Random.Next 方法

定義

傳回隨機整數。Returns a random integer.

多載

Next()

傳回非負值的隨機整數。Returns a non-negative random integer.

Next(Int32)

傳回小於指定之最大值的非負值隨機整數。Returns a non-negative random integer that is less than the specified maximum.

Next(Int32, Int32)

傳回指定範圍內的隨機整數。Returns a random integer that is within a specified range.

Next()

傳回非負值的隨機整數。Returns a non-negative random integer.

public:
 virtual int Next();
public virtual int Next ();
abstract member Next : unit -> int
override this.Next : unit -> int
Public Overridable Function Next () As Integer

傳回

Int32

32 位元帶正負號的整數大於或等於 0,並且小於 MaxValueA 32-bit signed integer that is greater than or equal to 0 and less than MaxValue.

範例

下列範例會重複呼叫 Next 方法,以產生使用者所要求的特定亂數字數目。The following example makes repeated calls to the Next method to generate a specific number of random numbers requested by the user. Console.ReadLine方法是用來取得客戶輸入。The Console.ReadLine method is used to get customer input.

using namespace System;

void main()
{
   Console::Write("Number of random numbers to generate: ");
   String^ line = Console::ReadLine();
   unsigned int numbers = 0;
   Random^ rnd = gcnew Random();
   
   if (! UInt32::TryParse(line, numbers))
      numbers = 10;
   
   for (unsigned int ctr = 1; ctr <= numbers; ctr++)
      Console::WriteLine("{0,15:N0}", rnd->Next());
}
// The example displays output like the following when asked to generate
// 15 random numbers:
//       Number of random numbers to generate: 15
//         1,733,189,596
//           566,518,090
//         1,166,108,546
//         1,931,426,514
//         1,341,108,291
//         1,012,698,049
//           890,578,409
//         1,377,589,722
//         2,108,384,181
//         1,532,939,448
//           762,207,767
//           815,074,920
//         1,521,208,785
//         1,950,436,671
//         1,266,596,666
Random rnd = new Random();

Console.WriteLine("Generating 10 random numbers:");

for (uint ctr = 1; ctr <= 10; ctr++)
   Console.WriteLine($"{rnd.Next(),15:N0}");

// The example displays output like the following:
//
//     Generating 10 random numbers:
//         1,733,189,596
//           566,518,090
//         1,166,108,546
//         1,931,426,514
//         1,532,939,448
//           762,207,767
//           815,074,920
//         1,521,208,785
//         1,950,436,671
//         1,266,596,666
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Console.Write("Number of random numbers to generate: ")
      Dim line As String = Console.ReadLine()
      Dim numbers As UInteger = 0
      Dim rnd As New Random()
      
      If Not UInt32.TryParse(line, numbers) Then numbers = 10
      
      For ctr As UInteger = 1 To numbers  
         Console.WriteLine("{0,15:N0}", rnd.Next())
      Next
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following when asked to generate
' 15 random numbers:
'       Number of random numbers to generate: 15
'         1,733,189,596
'           566,518,090
'         1,166,108,546
'         1,931,426,514
'         1,341,108,291
'         1,012,698,049
'           890,578,409
'         1,377,589,722
'         2,108,384,181
'         1,532,939,448
'           762,207,767
'           815,074,920
'         1,521,208,785
'         1,950,436,671
'         1,266,596,666

下列範例會從衍生類別 Random ,以產生一連串亂數,其分佈與基類的方法所產生的統一分佈不同 SampleThe following example derives a class from Random to generate a sequence of random numbers whose distribution differs from the uniform distribution generated by the Sample method of the base class. 它會覆寫 Sample 方法以提供亂數的分佈,並覆寫 Random.Next 方法以使用一連串的亂數。It overrides the Sample method to provide the distribution of random numbers, and overrides the Random.Next method to use series of random numbers.

using namespace System;

// This derived class converts the uniformly distributed random 
// numbers generated by base.Sample() to another distribution.
public ref class RandomProportional : Random
{
    // The Sample method generates a distribution proportional to the value 
    // of the random numbers, in the range [0.0, 1.0].
protected:
   virtual double Sample() override
   {
       return Math::Sqrt(Random::Sample());
   }

public:
   RandomProportional()
   {}
   
   virtual int Next() override
   {
      return (int) (Sample() * Int32::MaxValue);
   }   
};

int main(array<System::String ^> ^args)
{
      const int rows = 4, cols = 6;
      const int runCount = 1000000;
      const int distGroupCount = 10;
      const double intGroupSize = 
         ((double) Int32::MaxValue + 1.0) / (double)distGroupCount;

      RandomProportional ^randObj = gcnew RandomProportional();

      array<int>^ intCounts = gcnew array<int>(distGroupCount);
      array<int>^ realCounts = gcnew array<int>(distGroupCount);

      Console::WriteLine(
         "\nThe derived RandomProportional class overrides " +
         "the Sample method to \ngenerate random numbers " +
         "in the range [0.0, 1.0]. The distribution \nof " +
         "the numbers is proportional to their numeric values. " +
         "For example, \nnumbers are generated in the " +
         "vicinity of 0.75 with three times the \n" +
         "probability of those generated near 0.25.");
      Console::WriteLine(
         "\nRandom doubles generated with the NextDouble() " +
         "method:\n");

      // Generate and display [rows * cols] random doubles.
      for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++)
      {
         for (int j = 0; j < cols; j++) 
               Console::Write("{0,12:F8}", randObj->NextDouble());
         Console::WriteLine();
      }

      Console::WriteLine(
         "\nRandom integers generated with the Next() " +
         "method:\n");

      // Generate and display [rows * cols] random integers.
      for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++)
      {
         for (int j = 0; j < cols; j++)
               Console::Write("{0,12}", randObj->Next());
         Console::WriteLine();
      }

      Console::WriteLine(
         "\nTo demonstrate the proportional distribution, " +
         "{0:N0} random \nintegers and doubles are grouped " +
         "into {1} equal value ranges. This \n" +
         "is the count of values in each range:\n",
         runCount, distGroupCount);
      Console::WriteLine(
         "{0,21}{1,10}{2,20}{3,10}", "Integer Range",
         "Count", "Double Range", "Count");
      Console::WriteLine(
         "{0,21}{1,10}{2,20}{3,10}", "-------------",
         "-----", "------------", "-----");

      // Generate random integers and doubles, and then count 
      // them by group.
      for (int i = 0; i < runCount; i++)
      {
         intCounts[ (int)((double)randObj->Next() / 
               intGroupSize) ]++;
         realCounts[ (int)(randObj->NextDouble() * 
               (double)distGroupCount) ]++;
      }

      // Display the count of each group.
      for (int i = 0; i < distGroupCount; i++)
         Console::WriteLine(
               "{0,10}-{1,10}{2,10:N0}{3,12:N5}-{4,7:N5}{5,10:N0}",
               (int)((double)i * intGroupSize),
               (int)((double)(i + 1) * intGroupSize - 1.0),
               intCounts[ i ],
               ((double)i) / (double)distGroupCount,
               ((double)(i + 1)) / (double)distGroupCount,
               realCounts[ i ]);
      return 0;
}

/*
This example of Random.Sample() displays output similar to the following:

   The derived RandomProportional class overrides the Sample method to
   generate random numbers in the range [0.0, 1.0). The distribution
   of the numbers is proportional to the number values. For example,
   numbers are generated in the vicinity of 0.75 with three times the
   probability of those generated near 0.25.

   Random doubles generated with the NextDouble() method:

     0.59455719  0.17589882  0.83134398  0.35795862  0.91467727  0.54022658
     0.93716947  0.54817519  0.94685080  0.93705478  0.18582318  0.71272428
     0.77708682  0.95386216  0.70412393  0.86099417  0.08275804  0.79108316
     0.71019941  0.84205103  0.41685082  0.58186880  0.89492302  0.73067715

   Random integers generated with the Next() method:

     1570755704  1279192549  1747627711  1705700211  1372759203  1849655615
     2046235980  1210843924  1554274149  1307936697  1480207570  1057595022
      337854215   844109928  2028310798  1386669369  2073517658  1291729809
     1537248240  1454198019  1934863511  1640004334  2032620207   534654791

   To demonstrate the proportional distribution, 1,000,000 random
   integers and doubles are grouped into 10 equal value ranges. This
   is the count of values in each range:

           Integer Range     Count        Double Range     Count
           -------------     -----        ------------     -----
            0- 214748363    10,079     0.00000-0.10000    10,148
    214748364- 429496728    29,835     0.10000-0.20000    29,849
    429496729- 644245093    49,753     0.20000-0.30000    49,948
    644245094- 858993458    70,325     0.30000-0.40000    69,656
    858993459-1073741823    89,906     0.40000-0.50000    90,337
   1073741824-1288490187   109,868     0.50000-0.60000   110,225
   1288490188-1503238552   130,388     0.60000-0.70000   129,986
   1503238553-1717986917   149,231     0.70000-0.80000   150,428
   1717986918-1932735282   170,234     0.80000-0.90000   169,610
   1932735283-2147483647   190,381     0.90000-1.00000   189,813
*/
using System;

// This derived class converts the uniformly distributed random
// numbers generated by base.Sample() to another distribution.
public class RandomProportional : Random
{
    // The Sample method generates a distribution proportional to the value
    // of the random numbers, in the range [0.0, 1.0].
    protected override double Sample()
    {
        return Math.Sqrt(base.Sample());
    }

    public override int Next()
    {
       return (int) (Sample() * int.MaxValue);
    }
}

public class RandomSampleDemo
{
    static void Main()
    {	
        const int rows = 4, cols = 6;
        const int runCount = 1000000;
        const int distGroupCount = 10;
        const double intGroupSize =
            ((double)int.MaxValue + 1.0) / (double)distGroupCount;

        RandomProportional randObj = new RandomProportional();

        int[ ]      intCounts = new int[ distGroupCount ];
        int[ ]      realCounts = new int[ distGroupCount ];

        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nThe derived RandomProportional class overrides " +
            "the Sample method to \ngenerate random numbers " +
            "in the range [0.0, 1.0]. The distribution \nof " +
            "the numbers is proportional to their numeric values. " +
            "For example, \nnumbers are generated in the " +
            "vicinity of 0.75 with three times the \n" +
            "probability of those generated near 0.25.");
        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nRandom doubles generated with the NextDouble() " +
            "method:\n");

        // Generate and display [rows * cols] random doubles.
        for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++)
        {
            for (int j = 0; j < cols; j++)
                Console.Write("{0,12:F8}", randObj.NextDouble());
            Console.WriteLine();
        }

        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nRandom integers generated with the Next() " +
            "method:\n");

        // Generate and display [rows * cols] random integers.
        for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++)
        {
            for (int j = 0; j < cols; j++)
                Console.Write("{0,12}", randObj.Next());
            Console.WriteLine();
        }

        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nTo demonstrate the proportional distribution, " +
            "{0:N0} random \nintegers and doubles are grouped " +
            "into {1} equal value ranges. This \n" +
            "is the count of values in each range:\n",
            runCount, distGroupCount);
        Console.WriteLine(
            "{0,21}{1,10}{2,20}{3,10}", "Integer Range",
            "Count", "Double Range", "Count");
        Console.WriteLine(
            "{0,21}{1,10}{2,20}{3,10}", "-------------",
            "-----", "------------", "-----");

        // Generate random integers and doubles, and then count
        // them by group.
        for (int i = 0; i < runCount; i++)
        {
            intCounts[ (int)((double)randObj.Next() /
                intGroupSize) ]++;
            realCounts[ (int)(randObj.NextDouble() *
                (double)distGroupCount) ]++;
        }

        // Display the count of each group.
        for (int i = 0; i < distGroupCount; i++)
            Console.WriteLine(
                "{0,10}-{1,10}{2,10:N0}{3,12:N5}-{4,7:N5}{5,10:N0}",
                (int)((double)i * intGroupSize),
                (int)((double)(i + 1) * intGroupSize - 1.0),
                intCounts[ i ],
                ((double)i) / (double)distGroupCount,
                ((double)(i + 1)) / (double)distGroupCount,
                realCounts[ i ]);
    }
}

/*
This example of Random.Sample() displays output similar to the following:

   The derived RandomProportional class overrides the Sample method to
   generate random numbers in the range [0.0, 1.0). The distribution
   of the numbers is proportional to the number values. For example,
   numbers are generated in the vicinity of 0.75 with three times the
   probability of those generated near 0.25.

   Random doubles generated with the NextDouble() method:

     0.59455719  0.17589882  0.83134398  0.35795862  0.91467727  0.54022658
     0.93716947  0.54817519  0.94685080  0.93705478  0.18582318  0.71272428
     0.77708682  0.95386216  0.70412393  0.86099417  0.08275804  0.79108316
     0.71019941  0.84205103  0.41685082  0.58186880  0.89492302  0.73067715

   Random integers generated with the Next() method:

     1570755704  1279192549  1747627711  1705700211  1372759203  1849655615
     2046235980  1210843924  1554274149  1307936697  1480207570  1057595022
      337854215   844109928  2028310798  1386669369  2073517658  1291729809
     1537248240  1454198019  1934863511  1640004334  2032620207   534654791

   To demonstrate the proportional distribution, 1,000,000 random
   integers and doubles are grouped into 10 equal value ranges. This
   is the count of values in each range:

           Integer Range     Count        Double Range     Count
           -------------     -----        ------------     -----
            0- 214748363    10,079     0.00000-0.10000    10,148
    214748364- 429496728    29,835     0.10000-0.20000    29,849
    429496729- 644245093    49,753     0.20000-0.30000    49,948
    644245094- 858993458    70,325     0.30000-0.40000    69,656
    858993459-1073741823    89,906     0.40000-0.50000    90,337
   1073741824-1288490187   109,868     0.50000-0.60000   110,225
   1288490188-1503238552   130,388     0.60000-0.70000   129,986
   1503238553-1717986917   149,231     0.70000-0.80000   150,428
   1717986918-1932735282   170,234     0.80000-0.90000   169,610
   1932735283-2147483647   190,381     0.90000-1.00000   189,813
*/
' This derived class converts the uniformly distributed random 
' numbers generated by base.Sample() to another distribution.
Public Class RandomProportional
   Inherits Random

   ' The Sample method generates a distribution proportional to the value 
   ' of the random numbers, in the range [0.0, 1.0].
   Protected Overrides Function Sample() As Double
      Return Math.Sqrt(MyBase.Sample())
   End Function
   
   Public Overrides Function [Next]() As Integer
      Return Sample() * Integer.MaxValue
   End Function 
End Class 

Module RandomSampleDemo
    Sub Main()
        Const rows As Integer = 4, cols As Integer = 6
        Const runCount As Integer = 1000000
        Const distGroupCount As Integer = 10
        Const intGroupSize As Double = _
            (CDbl(Integer.MaxValue) + 1.0) / _
            CDbl(distGroupCount)
            
        Dim randObj As New RandomProportional()
            
        Dim intCounts(distGroupCount) As Integer
        Dim realCounts(distGroupCount) As Integer
        Dim i As Integer, j As Integer 
            
        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & _
            "The derived RandomProportional class overrides " & _ 
            "the Sample method to " & vbCrLf & _
            "generate random numbers in the range " & _ 
            "[0.0, 1.0]. The distribution " & vbCrLf & _
            "of the numbers is proportional to their numeric " & _
            "values. For example, " & vbCrLf & _ 
            "numbers are generated in the vicinity of 0.75 " & _
            "with three times " & vbCrLf & "the " & _
            "probability of those generated near 0.25.")
        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & _
            "Random doubles generated with the NextDouble() " & _ 
            "method:" & vbCrLf)
            
        ' Generate and display [rows * cols] random doubles.
        For i = 0 To rows - 1
            For j = 0 To cols - 1
                Console.Write("{0,12:F8}", randObj.NextDouble())
            Next j
            Console.WriteLine()
        Next i
            
        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & _
            "Random integers generated with the Next() " & _ 
            "method:" & vbCrLf)
            
        ' Generate and display [rows * cols] random integers.
        For i = 0 To rows - 1
            For j = 0 To cols - 1
                Console.Write("{0,12}", randObj.Next())
            Next j
            Console.WriteLine()
        Next i
            
        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & _
            "To demonstrate the proportional distribution, " & _ 
            "{0:N0} random " & vbCrLf & _
            "integers and doubles are grouped into {1} " & _ 
            "equal value ranges. This " & vbCrLf & _
            "is the count of values in each range:" & vbCrLf, _
            runCount, distGroupCount)
        Console.WriteLine("{0,21}{1,10}{2,20}{3,10}", _
            "Integer Range", "Count", "Double Range", "Count")
        Console.WriteLine("{0,21}{1,10}{2,20}{3,10}", _
            "-------------", "-----", "------------", "-----")
            
        ' Generate random integers and doubles, and then count 
        ' them by group.
        For i = 0 To runCount - 1
            intCounts(Fix(CDbl(randObj.Next()) / _
                intGroupSize)) += 1
            realCounts(Fix(randObj.NextDouble() * _
                CDbl(distGroupCount))) += 1
        Next i
            
        ' Display the count of each group.
        For i = 0 To distGroupCount - 1
            Console.WriteLine( _
                "{0,10}-{1,10}{2,10:N0}{3,12:N5}-{4,7:N5}{5,10:N0}", _
                Fix(CDbl(i) * intGroupSize), _
                Fix(CDbl(i + 1) * intGroupSize - 1.0), _
                intCounts(i), _
                CDbl(i) / CDbl(distGroupCount), _
                CDbl(i + 1) / CDbl(distGroupCount), _
                realCounts(i))
        Next i
    End Sub
End Module 
' This example of Random.Sample() generates output similar to the following:
'
'    The derived RandomProportional class overrides the Sample method to
'    generate random numbers in the range [0.0, 1.0]. The distribution
'    of the numbers is proportional to their numeric values. For example,
'    numbers are generated in the vicinity of 0.75 with three times
'    the probability of those generated near 0.25.
'    
'    Random doubles generated with the NextDouble() method:
'    
'      0.28377004  0.75920598  0.33430371  0.66720626  0.97080243  0.27353772
'      0.17787962  0.54618410  0.08145080  0.56286100  0.99002910  0.64898614
'      0.27673277  0.99455281  0.93778966  0.76162002  0.70533771  0.44375798
'      0.55939883  0.87383136  0.66465779  0.77392566  0.42393411  0.82409159
'    
'    Random integers generated with the Next() method:
'    
'      1364479914  1230312341  1657373812  1526222928   988564704   700078020
'      1801013705  1541517421  1146312560   338318389  1558995993  2027260859
'       884520932  1320070465   570200106  1027684711   943035246  2088689333
'       630809089  1705728475  2140787648  2097858166  1863010875  1386804198
'    
'    To demonstrate the proportional distribution, 1,000,000 random
'    integers and doubles are grouped into 10 equal value ranges. This
'    is the count of values in each range:
'    
'            Integer Range     Count        Double Range     Count
'            -------------     -----        ------------     -----
'             0- 214748363     9,892     0.00000-0.10000     9,928
'     214748364- 429496728    30,341     0.10000-0.20000    30,101
'     429496729- 644245093    49,958     0.20000-0.30000    49,964
'     644245094- 858993458    70,099     0.30000-0.40000    70,213
'     858993459-1073741823    90,801     0.40000-0.50000    89,553
'    1073741824-1288490187   109,699     0.50000-0.60000   109,427
'    1288490188-1503238552   129,438     0.60000-0.70000   130,339
'    1503238553-1717986917   149,886     0.70000-0.80000   150,000
'    1717986918-1932735282   170,338     0.80000-0.90000   170,128
'    1932735283-2147483647   189,548     0.90000-1.00000   190,347

備註

Random.Next 產生值範圍從0到小於的亂數字 Int32.MaxValueRandom.Next generates a random number whose value ranges from 0 to less than Int32.MaxValue. 若要產生值範圍從0到某個其他正數的亂數字,請使用方法多載 Random.Next(Int32)To generate a random number whose value ranges from 0 to some other positive number, use the Random.Next(Int32) method overload. 若要在不同的範圍內產生亂數,請使用 Random.Next(Int32, Int32) 方法多載。To generate a random number within a different range, use the Random.Next(Int32, Int32) method overload.

給繼承者的注意事項

從 .NET Framework 版本2.0 開始,如果您從衍生類別並覆 RandomSample() 方法,則 Sample() 不會在方法的基類執行呼叫中使用方法的衍生類別實作為呼叫所提供的散發 Next()Starting with the .NET Framework version 2.0, if you derive a class from Random and override the Sample() method, the distribution provided by the derived class implementation of the Sample() method is not used in calls to the base class implementation of the Next() method. 相反地,會使用基類所傳回的統一散發 RandomInstead, the uniform distribution returned by the base Random class is used. 此行為可改善類別的整體效能 RandomThis behavior improves the overall performance of the Random class. 若要修改此行為以呼叫 Sample() 衍生類別中的方法,您也必須覆寫 Next() 方法。To modify this behavior to call the Sample() method in the derived class, you must also override the Next() method.

另請參閱

適用於

Next(Int32)

傳回小於指定之最大值的非負值隨機整數。Returns a non-negative random integer that is less than the specified maximum.

public:
 virtual int Next(int maxValue);
public virtual int Next (int maxValue);
abstract member Next : int -> int
override this.Next : int -> int
Public Overridable Function Next (maxValue As Integer) As Integer

參數

maxValue
Int32

要產生之亂數的獨佔上限。The exclusive upper bound of the random number to be generated. maxValue 必須大於或等於 0。maxValue must be greater than or equal to 0.

傳回

Int32

32 位元帶正負號的整數大於或等於 0,並且小於 maxValue;也就是說,傳回值的範圍通常包含 0 但不包含 maxValueA 32-bit signed integer that is greater than or equal to 0, and less than maxValue; that is, the range of return values ordinarily includes 0 but not maxValue. 然而,如果 maxValue 等於 0,則會傳回 maxValueHowever, if maxValue equals 0, maxValue is returned.

例外狀況

maxValue 小於 0。maxValue is less than 0.

範例

下列範例會使用方法的各種多載來產生隨機整數 NextThe following example generates random integers with various overloads of the Next method.

// Example of the Random::Next() methods.
using namespace System;

// Generate random numbers with no bounds specified.
void NoBoundsRandoms(int seed)
{
   Console::WriteLine("\nRandom object, seed = {0}, no bounds:", seed);
   Random^ randObj = gcnew Random(seed);
   
   // Generate six random integers from 0 to int.MaxValue.
   for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
      Console::Write("{0,11} ", randObj->Next());
   Console::WriteLine();
}


// Generate random numbers with an upper bound specified.
void UpperBoundRandoms(int seed, int upper)
{
   Console::WriteLine("\nRandom object, seed = {0}, upper bound = {1}:", seed, upper);
   Random^ randObj = gcnew Random(seed);
   
   // Generate six random integers from 0 to the upper bound.
   for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
      Console::Write("{0,11} ", randObj->Next(upper));
   Console::WriteLine();
}


// Generate random numbers with both bounds specified.
void BothBoundsRandoms(int seed, int lower, int upper)
{
   Console::WriteLine("\nRandom object, seed = {0}, lower = {1}, upper = {2}:", seed, lower, upper);
   Random^ randObj = gcnew Random(seed);
   
   // Generate six random integers from the lower to 
   // upper bounds.
   for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
      Console::Write("{0,11} ", randObj->Next(lower, upper));
   Console::WriteLine();
}

int main()
{
   Console::WriteLine("This example of the Random::Next() methods\n"
   "generates the following output.\n");
   Console::WriteLine("Create Random objects all with the same seed and "
   "generate\nsequences of numbers with different "
   "bounds. Note the effect\nthat the various "
   "combinations of bounds have on the sequences.");
   NoBoundsRandoms(234);
   UpperBoundRandoms(234, Int32::MaxValue);
   UpperBoundRandoms(234, 2000000000);
   UpperBoundRandoms(234, 200000000);
   BothBoundsRandoms(234, 0, Int32::MaxValue);
   BothBoundsRandoms(234, Int32::MinValue, Int32::MaxValue);
   BothBoundsRandoms(234, -2000000000, 2000000000);
   BothBoundsRandoms(234, -200000000, 200000000);
   BothBoundsRandoms(234, -2000, 2000);
}

/*
This example of the Random::Next() methods
generates the following output.

Create Random objects all with the same seed and generate
sequences of numbers with different bounds. Note the effect
that the various combinations of bounds have on the sequences.

Random object, seed = 234, no bounds:
 2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588

Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 2147483647:
 2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588

Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 2000000000:
 1947533580   954563751   662424922  1007613896  1707392518   101943116

Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 200000000:
  194753358    95456375    66242492   100761389   170739251    10194311

Random object, seed = 234, lower = 0, upper = 2147483647:
 2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2147483648, upper = 2147483647:
 2034812868   -97573602  -724936960    16350718  1519113864 -1928562472

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2000000000, upper = 2000000000:
 1895067160   -90872498  -675150156    15227793  1414785036 -1796113767

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -200000000, upper = 200000000:
  189506716    -9087250   -67515016     1522779   141478503  -179611377

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2000, upper = 2000:
       1895         -91        -676          15        1414       -1797
*/
Console.WriteLine(
    "This example of the Random.Next() methods\n" +
    "generates the following output.\n");
Console.WriteLine(
    "Create Random objects all with the same seed and " +
    "generate\nsequences of numbers with different " +
    "bounds. Note the effect\nthat the various " +
    "combinations of bounds have on the sequences.");

NoBoundsRandoms(234);

UpperBoundRandoms(234, Int32.MaxValue);
UpperBoundRandoms(234, 2000000000);
UpperBoundRandoms(234, 200000000);

BothBoundsRandoms(234, 0, Int32.MaxValue);
BothBoundsRandoms(234, Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue);
BothBoundsRandoms(234, -2000000000, 2000000000);
BothBoundsRandoms(234, -200000000, 200000000);
BothBoundsRandoms(234, -2000, 2000);

// Generate random numbers with no bounds specified.
void NoBoundsRandoms(int seed)
{
    Console.WriteLine(
        "\nRandom object, seed = {0}, no bounds:", seed);
    Random randObj = new Random(seed);

    // Generate six random integers from 0 to int.MaxValue.
    for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
        Console.Write("{0,11} ", randObj.Next());
    Console.WriteLine();
}

// Generate random numbers with an upper bound specified.
void UpperBoundRandoms(int seed, int upper)
{
    Console.WriteLine(
        "\nRandom object, seed = {0}, upper bound = {1}:",
        seed, upper);
    Random randObj = new Random(seed);

    // Generate six random integers from 0 to the upper bound.
    for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
        Console.Write("{0,11} ", randObj.Next(upper));
    Console.WriteLine();
}

// Generate random numbers with both bounds specified.
void BothBoundsRandoms(int seed, int lower, int upper)
{
    Console.WriteLine(
        "\nRandom object, seed = {0}, lower = {1}, " +
        "upper = {2}:", seed, lower, upper);
    Random randObj = new Random(seed);

    // Generate six random integers from the lower to
    // upper bounds.
    for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
        Console.Write("{0,11} ",
            randObj.Next(lower, upper));
    Console.WriteLine();
}

/*
This example of the Random.Next() methods
generates the following output.

Create Random objects all with the same seed and generate
sequences of numbers with different bounds. Note the effect
that the various combinations of bounds have on the sequences.

Random object, seed = 234, no bounds:
2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588

Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 2147483647:
2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588

Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 2000000000:
1947533580   954563751   662424922  1007613896  1707392518   101943116

Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 200000000:
194753358    95456375    66242492   100761389   170739251    10194311

Random object, seed = 234, lower = 0, upper = 2147483647:
2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2147483648, upper = 2147483647:
2034812868   -97573602  -724936960    16350718  1519113864 -1928562472

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2000000000, upper = 2000000000:
1895067160   -90872498  -675150156    15227793  1414785036 -1796113767

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -200000000, upper = 200000000:
189506716    -9087250   -67515016     1522779   141478503  -179611377

Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2000, upper = 2000:
    1895         -91        -676          15        1414       -1797
*/
' Example of the Random.Next() methods.
Module RandomNextDemo

    ' Generate random numbers with no bounds specified.
    Sub NoBoundsRandoms(seed As Integer)

        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf &
            "Random object, seed = {0}, no bounds:", seed)
        Dim randObj As New Random(seed)

        ' Generate six random integers from 0 to int.MaxValue.
        Dim j As Integer
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write("{0,11} ", randObj.Next())
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub

    ' Generate random numbers with an upper bound specified.
    Sub UpperBoundRandoms(seed As Integer, upper As Integer)

        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf &
            "Random object, seed = {0}, upper bound = {1}:",
            seed, upper)
        Dim randObj As New Random(seed)

        ' Generate six random integers from 0 to the upper bound.
        Dim j As Integer
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write("{0,11} ", randObj.Next(upper))
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub

    ' Generate random numbers with both bounds specified.
    Sub BothBoundsRandoms(seed As Integer, lower As Integer, upper As Integer)

        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf &
            "Random object, seed = {0}, lower = {1}, " &
            "upper = {2}:", seed, lower, upper)
        Dim randObj As New Random(seed)

        ' Generate six random integers from the lower to 
        ' upper bounds.
        Dim j As Integer
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write("{0,11} ",
                randObj.Next(lower, upper))
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub

    Sub Main()
        Console.WriteLine(
            "This example of the Random.Next() methods" &
            vbCrLf & "generates the following output." & vbCrLf)
        Console.WriteLine(
            "Create Random objects all with the same seed " &
            "and generate" & vbCrLf & "sequences of numbers " &
            "with different bounds. Note the effect " & vbCrLf &
            "that the various combinations " &
            "of bounds have on the sequences.")

        NoBoundsRandoms(234)

        UpperBoundRandoms(234, Int32.MaxValue)
        UpperBoundRandoms(234, 2000000000)
        UpperBoundRandoms(234, 200000000)

        BothBoundsRandoms(234, 0, Int32.MaxValue)
        BothBoundsRandoms(234, Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue)
        BothBoundsRandoms(234, -2000000000, 2000000000)
        BothBoundsRandoms(234, -200000000, 200000000)
        BothBoundsRandoms(234, -2000, 2000)
    End Sub
End Module

' This example of the Random.Next() methods
' generates the following output.
' 
' Create Random objects all with the same seed and generate
' sequences of numbers with different bounds. Note the effect
' that the various combinations of bounds have on the sequences.
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, no bounds:
'  2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 2147483647:
'  2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 2000000000:
'  1947533580   954563751   662424922  1007613896  1707392518   101943116
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, upper bound = 200000000:
'   194753358    95456375    66242492   100761389   170739251    10194311
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, lower = 0, upper = 2147483647:
'  2091148258  1024955023   711273344  1081917183  1833298756   109460588
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2147483648, upper = 2147483647:
'  2034812868   -97573602  -724936960    16350718  1519113864 -1928562472
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2000000000, upper = 2000000000:
'  1895067160   -90872498  -675150156    15227793  1414785036 -1796113767
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, lower = -200000000, upper = 200000000:
'   189506716    -9087250   -67515016     1522779   141478503  -179611377
' 
' Random object, seed = 234, lower = -2000, upper = 2000:
'        1895         -91        -676          15        1414       -1797

下列範例會產生隨機整數,它會使用它做為索引,以從陣列中取出字串值。The following example generates a random integer that it uses as an index to retrieve a string value from an array. 因為陣列的最高索引小於其長度,所以 Array.Length 會提供屬性的值做為 maxValue 參數。Because the highest index of the array is one less than its length, the value of the Array.Length property is supplied as a the maxValue parameter.

using namespace System;

void main()
{
   Random^ rnd = gcnew Random();
   array<String^>^ malePetNames = { "Rufus", "Bear", "Dakota", "Fido",
                                    "Vanya", "Samuel", "Koani", "Volodya",
                                    "Prince", "Yiska" };
   array<String^>^ femalePetNames = { "Maggie", "Penny", "Saya", "Princess",
                                      "Abby", "Laila", "Sadie", "Olivia",
                                      "Starlight", "Talla" };
      
   // Generate random indexes for pet names.
   int mIndex = rnd->Next(malePetNames->Length);
   int fIndex = rnd->Next(femalePetNames->Length);
      
   // Display the result.
   Console::WriteLine("Suggested pet name of the day: ");
   Console::WriteLine("   For a male:     {0}", malePetNames[mIndex]);
   Console::WriteLine("   For a female:   {0}", femalePetNames[fIndex]);
}
// The example displays output similar to the following:
//       Suggested pet name of the day:
//          For a male:     Koani
//          For a female:   Maggie
Random rnd = new Random();
string[] malePetNames = { "Rufus", "Bear", "Dakota", "Fido",
                          "Vanya", "Samuel", "Koani", "Volodya",
                          "Prince", "Yiska" };
string[] femalePetNames = { "Maggie", "Penny", "Saya", "Princess",
                            "Abby", "Laila", "Sadie", "Olivia",
                            "Starlight", "Talla" };

// Generate random indexes for pet names.
int mIndex = rnd.Next(malePetNames.Length);
int fIndex = rnd.Next(femalePetNames.Length);

// Display the result.
Console.WriteLine("Suggested pet name of the day: ");
Console.WriteLine("   For a male:     {0}", malePetNames[mIndex]);
Console.WriteLine("   For a female:   {0}", femalePetNames[fIndex]);

// The example displays output similar to the following:
//       Suggested pet name of the day:
//          For a male:     Koani
//          For a female:   Maggie
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim rnd As New Random()
      Dim malePetNames() As String = { "Rufus", "Bear", "Dakota", "Fido", 
                                    "Vanya", "Samuel", "Koani", "Volodya", 
                                    "Prince", "Yiska" }
      Dim femalePetNames() As String = { "Maggie", "Penny", "Saya", "Princess", 
                                         "Abby", "Laila", "Sadie", "Olivia", 
                                         "Starlight", "Talla" }                                      
      
      ' Generate random indexes for pet names.
      Dim mIndex As Integer = rnd.Next(malePetNames.Length)
      Dim fIndex As Integer = rnd.Next(femalePetNames.Length)
      
      ' Display the result.
      Console.WriteLine("Suggested pet name of the day: ")
      Console.WriteLine("   For a male:     {0}", malePetNames(mIndex))
      Console.WriteLine("   For a female:   {0}", femalePetNames(fIndex))
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output similar to the following:
'       Suggested pet name of the day:
'          For a male:     Koani
'          For a female:   Maggie

備註

多載 Next(Int32) 會傳回範圍從0到-1 的隨機整數 maxValueThe Next(Int32) overload returns random integers that range from 0 to maxValue - 1. 但是,如果 maxValue 是0,則方法會傳回0。However, if maxValue is 0, the method returns 0.

另請參閱

適用於

Next(Int32, Int32)

傳回指定範圍內的隨機整數。Returns a random integer that is within a specified range.

public:
 virtual int Next(int minValue, int maxValue);
public virtual int Next (int minValue, int maxValue);
abstract member Next : int * int -> int
override this.Next : int * int -> int
Public Overridable Function Next (minValue As Integer, maxValue As Integer) As Integer

參數

minValue
Int32

傳回亂數的內含下限 (Inclusive Lower Bound)。The inclusive lower bound of the random number returned.

maxValue
Int32

傳回亂數的獨佔上限。The exclusive upper bound of the random number returned. maxValue 必須大於或等於 minValuemaxValue must be greater than or equal to minValue.

傳回

Int32

32 位元帶正負號的整數大於或等於 minValue,並且小於 maxValue;也就是說,傳回值的範圍包含 minValue 但不包含 maxValueA 32-bit signed integer greater than or equal to minValue and less than maxValue; that is, the range of return values includes minValue but not maxValue. 如果 minValue 等於 maxValue,會傳回 minValueIf minValue equals maxValue, minValue is returned.

例外狀況

minValue 大於 maxValueminValue is greater than maxValue.

範例

下列範例會使用 Random.Next(Int32, Int32) 方法,以三個不同的範圍來產生隨機整數。The following example uses the Random.Next(Int32, Int32) method to generate random integers with three distinct ranges. 請注意,此範例的確切輸出取決於傳遞給類別函式的系統提供的種子值 RandomNote that the exact output from the example depends on the system-supplied seed value passed to the Random class constructor.

using namespace System;

void main()
{
   Random^ rnd = gcnew Random();

   Console::WriteLine("\n20 random integers from -100 to 100:");
   for (int ctr = 1; ctr <= 20; ctr++) 
   {
      Console::Write("{0,6}", rnd->Next(-100, 101));
      if (ctr % 5 == 0) Console::WriteLine();
   }
   
   Console::WriteLine("\n20 random integers from 1000 to 10000:");      
   for (int ctr = 1; ctr <= 20; ctr++) 
   {
      Console::Write("{0,8}", rnd->Next(1000, 10001));
      if (ctr % 5 == 0) Console::WriteLine();
   }
   
   Console::WriteLine("\n20 random integers from 1 to 10:");
   for (int ctr = 1; ctr <= 20; ctr++) 
   {
      Console::Write("{0,6}", rnd->Next(1, 11));
      if (ctr % 5 == 0) Console::WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays output similar to the following:
//       20 random integers from -100 to 100:
//           65   -95   -10    90   -35
//          -83   -16   -15   -19    41
//          -67   -93    40    12    62
//          -80   -95    67   -81   -21
//       
//       20 random integers from 1000 to 10000:
//           4857    9897    4405    6606    1277
//           9238    9113    5151    8710    1187
//           2728    9746    1719    3837    3736
//           8191    6819    4923    2416    3028
//       
//       20 random integers from 1 to 10:
//            9     8     5     9     9
//            9     1     2     3     8
//            1     4     8    10     5
//            9     7     9    10     5
Random rnd = new Random();

Console.WriteLine("\n20 random integers from -100 to 100:");
for (int ctr = 1; ctr <= 20; ctr++)
{
   Console.Write("{0,6}", rnd.Next(-100, 101));
   if (ctr % 5 == 0) Console.WriteLine();
}

Console.WriteLine("\n20 random integers from 1000 to 10000:");
for (int ctr = 1; ctr <= 20; ctr++)
{
   Console.Write("{0,8}", rnd.Next(1000, 10001));
   if (ctr % 5 == 0) Console.WriteLine();
}

Console.WriteLine("\n20 random integers from 1 to 10:");
for (int ctr = 1; ctr <= 20; ctr++)
{
   Console.Write("{0,6}", rnd.Next(1, 11));
   if (ctr % 5 == 0) Console.WriteLine();
}

// The example displays output similar to the following:
//       20 random integers from -100 to 100:
//           65   -95   -10    90   -35
//          -83   -16   -15   -19    41
//          -67   -93    40    12    62
//          -80   -95    67   -81   -21
//
//       20 random integers from 1000 to 10000:
//           4857    9897    4405    6606    1277
//           9238    9113    5151    8710    1187
//           2728    9746    1719    3837    3736
//           8191    6819    4923    2416    3028
//
//       20 random integers from 1 to 10:
//            9     8     5     9     9
//            9     1     2     3     8
//            1     4     8    10     5
//            9     7     9    10     5
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim rnd As New Random()

      Console.WriteLine("20 random integers from -100 to 100:")
      For ctr As Integer = 1 To 20
         Console.Write("{0,6}", rnd.Next(-100, 101))
         If ctr Mod 5 = 0 Then Console.WriteLine()
      Next
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      Console.WriteLine("20 random integers from 1000 to 10000:")      
      For ctr As Integer = 1 To 20
         Console.Write("{0,8}", rnd.Next(1000, 10001))
         If ctr Mod 5 = 0 Then Console.WriteLine()
      Next
      Console.WriteLine()
      
      Console.WriteLine("20 random integers from 1 to 10:")
      For ctr As Integer = 1 To 20
         Console.Write("{0,6}", rnd.Next(1, 11))
         If ctr Mod 5 = 0 Then Console.WriteLine()
      Next
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output similar to the following:
'       20 random integers from -100 to 100:
'           65   -95   -10    90   -35
'          -83   -16   -15   -19    41
'          -67   -93    40    12    62
'          -80   -95    67   -81   -21
'       
'       20 random integers from 1000 to 10000:
'           4857    9897    4405    6606    1277
'           9238    9113    5151    8710    1187
'           2728    9746    1719    3837    3736
'           8191    6819    4923    2416    3028
'       
'       20 random integers from 1 to 10:
'            9     8     5     9     9
'            9     1     2     3     8
'            1     4     8    10     5
'            9     7     9    10     5

下列範例會產生隨機整數,它會使用它做為索引,以從陣列中取出字串值。The following example generates a random integer that it uses as an index to retrieve a string value from an array. 因為陣列的最高索引小於其長度,所以 Array.Length 會提供屬性的值做為 maxValue 參數。Because the highest index of the array is one less than its length, the value of the Array.Length property is supplied as a the maxValue parameter.

using namespace System;

void main()
{
   Random^ rnd = gcnew Random();
   array<String^>^ malePetNames = { "Rufus", "Bear", "Dakota", "Fido",
                                    "Vanya", "Samuel", "Koani", "Volodya",
                                    "Prince", "Yiska" };
   array<String^>^ femalePetNames = { "Maggie", "Penny", "Saya", "Princess",
                                      "Abby", "Laila", "Sadie", "Olivia",
                                      "Starlight", "Talla" };
   
   // Generate random indexes for pet names.
   int mIndex = rnd->Next(0, malePetNames->Length);
   int fIndex = rnd->Next(0, femalePetNames->Length);
   
   // Display the result.
   Console::WriteLine("Suggested pet name of the day: ");
   Console::WriteLine("   For a male:     {0}", malePetNames[mIndex]);
   Console::WriteLine("   For a female:   {0}", femalePetNames[fIndex]);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Suggested pet name of the day:
//          For a male:     Koani
//          For a female:   Maggie
Random rnd = new Random();
string[] malePetNames = { "Rufus", "Bear", "Dakota", "Fido",
                          "Vanya", "Samuel", "Koani", "Volodya",
                          "Prince", "Yiska" };
string[] femalePetNames = { "Maggie", "Penny", "Saya", "Princess",
                            "Abby", "Laila", "Sadie", "Olivia",
                            "Starlight", "Talla" };

// Generate random indexes for pet names.
int mIndex = rnd.Next(0, malePetNames.Length);
int fIndex = rnd.Next(0, femalePetNames.Length);

// Display the result.
Console.WriteLine("Suggested pet name of the day: ");
Console.WriteLine("   For a male:     {0}", malePetNames[mIndex]);
Console.WriteLine("   For a female:   {0}", femalePetNames[fIndex]);

// The example displays the following output:
//       Suggested pet name of the day:
//          For a male:     Koani
//          For a female:   Maggie
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim rnd As New Random()
      Dim malePetNames() As String = { "Rufus", "Bear", "Dakota", "Fido", 
                                    "Vanya", "Samuel", "Koani", "Volodya", 
                                    "Prince", "Yiska" }
      Dim femalePetNames() As String = { "Maggie", "Penny", "Saya", "Princess", 
                                         "Abby", "Laila", "Sadie", "Olivia", 
                                         "Starlight", "Talla" }                                      
      
      ' Generate random indexes for pet names.
      Dim mIndex As Integer = rnd.Next(0, malePetNames.Length)
      Dim fIndex As Integer = rnd.Next(0, femalePetNames.Length)
      
      ' Display the result.
      Console.WriteLine("Suggested pet name of the day: ")
      Console.WriteLine("   For a male:     {0}", malePetNames(mIndex))
      Console.WriteLine("   For a female:   {0}", femalePetNames(fIndex))
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'       Suggested pet name of the day:
'          For a male:     Koani
'          For a female:   Maggie

備註

多載 Next(Int32, Int32) 會傳回範圍從 minValue 到-1 的隨機整數 maxValueThe Next(Int32, Int32) overload returns random integers that range from minValue to maxValue - 1. 但是,如果 maxValue 等於 minValue ,則方法會傳回 minValueHowever, if maxValue equals minValue, the method returns minValue.

不同于方法的其他多載 Next ,它只會傳回非負數值,這個方法可以傳回負的隨機整數。Unlike the other overloads of the Next method, which return only non-negative values, this method can return a negative random integer.

給繼承者的注意事項

從 .NET Framework 版本2.0 開始,如果您從衍生類別並覆 RandomSample() 方法,則 Sample() Next(Int32, Int32) 如果和參數之間的差異大於,則不會在方法多載的基類執行呼叫中使用此方法所提供的散發 minValue maxValue MaxValueStarting with the .NET Framework version 2.0, if you derive a class from Random and override the Sample() method, the distribution provided by the derived class implementation of the Sample() method is not used in calls to the base class implementation of the Next(Int32, Int32) method overload if the difference between the minValue and maxValue parameters is greater than MaxValue. 相反地,會使用基類所傳回的統一散發 RandomInstead, the uniform distribution returned by the base Random class is used. 此行為可改善類別的整體效能 RandomThis behavior improves the overall performance of the Random class. 若要修改此行為以呼叫 Sample() 衍生類別中的方法,您也必須覆寫 Next(Int32, Int32) 方法多載。To modify this behavior to call the Sample() method in the derived class, you must also override the Next(Int32, Int32) method overload.

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