' Call CaseInsensitiveComparer.Compare with the parameters reversed.
   Function Compare(x As Object, y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements IComparer.Compare
      Return New CaseInsensitiveComparer().Compare(y, x)
   End Function 
End Class

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create and initialize a new array.
      Dim words() As String =  { "The", "QUICK", "BROWN", "FOX", "jumps", 
                                 "over", "the", "lazy", "dog" }
      ' Instantiate a new custom comparer.
      Dim revComparer As New ReverseComparer()

      ' Display the values of the array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The original order of elements in the array:" )
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort a section of the array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, 1, 3, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array using the default comparer.
      Array.Sort(words)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)

      ' Sort the entire array by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer.
      Array.Sort(words, revComparer)
      Console.WriteLine( "After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:")
      DisplayValues(words)
   End Sub 

   Public Sub DisplayValues(arr() As String)
      For i As Integer = arr.GetLowerBound(0) To arr.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("   [{0}] : {1}", i, arr(i))
      Next 
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'    The original order of elements in the array:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : BROWN
'       [3] : FOX
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : BROWN
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : QUICK
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting elements 1-3 by using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : The
'       [1] : QUICK
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : BROWN
'       [4] : jumps
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : the
'       [7] : lazy
'       [8] : dog
'    
'    After sorting the entire array by using the default comparer:
'       [0] : BROWN
'       [1] : dog
'       [2] : FOX
'       [3] : jumps
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : over
'       [6] : QUICK
'       [7] : the
'       [8] : The
'    
'    After sorting the entire array using the reverse case-insensitive comparer:
'       [0] : the
'       [1] : The
'       [2] : QUICK
'       [3] : over
'       [4] : lazy
'       [5] : jumps
'       [6] : FOX
'       [7] : dog
'       [8] : BROWN

備註

array 的每個元素都必須執行 IComparable 介面,才能與 array中的每個其他專案進行比較。Each element of array must implement the IComparable interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 narrayLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

另請參閱

Sort<T>(T[])

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序整個 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an entire Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element of the Array.

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array);
static member Sort : 'T[] -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T())

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。The type of the elements of the array.

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零為起始的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array to sort.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。One or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[]) 泛型方法多載和 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T) 泛型方法多載。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<T>(T[]) generic method overload and the BinarySearch<T>(T[], T) generic method overload. 會建立字串陣列,而不是特定的順序。An array of strings is created, in no particular order.

陣列會顯示、排序並重新顯示。The array is displayed, sorted, and displayed again.

注意

SortBinarySearch 泛型方法的呼叫並不會與其非泛型對應項的呼叫外觀不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從第一個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the Sort and BinarySearch generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first argument. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

然後,BinarySearch<T>(T[], T) 泛型方法多載會用來搜尋兩個字串,一個不在陣列中,另一個是。The BinarySearch<T>(T[], T) generic method overload is then used to search for two strings, one that is not in the array and one that is. BinarySearch 方法的陣列和傳回值會傳遞至 ShowWhere 泛型方法,如果找到該字串,則會顯示索引值,否則搜尋字串會落在陣列中的專案之間。The array and the return value of the BinarySearch method are passed to the ShowWhere generic method, which displays the index value if the string is found, and otherwise the elements the search string would fall between if it were in the array. 如果字串不是陣列的 n,則索引為負數,因此 ShowWhere 方法會接受位補數(在C#和 Visual C++中為 ~ 運算子,在 Visual Basic 中為 Xor-1),以取得清單中大於搜尋 str 之第一個元素的索引ing.The index is negative if the string is not n the array, so the ShowWhere method takes the bitwise complement (the ~ operator in C# and Visual C++, Xor -1 in Visual Basic) to obtain the index of the first element in the list that is larger than the search string.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

generic<typename T> void ShowWhere(array<T>^ arr, int index)
{
    if (index<0)
    {
        // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
        // complement of the next larger element in the array.
        //
        index = ~index;

        Console::Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

        if (index == 0)
            Console::Write("beginning of array and ");
        else
            Console::Write("{0} and ", arr[index-1]);

        if (index == arr->Length)
            Console::WriteLine("end of array.");
        else
            Console::WriteLine("{0}.", arr[index]);
    }
    else
    {
        Console::WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus", 
                                 "Deinonychus", 
                                 "Edmontosaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
    int index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis");
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
    index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus");
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Amargasaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Amargasaurus and Deinonychus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 5.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                              "Amargasaurus", 
                              "Tyrannosaurus", 
                              "Mamenchisaurus", 
                              "Deinonychus", 
                              "Edmontosaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
        int index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis");
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus");
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
    }

    private static void ShowWhere<T>(T[] array, int index)
    {
        if (index<0)
        {
            // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            // complement of the next larger element in the array.
            //
            index = ~index;

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

            if (index == 0)
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ");
            else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array[index-1]);

            if (index == array.Length)
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.");
            else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array[index]);
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Amargasaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Amargasaurus and Deinonychus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 5.
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Deinonychus", _
            "Edmontosaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':")
        Dim index As Integer = _
            Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis")
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':")
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus")
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub ShowWhere(Of T) _
        (ByVal array() As T, ByVal index As Integer) 

        If index < 0 Then
            ' If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            ' complement of the next larger element in the array.
            '
            index = index Xor -1

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ")

            If index = 0 Then
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ")
            Else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array(index - 1))
            End If 

            If index = array.Length Then
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.")
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array(index))
            End If 
        Else
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index)
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Deinonychus
'Edmontosaurus
'
'Sort
'
'Amargasaurus
'Deinonychus
'Edmontosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'
'BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
'Not found. Sorts between: Amargasaurus and Deinonychus.
'
'BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
'Found at index 5.

備註

array 的每個元素都必須執行 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與 array中的每個其他專案進行比較。Each element of array must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 narrayLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

另請參閱

Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,排序 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<T> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<T> comparer);
static member Sort : 'T[] * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'T> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), comparer As IComparer(Of T))

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。The type of the elements of the array.

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零起始的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional, zero-base Array to sort

comparer
IComparer<T>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。The IComparer<T> generic interface implementation to use when comparing elements, or null to use the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

comparernull,且 array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) 泛型方法多載和 BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法多載。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) generic method overload and the BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) generic method overload.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較子,名為 ReverseCompare,它會在 Visual Basic 中執行 IComparer<String^>IComparer<string> ( C++Visual)泛型介面中的 IComparer(Of String)The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string> (IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法、反轉比較元的順序,讓字串排序高至低,而不是低到高。The comparer calls the CompareTo(String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

陣列會顯示、排序並重新顯示。The array is displayed, sorted, and displayed again. 陣列必須加以排序,才能使用 BinarySearch 方法。Arrays must be sorted in order to use the BinarySearch method.

注意

Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>)BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法的呼叫並不會與其非泛型對應項的呼叫外觀不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從第一個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) and BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first argument. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

然後,BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法多載會用來搜尋兩個字串,一個不在陣列中,另一個是。The BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) generic method overload is then used to search for two strings, one that is not in the array and one that is. BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 方法的陣列和傳回值會傳遞至 ShowWhere 泛型方法,如果找到該字串,則會顯示索引值,否則搜尋字串會落在陣列中的專案之間。The array and the return value of the BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) method are passed to the ShowWhere generic method, which displays the index value if the string is found, and otherwise the elements the search string would fall between if it were in the array. 如果字串不是陣列的 n,則索引為負數,因此 ShowWhere 方法會接受位補數(在C#和 Visual C++中為 ~ 運算子,在 Visual Basic 中為 Xor-1),以取得清單中大於搜尋 str 之第一個元素的索引ing.The index is negative if the string is not n the array, so the ShowWhere method takes the bitwise complement (the ~ operator in C# and Visual C++, Xor -1 in Visual Basic) to obtain the index of the first element in the list that is larger than the search string.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

generic<typename T> void ShowWhere(array<T>^ arr, int index)
{
    if (index<0)
    {
        // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
        // complement of the next larger element in the array.
        //
        index = ~index;

        Console::Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

        if (index == 0)
            Console::Write("beginning of array and ");
        else
            Console::Write("{0} and ", arr[index-1]);

        if (index == arr->Length)
            Console::WriteLine("end of array.");
        else
            Console::WriteLine("{0}.", arr[index]);
    }
    else
    {
        Console::WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus", 
                                 "Deinonychus", 
                                 "Edmontosaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
    int index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis", rc);
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

    Console::WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
    index = Array::BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus", rc);
    ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Tyrannosaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Edmontosaurus
Deinonychus
Amargasaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Deinonychus and Amargasaurus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 0.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                              "Amargasaurus", 
                              "Tyrannosaurus", 
                              "Mamenchisaurus", 
                              "Deinonychus", 
                              "Edmontosaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':");
        int index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis", rc);
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);

        Console.WriteLine("\nBinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':");
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus", rc);
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index);
    }

    private static void ShowWhere<T>(T[] array, int index)
    {
        if (index<0)
        {
            // If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            // complement of the next larger element in the array.
            //
            index = ~index;

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ");

            if (index == 0)
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ");
            else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array[index-1]);

            if (index == array.Length)
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.");
            else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array[index]);
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Edmontosaurus

Sort

Tyrannosaurus
Pachycephalosaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Edmontosaurus
Deinonychus
Amargasaurus

BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
Not found. Sorts between: Deinonychus and Amargasaurus.

BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
Found at index 0.
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Deinonychus", _
            "Edmontosaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':")
        Dim index As Integer = _
            Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Coelophysis", rc)
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':")
        index = Array.BinarySearch(dinosaurs, "Tyrannosaurus", rc)
        ShowWhere(dinosaurs, index)

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub ShowWhere(Of T) _
        (ByVal array() As T, ByVal index As Integer) 

        If index < 0 Then
            ' If the index is negative, it represents the bitwise
            ' complement of the next larger element in the array.
            '
            index = index Xor -1

            Console.Write("Not found. Sorts between: ")

            If index = 0 Then
                Console.Write("beginning of array and ")
            Else
                Console.Write("{0} and ", array(index - 1))
            End If 

            If index = array.Length Then
                Console.WriteLine("end of array.")
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("{0}.", array(index))
            End If 
        Else
            Console.WriteLine("Found at index {0}.", index)
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Deinonychus
'Edmontosaurus
'
'Sort
'
'Tyrannosaurus
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Edmontosaurus
'Deinonychus
'Amargasaurus
'
'BinarySearch for 'Coelophysis':
'Not found. Sorts between: Deinonychus and Amargasaurus.
'
'BinarySearch for 'Tyrannosaurus':
'Found at index 0.

備註

如果 comparernull,則 array 的每個元素都必須執行 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與 array 中的每個其他專案進行比較。If comparer is null, each element of array must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 narrayLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>)

使用指定的 Comparison<T>,排序 Array 中的項目。Sorts the elements in an Array using the specified Comparison<T>.

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, Comparison<T> ^ comparison);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, Comparison<T> comparison);
static member Sort : 'T[] * Comparison<'T> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), comparison As Comparison(Of T))

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。The type of the elements of the array.

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零起始的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array to sort

comparison
Comparison<T>

比較項目時所要使用的 Comparison<T>The Comparison<T> to use when comparing elements.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

-或--or- comparisonnullcomparison is null.

comparison 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparison caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparison 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparison might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort(Comparison<T>) 方法多載。The following code example demonstrates the Sort(Comparison<T>) method overload.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較方法,名稱為 CompareDinosByLengthThe code example defines an alternative comparison method for strings, named CompareDinosByLength. 此方法的運作方式如下:首先,會測試null的比較元,並將 null 參考視為小於非 null 的值。This method works as follows: First, the comparands are tested fornull, and a null reference is treated as less than a non-null. 第二,會比較字串長度,而較長的字串會被視為較大。Second, the string lengths are compared, and the longer string is deemed to be greater. 第三,如果長度相等,則會使用一般字串比較。Third, if the lengths are equal, ordinary string comparison is used.

會建立字串陣列,並以四個字串填入,而不是特定的順序。A array of strings is created and populated with four strings, in no particular order. 此清單也包含空字串和 null 參考。The list also includes an empty string and a null reference. 清單隨即顯示,並使用代表 CompareDinosByLength 方法的 Comparison<T> 泛型委派進行排序,然後再次顯示。The list is displayed, sorted using a Comparison<T> generic delegate representing the CompareDinosByLength method, and displayed again.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

int CompareDinosByLength(String^ x, String^ y)
{
    if (x == nullptr)
    {
        if (y == nullptr)
        {
            // If x is null and y is null, they're
            // equal. 
            return 0;
        }
        else
        {
            // If x is null and y is not null, y
            // is greater. 
            return -1;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // If x is not null...
        //
        if (y == nullptr)
            // ...and y is null, x is greater.
        {
            return 1;
        }
        else
        {
            // ...and y is not null, compare the 
            // lengths of the two strings.
            //
            int retval = x->Length.CompareTo(y->Length);

            if (retval != 0)
            {
                // If the strings are not of equal length,
                // the longer string is greater.
                //
                return retval;
            }
            else
            {
                // If the strings are of equal length,
                // sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                //
                return x->CompareTo(y);
            }
        }
    }
};

void Display(array<String^>^ arr)
{
    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ s in arr)
    {
        if (s == nullptr)
            Console::WriteLine("(null)");
        else
            Console::WriteLine("\"{0}\"", s);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = { 
        "Pachycephalosaurus",
        "Amargasaurus",
        "",
        nullptr,
        "Mamenchisaurus",
        "Deinonychus" };
    Display(dinosaurs);

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort with generic Comparison<String^> delegate:");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs,
        gcnew Comparison<String^>(CompareDinosByLength));
    Display(dinosaurs);

}

/* This code example produces the following output:

"Pachycephalosaurus"
"Amargasaurus"
""
(null)
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Deinonychus"

Sort with generic Comparison<String^> delegate:

(null)
""
"Deinonychus"
"Amargasaurus"
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Pachycephalosaurus"
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    private static int CompareDinosByLength(string x, string y)
    {
        if (x == null)
        {
            if (y == null)
            {
                // If x is null and y is null, they're
                // equal. 
                return 0;
            }
            else
            {
                // If x is null and y is not null, y
                // is greater. 
                return -1;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // If x is not null...
            //
            if (y == null)
                // ...and y is null, x is greater.
            {
                return 1;
            }
            else
            {
                // ...and y is not null, compare the 
                // lengths of the two strings.
                //
                int retval = x.Length.CompareTo(y.Length);

                if (retval != 0)
                {
                    // If the strings are not of equal length,
                    // the longer string is greater.
                    //
                    return retval;
                }
                else
                {
                    // If the strings are of equal length,
                    // sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                    //
                    return x.CompareTo(y);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Pachycephalosaurus",
            "Amargasaurus",
            "",
            null,
            "Mamenchisaurus",
            "Deinonychus" };
        Display(dinosaurs);

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, CompareDinosByLength);
        Display(dinosaurs);

    }

    private static void Display(string[] arr)
    {
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string s in arr )
        {
            if (s == null)
                Console.WriteLine("(null)");
            else
                Console.WriteLine("\"{0}\"", s);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

"Pachycephalosaurus"
"Amargasaurus"
""
(null)
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Deinonychus"

Sort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:

(null)
""
"Deinonychus"
"Amargasaurus"
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Pachycephalosaurus"
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example

    Private Shared Function CompareDinosByLength( _
        ByVal x As String, ByVal y As String) As Integer

        If x Is Nothing Then
            If y Is Nothing Then 
                ' If x is Nothing and y is Nothing, they're
                ' equal. 
                Return 0
            Else
                ' If x is Nothing and y is not Nothing, y
                ' is greater. 
                Return -1
            End If
        Else
            ' If x is not Nothing...
            '
            If y Is Nothing Then
                ' ...and y is Nothing, x is greater.
                Return 1
            Else
                ' ...and y is not Nothing, compare the 
                ' lengths of the two strings.
                '
                Dim retval As Integer = _
                    x.Length.CompareTo(y.Length)

                If retval <> 0 Then 
                    ' If the strings are not of equal length,
                    ' the longer string is greater.
                    '
                    Return retval
                Else
                    ' If the strings are of equal length,
                    ' sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                    '
                    Return x.CompareTo(y)
                End If
            End If
        End If

    End Function

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "", _
            Nothing, _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Deinonychus" }
        Display(dinosaurs)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort with generic Comparison(Of String) delegate:")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, AddressOf CompareDinosByLength)
        Display(dinosaurs)

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub Display(ByVal arr() As String)
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each s As String In arr
            If s Is Nothing Then
                Console.WriteLine("(Nothing)")
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("""{0}""", s)
            End If
        Next
    End Sub
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'"Pachycephalosaurus"
'"Amargasaurus"
'""
'(Nothing)
'"Mamenchisaurus"
'"Deinonychus"
'
'Sort with generic Comparison(Of String) delegate:
'
'(Nothing)
'""
'"Deinonychus"
'"Amargasaurus"
'"Mamenchisaurus"
'"Pachycephalosaurus"

備註

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 narrayLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於6個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 6 elements.

另請參閱

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32)

使用 Array 的每個項目之 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,排序 Array 中某個項目範圍中的項目。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in an Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element of the Array.

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, int index, int length);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, int index, int length);
static member Sort : 'T[] * int * int -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), index As Integer, length As Integer)

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。The type of the elements of the array.

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零為起始的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array to sort

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

index 小於 array 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of array.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in array.

array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。One or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) 的泛型方法多載和 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 的泛型方法多載,用於排序陣列中的範圍。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) generic method overload and the Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) generic method overload for sorting a range in an array.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較子,名為 ReverseCompare,它會在 Visual Basic 中執行 IComparer<String^>IComparer<string> ( C++Visual)泛型介面中的 IComparer(Of String)The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string> (IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法、反轉比較元的順序,讓字串排序高至低,而不是低到高。The comparer calls the CompareTo(String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示名為的陣列,其中包含三個 herbivores,後面接著三個 carnivores (tyrannosaurids)。The code example creates and displays an array of dinosaur names, consisting of three herbivores followed by three carnivores (tyrannosaurids, to be precise). Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) 的泛型方法多載是用來排序陣列的最後三個元素,然後顯示該專案。The Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) generic method overload is used to sort the last three elements of the array, which is then displayed. Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載會與 ReverseCompare 搭配使用,以反向順序排序最後三個元素。The Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) generic method overload is used with ReverseCompare to sort the last three elements in reverse order. 徹底混淆的 dinosaurs 會再次顯示。The thoroughly confused dinosaurs are displayed again.

注意

Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>)BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法的呼叫並不會與其非泛型對應項的呼叫外觀不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從第一個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) and BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first argument. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus",
                                 "Tarbosaurus",
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Albertasaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                              "Amargasaurus", 
                              "Mamenchisaurus", 
                              "Tarbosaurus",
                              "Tyrannosaurus", 
                              "Albertasaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Tarbosaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Albertasaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Albertasaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Albertasaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Albertasaurus

備註

array 的指定專案範圍內,每個元素都必須實 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與 array 中的每個其他元素進行比較。Each element within the specified range of elements in array must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

另請參閱

Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<T>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,對 Array 中的某個項目範圍內的項目進行排序。Sorts the elements in a range of elements in an Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

public:
generic <typename T>
 static void Sort(cli::array <T> ^ array, int index, int length, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<T> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<T> (T[] array, int index, int length, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<T> comparer);
static member Sort : 'T[] * int * int * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'T> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of T) (array As T(), index As Integer, length As Integer, comparer As IComparer(Of T))

類型參數

T

陣列項目的類型。The type of the elements of the array.

參數

array
T[]

要排序之以零起始的一維 ArrayThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array to sort.

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

comparer
IComparer<T>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。The IComparer<T> generic interface implementation to use when comparing elements, or null to use the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element.

例外狀況

arraynullarray is null.

index 小於 array 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of array.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

indexlength 未指定 array 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in array.

-或--or- comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

comparernull,且 array 中的一個或多個項目不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in array do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) 的泛型方法多載和 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 的泛型方法多載,用於排序陣列中的範圍。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) generic method overload and the Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) generic method overload for sorting a range in an array.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較子,名為 ReverseCompare,它會在 Visual Basic 中執行 IComparer<String^>IComparer<string> ( C++Visual)泛型介面中的 IComparer(Of String)The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string> (IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法、反轉比較元的順序,讓字串排序高至低,而不是低到高。The comparer calls the CompareTo(String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示名為的陣列,其中包含三個 herbivores,後面接著三個 carnivores (tyrannosaurids)。The code example creates and displays an array of dinosaur names, consisting of three herbivores followed by three carnivores (tyrannosaurids, to be precise). Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) 的泛型方法多載是用來排序陣列的最後三個元素,然後顯示該專案。The Sort<T>(T[], Int32, Int32) generic method overload is used to sort the last three elements of the array, which is then displayed. Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載會與 ReverseCompare 搭配使用,以反向順序排序最後三個元素。The Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) generic method overload is used with ReverseCompare to sort the last three elements in reverse order. 徹底混淆的 dinosaurs 會再次顯示。The thoroughly confused dinosaurs are displayed again.

注意

Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>)BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) 泛型方法的呼叫並不會與其非泛型對應項的呼叫外觀不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從第一個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the Sort<T>(T[], IComparer<T>) and BinarySearch<T>(T[], T, IComparer<T>) generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first argument. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                                 "Amargasaurus", 
                                 "Mamenchisaurus",
                                 "Tarbosaurus",
                                 "Tyrannosaurus", 
                                 "Albertasaurus"};

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {"Pachycephalosaurus", 
                              "Amargasaurus", 
                              "Mamenchisaurus", 
                              "Tarbosaurus",
                              "Tyrannosaurus", 
                              "Albertasaurus"};

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string dinosaur in dinosaurs )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Albertasaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Albertasaurus
Tarbosaurus
Tyrannosaurus

Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

Pachycephalosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Tarbosaurus
Albertasaurus
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Pachycephalosaurus", _
            "Amargasaurus", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Tarbosaurus", _
            "Tyrannosaurus", _
            "Albertasaurus"  }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Albertasaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Albertasaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Pachycephalosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Tyrannosaurus
'Tarbosaurus
'Albertasaurus

備註

如果 comparernull,則 array 中指定專案範圍內的每個專案都必須執行 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與 array 中的每個其他專案進行比較。If comparer is null, each element within the specified range of elements in array must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other element in array.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each key.

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue())

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the key array.

TValue

項目陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the items array.

參數

keys
TKey[]

一維、以零起始的 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
TValue[]

包含 keys 中的索引鍵對應項目,且以零為起始的一維 Arraynull 則表示只會排序 keysThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the items that correspond to the keys in keys, or null to sort only keys.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

items 不是 null,且 keys 下限與 items的下限不相符。items is not null, and the lower bound of keys does not match the lower bound of items.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

keysArray 中的一個或多個元素不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。One or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,用於排序代表索引鍵和值之陣列的配對。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[]), Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>), Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32), and Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) generic method overloads, for sorting pairs of arrays that represent keys and values.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較子,名為 ReverseCompare,它會在 Visual Basic 中執行 IComparer<String^>IComparer<string> ( C++Visual)泛型介面中的 IComparer(Of String)The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string> (IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法、反轉比較元的順序,讓字串排序高至低,而不是低到高。The comparer calls the CompareTo(String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示一個龍名稱陣列(索引鍵)和一個整數陣列,代表每個龍的最大長度(以量值為單位)。The code example creates and displays an array of dinosaur names (the keys) and an array of integers representing the maximum length of each dinosaur in meters (the values). 接著,陣列會排序並顯示數次:The arrays are then sorted and displayed several times:

注意

泛型方法的呼叫不會與其非泛型對應專案的呼叫看起來不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從前兩個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first two arguments. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵都必須執行 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。Each key in the keysArray must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 narrayLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

另請參閱

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<TKey> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<TKey> comparer);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'Key> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue(), comparer As IComparer(Of TKey))

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the key array.

TValue

項目陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the items array.

參數

keys
TKey[]

一維、以零起始的 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
TValue[]

一維、以零起始的 Array,包含對應到 keys 中索引鍵的項目;null 則表示只會排序 keysThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the items that correspond to the keys in keys, or null to sort only keys.

comparer
IComparer<TKey>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。The IComparer<T> generic interface implementation to use when comparing elements, or null to use the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

items 不是 null,且 keys 下限與 items的下限不相符。items is not null, and the lower bound of keys does not match the lower bound of items.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

-或--or- comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素未實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例會示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[]),[],TValue<x: System.object。 Sort %60 %602 %28 %60 %600% 5B% 5D% 2C %60 %601% 5B% 5D% 2Csystem.string. IComparer% 7B %60 %600% 7D %29 >、Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) Generic方法多載,用於排序代表索引鍵和值之陣列的配對。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[]), [], TValue<xref:System.Array.Sort%60%602%28%60%600%5B%5D%2C%60%601%5B%5D%2CSystem.Collections.Generic.IComparer%7B%60%600%7D%29>,Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32), and Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) generic method overloads, for sorting pairs of arrays that represent keys and values.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較子,名為 ReverseCompare,它會在 Visual Basic 中執行 IComparer<String^>IComparer<string> ( C++Visual)泛型介面中的 IComparer(Of String)The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string> (IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法、反轉比較元的順序,讓字串排序高至低,而不是低到高。The comparer calls the CompareTo(String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示一個龍名稱陣列(索引鍵)和一個整數陣列,代表每個龍的最大長度(以量值為單位)。The code example creates and displays an array of dinosaur names (the keys) and an array of integers representing the maximum length of each dinosaur in meters (the values). 接著,陣列會排序並顯示數次:The arrays are then sorted and displayed several times:

注意

泛型方法的呼叫不會與其非泛型對應專案的呼叫看起來不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從前兩個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first two arguments. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

如果 null``comparer,則Array keys中的每個索引鍵都必須執行 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。If comparer is null, each key in the keysArray must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)運算,其中 narrayLengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)

使用每個索引鍵的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某個範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each key.

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items, int index, int length);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items, int index, int length);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] * int * int -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue(), index As Integer, length As Integer)

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the key array.

TValue

項目陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the items array.

參數

keys
TKey[]

一維、以零起始的 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
TValue[]

包含 keys 中的索引鍵對應項目,且以零為起始的一維 Arraynull 則表示只會排序 keysThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the items that correspond to the keys in keys, or null to sort only keys.

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

index 小於 keys 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of keys.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。items is not null, and the lower bound of keys does not match the lower bound of items.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

-或--or- indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in the keysArray.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。items is not null, and index and length do not specify a valid range in the itemsArray.

keysArray 中的一個或多個元素不會實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。One or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例會示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>),[],TValue<x: system.string。 Sort %60 %602 %28 %60 %600% 5B% 5D% 2C %60 %601% 5B% 5D% 2Csystem.string。 int32% 2Csystem.string > 和 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) 泛型方法多載,適用于對代表索引鍵和值的陣列進行排序。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[]), Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>), [], TValue<xref:System.Array.Sort%60%602%28%60%600%5B%5D%2C%60%601%5B%5D%2CSystem.Int32%2CSystem.Int32%29>, and Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>) generic method overloads, for sorting pairs of arrays that represent keys and values.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較子,名為 ReverseCompare,它會在 Visual Basic 中執行 IComparer<String^>IComparer<string> ( C++Visual)泛型介面中的 IComparer(Of String)The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string> (IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法、反轉比較元的順序,讓字串排序高至低,而不是低到高。The comparer calls the CompareTo(String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示一個龍名稱陣列(索引鍵)和一個整數陣列,代表每個龍的最大長度(以量值為單位)。The code example creates and displays an array of dinosaur names (the keys) and an array of integers representing the maximum length of each dinosaur in meters (the values). 接著,陣列會排序並顯示數次:The arrays are then sorted and displayed several times:

注意

泛型方法的呼叫不會與其非泛型對應專案的呼叫看起來不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從前兩個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first two arguments. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

keysArray 中指定專案範圍內的每個索引鍵都必須實作為 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。Each key within the specified range of elements in the keysArray must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

另請參閱

Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32, IComparer<TKey>)

使用指定的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面,根據第一個 Array 中的索引鍵,排序一對 Array 物件中某範圍的項目 (一個物件包含索引鍵,另一個物件包含對應的項目)。Sorts a range of elements in a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the specified IComparer<T> generic interface.

public:
generic <typename TKey, typename TValue>
 static void Sort(cli::array <TKey> ^ keys, cli::array <TValue> ^ items, int index, int length, System::Collections::Generic::IComparer<TKey> ^ comparer);
public static void Sort<TKey,TValue> (TKey[] keys, TValue[] items, int index, int length, System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<TKey> comparer);
static member Sort : 'Key[] * 'Value[] * int * int * System.Collections.Generic.IComparer<'Key> -> unit
Public Shared Sub Sort(Of TKey, TValue) (keys As TKey(), items As TValue(), index As Integer, length As Integer, comparer As IComparer(Of TKey))

類型參數

TKey

索引鍵陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the key array.

TValue

項目陣列元素的型別。The type of the elements of the items array.

參數

keys
TKey[]

一維、以零起始的 Array,包含要排序的索引鍵。The one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
TValue[]

包含 keys 中的索引鍵對應項目,且以零為起始的一維 Arraynull 則表示只會排序 keysThe one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the items that correspond to the keys in keys, or null to sort only keys.

index
Int32

要排序之範圍的起始索引。The starting index of the range to sort.

length
Int32

區段中要排序的項目數目。The number of elements in the range to sort.

comparer
IComparer<TKey>

在比較項目時所使用的 IComparer<T> 泛型介面實作,或 null 使用每個項目的 IComparable<T> 泛型介面實作。The IComparer<T> generic interface implementation to use when comparing elements, or null to use the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each element.

例外狀況

keysnullkeys is null.

index 小於 keys 的下限。index is less than the lower bound of keys.

-或--or- length 小於零。length is less than zero.

items 不是 null,且 keys 的下限與 items 的下限不相符。items is not null, and the lower bound of keys does not match the lower bound of items.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 keys 的長度大於 items 的長度。items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

-或--or- indexlength 未指定 keysArray 中的有效範圍。index and length do not specify a valid range in the keysArray.

-或--or- items 不是 null,且 indexlength 未指定 itemsArray 中的有效範圍。items is not null, and index and length do not specify a valid range in the itemsArray.

-或--or- comparer 的實作在排序期間造成錯誤。The implementation of comparer caused an error during the sort. 例如,在將項目與其本身比較時,comparer 可能不會傳回 0。For example, comparer might not return 0 when comparing an item with itself.

comparernull,而且 keysArray 中的一或多個元素未實作 IComparable<T> 泛型介面。comparer is null, and one or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

範例

下列程式碼範例將示範 Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[])Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>)Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32)和 []、TValue<x:2csystem.string 排序 %60 %602 %28 %60 %600% 5B% 5D% 2C %60 %601% 5B% 5D%。 Int32% 2Csystem.string%2Csystem.string,IComparer% 7B %60 %600% 7D %29 > 泛型方法多載,用於對代表索引鍵和值的陣列進行排序配對。The following code example demonstrates the Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[]), Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], IComparer<TKey>), Sort<TKey,TValue>(TKey[], TValue[], Int32, Int32), and [], TValue<xref:System.Array.Sort%60%602%28%60%600%5B%5D%2C%60%601%5B%5D%2CSystem.Int32%2CSystem.Int32%2CSystem.Collections.Generic.IComparer%7B%60%600%7D%29> generic method overloads, for sorting pairs of arrays that represent keys and values.

此程式碼範例會為字串定義替代的比較子,名為 ReverseCompare,它會在 Visual Basic 中執行 IComparer<String^>IComparer<string> ( C++Visual)泛型介面中的 IComparer(Of String)The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string>(IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. 比較子會呼叫 CompareTo(String) 方法、反轉比較元的順序,讓字串排序高至低,而不是低到高。The comparer calls the CompareTo(String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

此程式碼範例會建立並顯示一個龍名稱陣列(索引鍵)和一個整數陣列,代表每個龍的最大長度(以量值為單位)。The code example creates and displays an array of dinosaur names (the keys) and an array of integers representing the maximum length of each dinosaur in meters (the values). 接著,陣列會排序並顯示數次:The arrays are then sorted and displayed several times:

注意

泛型方法的呼叫不會與其非泛型對應專案的呼叫看起來不同,因為 Visual Basic、 C#和C++會從前兩個引數的型別推斷泛型型別參數的型別。The calls to the generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first two arguments. 如果您使用Ildasm (IL解譯器)來檢查 Microsoft 中繼語言(MSIL),就會看到呼叫的是泛型方法。If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class ReverseComparer: IComparer<String^>
{
public:
    virtual int Compare(String^ x, String^ y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y->CompareTo(x);
    }
};

void main()
{
    array<String^>^ dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

    array<int>^ dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    ReverseComparer^ rc = gcnew ReverseComparer();

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
    Array::Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

    Console::WriteLine();
    for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs->Length; i++)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
            dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class ReverseComparer
    Implements IComparer(Of String)

    Public Function Compare(ByVal x As String, _
        ByVal y As String) As Integer _
        Implements IComparer(Of String).Compare

        ' Compare y and x in reverse order.
        Return y.CompareTo(x)

    End Function
End Class

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs() As String = { _
            "Seismosaurus", _
            "Chasmosaurus", _
            "Coelophysis", _
            "Mamenchisaurus", _
            "Caudipteryx", _
            "Cetiosaurus"  }

        Dim dinosaurSizes() As Integer = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 }

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Dim rc As New ReverseComparer()

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)")
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For i As Integer = 0 To dinosaurs.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", _
                dinosaurs(i), dinosaurSizes(i))
        Next

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)
'
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'
'Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)
'
'Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
'Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
'Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
'Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
'Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
'Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

備註

keysArray 中的每個索引鍵在 itemsArray中都有對應的專案。Each key in the keysArray has a corresponding item in the itemsArray. 當索引鍵在排序期間重新置放時,itemsArray 中對應的專案也會重新置放。When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsArray is similarly repositioned. 因此,itemsArray 會根據 keysArray中對應索引鍵的相片順序進行排序。Therefore, the itemsArray is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysArray.

如果 null``comparerkeysArray 中指定專案範圍內的每個索引鍵都必須實作為 IComparable<T> 泛型介面,才能與其他每個索引鍵進行比較。If comparer is null, each key within the specified range of elements in the keysArray must implement the IComparable<T> generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

您可以排序是否有超過索引鍵的專案數,但沒有對應索引鍵的專案將不會排序。You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. 如果索引鍵多於專案,您就無法排序;這麼做會擲回 ArgumentExceptionYou cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws an ArgumentException.

如果排序未成功完成,則結果會是未定義的。If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

這個方法會使用反求諸己 sort (introsort)演算法,如下所示:This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • 如果分割區大小小於或等於16個元素,則會使用插入排序演算法。If the partition size is less than or equal to 16 elements, it uses an insertion sort algorithm.

  • 如果分割區數目超過 2 * LogN,其中N是輸入陣列的範圍,則會使用Heapsort演算法。If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsort algorithm.

  • 否則,它會使用快速排序演算法。Otherwise, it uses a Quicksort algorithm.

此實作為執行不穩定的排序;也就是說,如果兩個元素相等,可能不會保留其順序。This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. 相反地,穩定的排序會保留相等元素的順序。In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

對於使用 Heapsort 和快速排序演算法排序的陣列,在最差的情況下,這個方法是 O (n 記錄 n)作業,其中 nlengthFor arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is length.

給呼叫者的注意事項

.NET Framework 4 和更早版本只會使用快速排序演算法。The .NET Framework 4 and earlier versions used only the Quicksort algorithm. 在某些情況下,快速排序會識別不正確比較子,而排序作業會擲回 IndexOutOfRangeException 例外狀況,並擲回 ArgumentException 例外狀況給呼叫者。Quicksort identifies invalid comparers in some situations in which the sorting operation throws an IndexOutOfRangeException exception, and throws an ArgumentException exception to the caller. .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5 開始,之前擲回的排序作業(ArgumentException)可能不會擲回例外狀況,因為插入排序和 heapsort 演算法不會偵測到不正確比較子。Starting with the .NET Framework 4.5.NET Framework 4.5, it is possible that sorting operations that previously threw ArgumentException will not throw an exception, because the insertion sort and heapsort algorithms do not detect an invalid comparer. 在大部分的情況下,這適用于具有小於或等於16個元素的陣列。For the most part, this applies to arrays with less than or equal to 16 elements.

另請參閱

適用於