Power BI 的客戶獲利率範例:導覽Customer Profitability sample for Power BI: Take a tour

瀏覽客戶獲利率範例概觀Overview of the Customer Profitability sample

「客戶獲利率範例」內容套件包含製作行銷資料的公司儀表板、報表和資料集。The “Customer Profitability Sample” content pack contains a dashboard, report, and dataset for a company that manufactures marketing materials. CFO 建立這個儀表板是為了查看轄下 5 個業務單位經理 (或主管)、產品、客戶和毛利 (GM) 的關鍵度量。This dashboard was created by a CFO to see key metrics about her 5 business unit managers (aka executives), products, customers, and gross margins (GM). 她一眼即可看出影響獲利率的因素。At a glance she can see what factors are impacting profitability.

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此範例是系列中的一部分,該系列說明您可如何使用 Power BI 的商業導向資料、報表及儀表板。This sample is part of a series that illustrates how you can use Power BI with business-oriented data, reports and dashboards. 此為來自 obviEnce 的匿名真實資料 (www.obvience.com)。This is real data from obviEnce (www.obvience.com) that has been anonymized. 資料會以數種格式提供:內容套件/應用程式、Excel 活頁簿,或 .pbix Power BI Desktop 檔案。The data is available in several formats: content pack/app, Excel workbook, or .pbix Power BI Desktop file. 請參閱範例資料集See Sample datasets.


想要跟著做嗎?Want to follow along? 本教學課程使用 Power BI 服務和「客戶獲利率」範例內容套件。This tutorial uses Power BI service and the "Customer Profitability" sample content pack. 因為報表的使用體驗皆非常類似,您也可以示使用 Power BI Desktop 和範例 PBIX 檔案來進行教學課程。Because the report experiences are so similar, you can also follow along using Power BI Desktop and the sample PBIX file. 下方提供連線到內容套件和 PBIX 檔案的指示。Instructions for connecting to the content pack and the PBIX file are below.

取得此範例的內容套件Get the content pack for this sample

  1. 開啟 Power BI 服務 (app.powerbi.com) 並登入。Open the Power BI service (app.powerbi.com) and log in.
  2. 在左下角選取 [取得資料]。In the bottom left corner select Get data.

  3. 在顯示的 [取得資料] 頁面上,選取 [範例]。On the Get Data page that appears, select the Samples icon.

  4. 選取 [客戶獲利率範例],然後選擇 [連線]。Select the Customer Profitability Sample, then choose Connect.


  5. Power BI 會匯入內容套件,並將新的儀表板、報表及資料集新增到您目前的工作區。Power BI imports the content pack and adds a new dashboard, report, and dataset to your current workspace. 新的內容會以黃色星號標示。The new content is marked with a yellow asterisk. 使用範例讓 Power BI 進行測試回合。Use the samples to take Power BI for a test run.


取得此範例的 .pbix 檔案Get the .pbix file for this sample

或者,您可以下載此範例為 .pbix 檔案,其設計目的是要用於 Power BI Desktop。Alternatively, you can download the sample as a .pbix file, which is designed for use with Power BI Desktop. 客戶獲利率範例Customer Profitability Sample

取得此範例的 Excel 活頁簿Get the Excel workbook for this sample

如果您想要深入了解此範例的資料來源,我們也有以 (Excel 活頁簿) 的格式提供它。If you want to dig into the datasource for this sample, it's also available as an (Excel workbook). 活頁簿包含的 Power View 工作表可供您檢視及修改。The workbook contains Power View sheets that you can view and modify. 若要查看未經處理的資料,請選取 [Power Pivot] > [管理]。To see the raw data, select Power Pivot > Manage.

此範例是系列中的一部分,該系列說明您可如何使用 Power BI 的商業導向資料、報表及儀表板。This sample is part of a series that illustrates how you can use Power BI with business-oriented data, reports and dashboards. 此為來自 obviEnce 的匿名真實資料 (www.obvience.com)。This is real data from obviEnce (www.obvience.com) that has been anonymized. 資料會以數種格式提供:內容套件/應用程式、Excel 活頁簿,或 .pbix Power BI Desktop 檔案。The data is available in several formats: content pack/app, Excel workbook, or .pbix Power BI Desktop file. 請參閱範例資料集See Sample datasets.


想要跟著做嗎?Want to follow along? Power BI 服務中,前往 [取得資料] > [範例] > [客戶獲利率] > [連線],以取得自己的範例複本。In the Power BI service, go to Get Data > Samples > Customer Profitability > Connect to get your own copy of the sample.


儀表板告訴我們什麼?What is our dashboard telling us?

在 [我的工作區] 下,尋找客戶獲利率範例的儀表板:Under My Workspace, find the dashboard for the Customer Profitability sample:


全公司的儀表板圖格Company-wide dashboard tiles

  1. 開啟 Power BI 服務中的儀表板。Open the dashboard in Power BI service. 該儀表板磚可讓 CFO 看到對她而言很重要的高階公司度量。The dashboard tiles give our CFO a view of the high-level company metrics important to her. 當她看到值得關注的項目時,她可以選取圖格深入探究資料。When she sees something interesting, she can select a tile to dig into the data.

  2. 檢閱儀表板左側的磚。Review the tiles on the left side of the dashboard.

  • 本公司的毛利為 42.5%。Our company gross margin is 42.5%.
  • 我們有 80 位客戶。We have 80 customers.
  • 我們銷售 5 種不同的產品。We sell 5 different products.
  • 我們對預算的收益差異 % 在二月為最低,但在三月來到最高。We had our lowest revenue variance% to budget in February, followed by our highest in March.
  • 我們的營收大部分來自東部和北部地區。Most of our revenue comes from the East and North regions. 毛利從未超過預算,ER-0 和 MA-0 則需要進一步調查。Gross margin has never exceeded budget, with ER-0 and MA-0 requiring some further investigation.
  • 年度總收益接近預算。Total revenue for the year is close to budget.

經理特定儀表板圖格Manager-specific dashboard tiles

儀表板右側的磚能提供小組計分卡。The tiles on the right side of the dashboard provide a team scorecard. CFO 需要追蹤其轄下經理,而這些圖格能讓她使用 GM% 全面掌握收益狀況。The CFO needs to keep track of her managers and these tiles give her a high level overview of profit – using GM%. 如果任一經理的 GM% 趨勢不盡人意,她就可以進一步調查。If the GM% trend is unexpected for any manager, then she can investigate further.

  • 除了 Carlos 以外的所有主管皆已超越其銷售目標。All executives, except Carlos, have already exceeded their target sales. 但 Carlos 的實際銷售額是最高的。But Carlos' actual sales are the highest.
  • Annelie 的 GM% 最低,但我們可以看到它三月之後穩定增加。Annelie’s GM% is the lowest, but we see a steady increase since March.
  • 相反地,Valery 的 GM% 卻巨幅下滑。Valery, on the other hand, has seen her GM% drop significantly.
  • 而 Andrew 這一年的變動劇烈。And Andrew had a volatile year.

探索儀表板的基礎資料Explore the dashboard's underlying data

儀表板具有連結到報表和 Excel 活頁簿的磚。This dashboard has tiles that link to a report and to an Excel workbook.

開啟 Excel 線上資料來源Open the Excel Online data source

此儀表板上的兩個磚,[Target vs Actual] (目標與實際) 和 [Year Over Year Revenue Growth] (逐年營收成長),都是從 Excel 活頁簿釘選而來。Two tiles on this dashboard, "Target vs Actual" and "Year Over Year Revenue Growth" were pinned from an Excel workbook. 當您選取其中任何一個磚時,Power BI 隨即開啟該磚的資料來源 (在此範例中為 Excel Online)。So when you select either of these tiles, Power BI opens the data source -- in this case, Excel Online.

  1. 選取從 Excel 釘選的其中一個磚。Select either of the tiles that were pinned from Excel. Excel Online 會在 Power BI 服務內開啟。Excel Online opens within Power BI service.
  2. 注意到該活頁簿的資料分散於 3 個索引標籤中。Notice that the workbook has 3 tabs's worth of data. 開啟 [Revenue] (營收)。Open "Revenue".
  3. 我們來看看 Carlos 還未達到其目標的原因。Let's look into why Carlos hasn't hit his target yet.
    a.a. 使用 [Executive] (主管) 滑桿,選取 [Carlos Grilo]。From the "Executive" slider, select Carlos Grilo.
    b.b. 從第一個樞紐分析表可看出 Carlos 銷售最多的產品 Primus,其營收與去年相比下降了 152%。The first PivotTable tells us that Carlos' revenue for his top Product, Primus, is down 152% from last year. 且 [YoY] (逐年) 圖表顯示他在大多數月份中的預算都低於標準。And the YoY chart shows that for most months he's below budget.

  4. 繼續探索,如果發現感興趣的項目,選取右上角的 [釘選] 將它釘選到儀表板Continue exploring, and if you find something interesting, select Pin from the upper-right corner to pin it to a dashboard.

  5. 使用瀏覽器的上一頁箭頭來返回儀表板。Use your browser's back arrow to return to the dashboard.

開啟基礎 Power BI 報表Open the underlying Power BI report

「客戶獲利率」範本儀表板上大部分的磚,都是從基礎「客戶獲利率」範本報表中釘選而來。The majority of the tiles on the Customer Profitability sample dashboard were pinned from the underlying Customer Profitability sample report.

  1. 選取其中一個磚,以在 [閱讀檢視] 中開啟該報表。Select one of these tiles to open the report in Reading view.

  2. 報表有 3 個頁面。The report has 3 pages. 報表底部的每個索引標籤都代表一個頁面。Each tab at the bottom of the report represents a page.

    • 「小組計分卡」著重於 5 位管理員的效能和他們的「客戶個資清冊」。"Team Scorecard" focuses on the performance of the 5 managers and their "books of business."
    • 「產業利潤分析」提供一種方法,用以分析相較於整個產業現況的我方獲利率。"Industry Margin Analysis" provides a way to analyze our profitability compared to what's going on in our entire industry.
    • 「主管計分卡」提供可用 Cortana 檢視的格式化各主管檢視。"Executive Scorecard" provides a view of each of our managers formatted for viewing in Cortana.

[小組計分卡] 頁面Team Scorecard page

讓我們仔細觀察兩個小組成員,看看有什麼發現。Let’s look at two of the team members in detail and see what insights can be gained. 在左側的交叉分析篩選器中選取 Andrew 的名字來篩選報表頁面,只顯示與他有關的資料。In the slicer on the left, select Andrew's name to filter the report page to display only data about Andrew.

  • 如需快速查看 KPI,請查看 Andrew 的營收狀態:他的狀態為綠色。For a quick KPI, look at Andrew’s Revenue Status - he is green. 他的業績很好。He’s performing well.
  • 「按月對預算的營收差異 %」區域圖顯示,除了二月份下跌,Andrew 整年的表現都很不錯。The “Revenue Var % to Budget by Month” Area chart shows that except for a dip in February, Andrew is doing pretty well overall. 他負責的區域在東部,手上有 49 位客戶和 5 項產品 (共 7 項)。His dominant region is East and he handles 49 customers and 5 (out of 7) products. 他的 GM% 不是最高或最低。His GM% isn’t the highest or lowest.
  • 「總稅收和按月對預算的營收差異 %」顯示平穩甚至有獲利。但是當您按一下區域樹狀結構圖 [中部] 的方塊篩選資料時,您會發現 Andrew 只有三月份在印第安納州有營收。The “RevenueTY and Revenue Var % to Budget by Month” shows a steady even profit story.But when you filter by clicking on the square for Central in the region treemap, you discover that Andrew has revenue only in March and only in Indiana. 這是故意為之,還是有什麼需要一探究竟嗎?Is this intentional or is this something that needs looking into?

現在來看看 Valery。Now on to Valery. 在交叉分析篩選器中,選取 Valery 的名字來篩選報表頁面,只顯示與她有關的資料。In the slicer, select Valery’s name to filter the report page to display only data about her.

  • 請注意 [總稅收狀態] 的紅色 KPI。Notice the red KPI for RevenueTY Status. 這肯定需要進一步探查。This definitely needs further investigation.
  • 她的營收差異也十分令人擔憂,她連自己的邊際收益都達不到。Her revenue variance also paints a worrying picture – she is not meeting her revenue margins.
  • Valery 手上只有 9 位客戶、負責 2 項產品,而且幾乎只和北部的客戶打交道。Valery has only 9 customers, handles only 2 products and works almost-exclusively with customers in the north. 這個特點能夠說明其度量的巨幅波動。This specialization could explain wide fluctuations in her metrics.
  • 在樹狀結構圖中選取 [北部] 方塊,顯示 Valery 在北部的毛利與她整體的毛利一致。Selecting the North square in the treemap shows that Valery’s gross margin in the North is consistent with her overall margin.
  • 選取其他的 [區域] 方塊會發現一個有趣的現象:她的 GM% 從 23% 到 79%,而她的營收數字在北部以外的所有區域,都是絕對季節性的。Selecting the other Region squares tells an interesting story: her GM% ranges from 23% to 79% and her revenue numbers, in all regions except North, are extremely seasonal.

繼續探究為什麼 Valery 的區域業績不佳。Continue digging to find out why Valery’s area is not performing well. 看看區域、其他業務單位和報表的下一頁:「產業利潤分析」。Look at regions, the other business units, and the next page in the report – “Industry Margin Analysis.”

產業利潤分析Industry Margin Analysis

這個報表頁面提供不同的資料面。This report page provides a different slice of the data. 它著眼於整個產業的毛利,按區段切分。It looks at gross margin for the entire industry, broken down by segment. CFO 用這個頁面比較公司暨業務單位的度量與產業度量,幫助她解釋趨勢和獲利率。The CFO uses this page to compare company and business unit metrics to industry metrics to help her explain trends and profitability. 您可能會納悶為什麼「每月毛利和主管姓名」的區域圖放在這個頁面,因為它是小組特定的。You might wonder why the “Gross Margin by Month and Executive Name” area chart is on this page, since it is team-specific. 它在這裡有助於我們依業務單位主管篩選頁面。Having it here lets us filter the page by business unit manager.

獲利率如何依產業變化?How does profitability vary by industry? 如何依產業切分產品和客戶?How do the products and customers break down by industry? 請從左上角選取一或多個產業。Select one or more industries from the top left. (從 CPG 產業開始) 若要清除篩選器,選取橡皮擦圖示。(Start from the CPG industry) To clear the filter, select the eraser icon.

在泡泡圖中,CFO 會尋找最大的泡泡,因為它們對營收的影響最大。On the bubble chart, the CFO looks for the largest bubbles since these are the ones that have the biggest impact on revenue. 在區域圖中的主管姓名上按一下,依主管篩選頁面,讓您更容易依產業區段查看每一位經理的影響力。Filtering the page by manager by clicking on their names in the area chart makes it easy to see each manager’s impact by industry segment.

  • Andrew 影響的區域遍及許多不同的產業區段,其 GM% (多為好的一面) 和差異 % 的變化也極大。Andrew's area of influence spans many different industry segments with widely varying GM% (most on the positive side) and Var%.
  • Annelie 的圖表很類似,除了她專注於少數幾個產業區段,聚焦於聯邦區段及短劍產品。Annelie's chart is similar, except that she concentrates on only a handful of industry segments with a focus on the Federal segment and a focus on Gladius product.
  • Carlos 目標明確,在服務區段取得豐厚的利潤。Carlos has a clear focus on the Services segment, with good profit. 他在高科技區段及對他而言嶄新的工業區段的差異 % 成長驚人,與預算相較,表現十分突出。He's greatly improved variance % for the High Tech segment and a new segment for him, Industrial, performed exceptionally well compared to budget.
  • Tina 負責少數幾個區段且擁有最高的 GM%,但她的泡泡都不大,這表示她對公司營收的影響最小。Tina works with a handful of segments and has the highest GM%, but the mostly small size of her bubbles shows that her impact on the company's bottom line is minimal.
  • Valery 只負表一種產品,只處理 5 個產業區段。Valery, who is responsible for only one product, works in only 5 industry segments. 她的產業影響力有季節性,但一直都是大型的泡泡,這表示她對公司營收的影響巨大。Her industry influence is seasonal, but always produces a large bubble, indicating a significant impact on the company’s bottom line. 產業可否說明她不盡人意的表現?Does industry explain her negative performance?

主管計分卡Executive Scorecard

這個頁面會格式化為 Answer Card for Cortana。This page is formatted as an Answer Card for Cortana. 若要深入了解,請參閱建立 Answer Card for CortanaTo learn more, see create Answer Cards for Cortana

利用問與答問來提問以深入探索資料Dig into the data by asking questions with Q&A

我們的分析有助於判斷哪些產業讓 Valery 產生最多收益。For our analysis, it would be helpful to determine which industry generates the most revenue for Valery. 讓我們使用問與答。Let’s use Q&A.

  1. 選取 [編輯報表] 以在 [編輯檢視] 中開啟該報表。Open the report in Editing view by selecting Edit report. 只有在您「擁有」該報表的情況下,才能使用 [編輯檢視](有時稱為建立者模式)。Editing view is only available if you "own" the report; this is sometimes referred to as creator mode. 反之,如果此報表是與您共用的,您將無法在 [編輯檢視] 中開啟它。If, instead, this report had been shared with you, you wouldn't be able to open it in Editing view.

  2. 從頂端的功能表列,選取 [詢問問題] 來開啟問與答問題方塊。From the top menubar, select Ask a question to open the Q&A question box.

  3. 輸入 Valery 依各項產業分列的總營收Type total revenue by industry for Valery. 請注意當您輸入問題時,視覺效果更新的方式。Notice how the visualization updates as you type the question.

    配銷是 Valery 最大的收益區域。Distribution is the biggest revenue area for Valery.

加入篩選器更深入探究Dig deeper by adding filters

讓我們看看 [配銷] 產業。Let's take a look at the Distribution industry.

  1. 開啟 [Industry Margin Analysis] (產業利潤分析) 報表頁面。Open the "Industry Margin Analysis" report page.
  2. 在不選取報表頁面上任何視覺效果的情況下,展開右側的篩選窗格 (如果未展開)。Without selecting any visualizations on the report page, expand the filter pane on the right (if it isn't already expanded). [篩選] 窗格應該只會顯示頁面層級篩選。The Filters pane should display only Page level filters.

  3. 找到 [產業] 的篩選,然後選取箭號來展開清單。Locate the filter for Industry and select the arrow to expand the list. 讓我們新增 [配銷] 產業的頁面篩選。Let's add a page filter for the Distribution industry. 首先,清除 [全選] 核取方塊,以清除所有選取項目。First, clear all selections by clearing the Select All checkbox. 然後僅選取 [配銷]。Then select only Distribution.

  4. 「每月毛利和主管姓名」區域圖告訴我們,只有 Valery 和 Tina 在此產業有客戶,而且 Valery 只有在六月到十一月這段時間才需要處理這項產業的業務。The "Gross margin by Month and Executive Name" area chart tells us that only Valery and Tina have customers in this industry and Valery only worked with this industry from June to November.
  5. 在「每月毛利和主管」區域圖圖例中,依序選取 [Tina] 和 [Valery]。Select Tina and then Valery in the "Gross Margin by Month and Executive" area chart legend. 請注意,和 Valery 相比,Tina 的「產品總收益」部分真的很小。Notice Tina's portion of "Total Revenue by Product" is really small compared to Valery.
  6. 若要查看實際的營收,請使用問與答要求依主管及案例顯示配銷的總營收To see actual revenue, use Q&A to ask total revenue by executive for distribution by scenario.

    我們可以類似的方法瀏覽其他產業,甚至加入客戶,以在視覺效果中了解 Valery 績效的成因。We can similarly explore other industries and even add customers to our visuals to understand causes for Valery's performance.

這是安全的作業環境。This is a safe environment to play in. 您一律可以選擇不儲存變更。You can always choose not to save your changes. 但如果儲存了變更,您也可以隨時移至 [取得資料] ,重新複製此範例。But if you do save them, you can always go to Get Data for a new copy of this sample.

您也可以只下載此範例的資料集 (Excel 活頁簿).You can also download just the dataset (Excel workbook) for this sample.

下一步:連接到您的資料Next steps: Connect to your data

我們希望本教學已示範 Power BI 儀表板、問與答和報表如何讓您深入了解客戶的資料。We hope this tour has shown how Power BI dashboards, Q&A, and reports can provide insights into customer data. 現在換您登場 — 連接到您自己的資料。Now it is your turn — connect to your own data. 您可以透過 Power BI 連接到各式各樣的資料來源。With Power BI you can connect to a wide variety of data sources. 深入了解開始使用 Power BI.Learn more about getting started with Power BI.

返回 Power BI 中的範例Back to Samples in Power BI