List<T>.Exists(Predicate<T>) List<T>.Exists(Predicate<T>) List<T>.Exists(Predicate<T>) List<T>.Exists(Predicate<T>) Method

定義

判斷 List<T> 是否包含符合指定之述詞 (Predicate) 所定義之條件的元素。Determines whether the List<T> contains elements that match the conditions defined by the specified predicate.

public:
 bool Exists(Predicate<T> ^ match);
public bool Exists (Predicate<T> match);
member this.Exists : Predicate<'T> -> bool
Public Function Exists (match As Predicate(Of T)) As Boolean

參數

match
Predicate<T> Predicate<T> Predicate<T> Predicate<T>

定義要搜尋元素之條件的 Predicate<T> 委派。The Predicate<T> delegate that defines the conditions of the elements to search for.

傳回

如果 List<T> 包含的一個或多個元素符合指定之述詞所定義的條件,則為 true,否則為 falsetrue if the List<T> contains one or more elements that match the conditions defined by the specified predicate; otherwise, false.

例外狀況

範例

Contains下列範例示範EqualsExists的和方法, 其中包含可執行檔簡單商務物件。 List<T>The following example demonstrates the Contains and Exists methods on a List<T> that contains a simple business object that implements Equals.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
// Simple business object. A PartId is used to identify a part 
// but the part name can change. 
public class Part : IEquatable<Part>
{
    public string PartName { get; set; }
    public int PartId { get; set; }

    public override string ToString()
    {
        return "ID: " + PartId + "   Name: " + PartName;
    }
    public override bool Equals(object obj)
    {
        if (obj == null) return false;
        Part objAsPart = obj as Part;
        if (objAsPart == null) return false;
        else return Equals(objAsPart);
    }
    public override int GetHashCode()
    {
        return PartId;
    }
    public bool Equals(Part other)
    {
        if (other == null) return false;
        return (this.PartId.Equals(other.PartId));
    }
    // Should also override == and != operators.
}
public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create a list of parts.
        List<Part> parts = new List<Part>();

        // Add parts to the list.
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "crank arm", PartId = 1234 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "chain ring", PartId = 1334 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "regular seat", PartId = 1434 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "banana seat", PartId = 1444 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "cassette", PartId = 1534 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "shift lever", PartId = 1634 }); ;

        // Write out the parts in the list. This will call the overridden ToString method
        // in the Part class.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach (Part aPart in parts)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(aPart);
        }


        // Check the list for part #1734. This calls the IEquatable.Equals method
        // of the Part class, which checks the PartId for equality.
        Console.WriteLine("\nContains: Part with Id=1734: {0}",
            parts.Contains(new Part { PartId = 1734, PartName = "" }));

        // Find items where name contains "seat".
        Console.WriteLine("\nFind: Part where name contains \"seat\": {0}", 
            parts.Find(x => x.PartName.Contains("seat")));
        
        // Check if an item with Id 1444 exists.
        Console.WriteLine("\nExists: Part with Id=1444: {0}", 
            parts.Exists(x => x.PartId == 1444));

        /*This code example produces the following output:
        
        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
        ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
        ID: 1534   Name: cassette
        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever

        Contains: Part with Id=1734: False

        Find: Part where name contains "seat": ID: 1434   Name: regular seat

        Exists: Part with Id=1444: True 
         */
    } 
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
' Simple business object. A PartId is used to identify a part 
' but the part name can change. 
Public Class Part
    Implements IEquatable(Of Part)
    Public Property PartName() As String
        Get
            Return m_PartName
        End Get
        Set(value As String)
            m_PartName = Value
        End Set
    End Property
    Private m_PartName As String
    Public Property PartId() As Integer
        Get
            Return m_PartId
        End Get
        Set(value As Integer)
            m_PartId = Value
        End Set
    End Property
    Private m_PartId As Integer

    Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
        Return Convert.ToString("ID: " & PartId & "   Name: ") & PartName
    End Function
    Public Overrides Function Equals(obj As Object) As Boolean
        If obj Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        End If
        Dim objAsPart As Part = TryCast(obj, Part)
        If objAsPart Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        Else
            Return Equals(objAsPart)
        End If
    End Function
    Public Overrides Function GetHashCode() As Integer
        Return PartId
    End Function
    Public Overloads Function Equals(other As Part) As Boolean _
        Implements IEquatable(Of Part).Equals
        If other Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        End If
        Return (Me.PartId.Equals(other.PartId))
    End Function
    ' Should also override == and != operators.
End Class
Public Class Example
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' Create a list of parts.
        Dim parts As New List(Of Part)()

        ' Add parts to the list.
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "crank arm", _
             .PartId = 1234 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "chain ring", _
             .PartId = 1334 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "regular seat", _
             .PartId = 1434 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "banana seat", _
             .PartId = 1444 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "cassette", _
             .PartId = 1534 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "shift lever", _
             .PartId = 1634 _
        })



        ' Write out the parts in the list. This will call the overridden ToString method
        ' in the Part class.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each aPart As Part In parts
            Console.WriteLine(aPart)
        Next


        ' Check the list for part #1734. This calls the IEquatable.Equals method
        ' of the Part class, which checks the PartId for equality.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Contains: Part with Id=1734: {0}",
                          parts.Contains(New Part() With { _
             .PartId = 1734, _
             .PartName = "" _
        }))

        ' Find items where name contains "seat".
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Find: Part where name contains ""seat"": {0}",
                          parts.Find(Function(x) x.PartName.Contains("seat")))

        ' Check if an item with Id 1444 exists.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Exists: Part with Id=1444: {0}",
                          parts.Exists(Function(x) x.PartId = 1444))

        'This code example produces the following output:
        '        
        '        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
        '        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
        '        ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
        '        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
        '        ID: 1534   Name: cassette
        '        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever
        '
        '        Contains: Part with Id=1734: False
        '
        '        Find: Part where name contains "seat": ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
        '
        '        Exists: Part with Id=1444: True 
        '         

    End Sub
End Class

下列範例會示範Exists方法, 以及Predicate<T>使用泛型委派的數個其他方法。The following example demonstrates the Exists method and several other methods that use the Predicate<T> generic delegate.

List<T>會建立字串的, 其中包含8個恐龍名稱, 其中兩個 (位於位置1和 5) 以 "saurus" 結尾。A List<T> of strings is created, containing 8 dinosaur names, two of which (at positions 1 and 5) end with "saurus". 此範例也會定義名為EndsWithSaurus的搜尋述詞方法, 它會接受字串參數, 並傳回布林值, 指出輸入字串是否以 "saurus" 結尾。The example also defines a search predicate method named EndsWithSaurus, which accepts a string parameter and returns a Boolean value indicating whether the input string ends in "saurus".

、和方法是用來搜尋具有搜尋述詞方法的清單, 然後RemoveAll使用方法來移除所有以 "saurus" 結尾的專案。 FindAll FindLast FindThe Find, FindLast, and FindAll methods are used to search the list with the search predicate method, and then the RemoveAll method is used to remove all entries ending with "saurus".

最後, Exists會呼叫方法。Finally, the Exists method is called. 它會從頭開始遍歷清單, 然後再將每個元素傳遞至EndsWithSaurus方法。It traverses the list from the beginning, passing each element in turn to the EndsWithSaurus method. true當此EndsWithSaurus 方法true傳回任何專案的時, 會停止搜尋, 且方法會傳回。The search stops and the method returns true if the EndsWithSaurus method returns true for any element. 方法會傳回, Exists 因為已移除所有這類元素。falseThe Exists method returns false because all such elements have been removed.

注意

在C#和 Visual Basic 中, 不需要明確地建立Predicate<string>委派 (Predicate(Of String)在 Visual Basic 中)。In C# and Visual Basic, it is not necessary to create the Predicate<string> delegate (Predicate(Of String) in Visual Basic) explicitly. 這些語言會從內容推斷正確的委派, 並自動建立。These languages infer the correct delegate from context and create it automatically.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

// Search predicate returns true if a string ends in "saurus".
bool EndsWithSaurus(String^ s)
{
    return s->ToLower()->EndsWith("saurus");
};

void main()
{
    List<String^>^ dinosaurs = gcnew List<String^>();

    dinosaurs->Add("Compsognathus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Amargasaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Oviraptor");
    dinosaurs->Add("Velociraptor");
    dinosaurs->Add("Deinonychus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Dilophosaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Gallimimus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Triceratops");

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs )
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nTrueForAll(EndsWithSaurus): {0}",
        dinosaurs->TrueForAll(gcnew Predicate<String^>(EndsWithSaurus)));

    Console::WriteLine("\nFind(EndsWithSaurus): {0}", 
        dinosaurs->Find(gcnew Predicate<String^>(EndsWithSaurus)));

    Console::WriteLine("\nFindLast(EndsWithSaurus): {0}",
        dinosaurs->FindLast(gcnew Predicate<String^>(EndsWithSaurus)));

    Console::WriteLine("\nFindAll(EndsWithSaurus):");
    List<String^>^ sublist = 
        dinosaurs->FindAll(gcnew Predicate<String^>(EndsWithSaurus));

    for each(String^ dinosaur in sublist)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine(
        "\n{0} elements removed by RemoveAll(EndsWithSaurus).", 
        dinosaurs->RemoveAll(gcnew Predicate<String^>(EndsWithSaurus)));

    Console::WriteLine("\nList now contains:");
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs)
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nExists(EndsWithSaurus): {0}", 
        dinosaurs->Exists(gcnew Predicate<String^>(EndsWithSaurus)));
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Compsognathus
Amargasaurus
Oviraptor
Velociraptor
Deinonychus
Dilophosaurus
Gallimimus
Triceratops

TrueForAll(EndsWithSaurus): False

Find(EndsWithSaurus): Amargasaurus

FindLast(EndsWithSaurus): Dilophosaurus

FindAll(EndsWithSaurus):
Amargasaurus
Dilophosaurus

2 elements removed by RemoveAll(EndsWithSaurus).

List now contains:
Compsognathus
Oviraptor
Velociraptor
Deinonychus
Gallimimus
Triceratops

Exists(EndsWithSaurus): False
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        List<string> dinosaurs = new List<string>();

        dinosaurs.Add("Compsognathus");
        dinosaurs.Add("Amargasaurus");
        dinosaurs.Add("Oviraptor");
        dinosaurs.Add("Velociraptor");
        dinosaurs.Add("Deinonychus");
        dinosaurs.Add("Dilophosaurus");
        dinosaurs.Add("Gallimimus");
        dinosaurs.Add("Triceratops");

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach(string dinosaur in dinosaurs)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nTrueForAll(EndsWithSaurus): {0}",
            dinosaurs.TrueForAll(EndsWithSaurus));

        Console.WriteLine("\nFind(EndsWithSaurus): {0}", 
            dinosaurs.Find(EndsWithSaurus));

        Console.WriteLine("\nFindLast(EndsWithSaurus): {0}",
            dinosaurs.FindLast(EndsWithSaurus));

        Console.WriteLine("\nFindAll(EndsWithSaurus):");
        List<string> sublist = dinosaurs.FindAll(EndsWithSaurus);

        foreach(string dinosaur in sublist)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine(
            "\n{0} elements removed by RemoveAll(EndsWithSaurus).", 
            dinosaurs.RemoveAll(EndsWithSaurus));

        Console.WriteLine("\nList now contains:");
        foreach(string dinosaur in dinosaurs)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nExists(EndsWithSaurus): {0}", 
            dinosaurs.Exists(EndsWithSaurus));
    }

    // Search predicate returns true if a string ends in "saurus".
    private static bool EndsWithSaurus(String s)
    {
        return s.ToLower().EndsWith("saurus");
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Compsognathus
Amargasaurus
Oviraptor
Velociraptor
Deinonychus
Dilophosaurus
Gallimimus
Triceratops

TrueForAll(EndsWithSaurus): False

Find(EndsWithSaurus): Amargasaurus

FindLast(EndsWithSaurus): Dilophosaurus

FindAll(EndsWithSaurus):
Amargasaurus
Dilophosaurus

2 elements removed by RemoveAll(EndsWithSaurus).

List now contains:
Compsognathus
Oviraptor
Velociraptor
Deinonychus
Gallimimus
Triceratops

Exists(EndsWithSaurus): False
 */
Imports System
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs As New List(Of String)

        dinosaurs.Add("Compsognathus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Amargasaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Oviraptor")
        dinosaurs.Add("Velociraptor")
        dinosaurs.Add("Deinonychus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Dilophosaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Gallimimus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Triceratops")

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "TrueForAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus: {0}", _
            dinosaurs.TrueForAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus))

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Find(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus): {0}", _
            dinosaurs.Find(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus))

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "FindLast(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus): {0}", _
            dinosaurs.FindLast(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus))

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "FindAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus):")
        Dim sublist As List(Of String) = _
            dinosaurs.FindAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus)

        For Each dinosaur As String In sublist
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "{0} elements removed by RemoveAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus).", _
            dinosaurs.RemoveAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus))

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "List now contains:")
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & _
            "Exists(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus): {0}", _
            dinosaurs.Exists(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus))
        
    End Sub

    ' Search predicate returns true if a string ends in "saurus".
    Private Shared Function EndsWithSaurus(ByVal s As String) _
        As Boolean

        Return s.ToLower().EndsWith("saurus")
    End Function
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Compsognathus
'Amargasaurus
'Oviraptor
'Velociraptor
'Deinonychus
'Dilophosaurus
'Gallimimus
'Triceratops
'
'TrueForAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus: False
'
'Find(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus): Amargasaurus
'
'FindLast(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus): Dilophosaurus
'
'FindAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus):
'Amargasaurus
'Dilophosaurus
'
'2 elements removed by RemoveAll(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus).
'
'List now contains:
'Compsognathus
'Oviraptor
'Velociraptor
'Deinonychus
'Gallimimus
'Triceratops
'
'Exists(AddressOf EndsWithSaurus): False

備註

是方法的委派, true如果傳遞給它的物件符合委派中定義的條件, 則Predicate<T>會傳回。The Predicate<T> is a delegate to a method that returns true if the object passed to it matches the conditions defined in the delegate. 目前List<T>的專案會個別傳遞Predicate<T>至委派, 並在找到相符專案時停止處理。The elements of the current List<T> are individually passed to the Predicate<T> delegate, and processing is stopped when a match is found.

這個方法會執行線性搜尋;因此, 這個方法是 O (n) 運算, 其中nCountThis method performs a linear search; therefore, this method is an O(n) operation, where n is Count.

適用於

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