管理組件生命週期Management Pack Lifecycle

重要

已不再支援此版本的 Operations Manager,建議升級至 Operations Manager 2019This version of Operations Manager has reached the end of support, we recommend you to upgrade to Operations Manager 2019.

System Center - Operations Manager 所使用管理組件包含應用程式和服務的監視設定。System Center - Operations Manager uses management packs contain monitoring settings for applications and services. 在理想的情況下,管理組件會提供您想瞭解受監視應用程式或技術的一切資訊,而不會提供您不想知道的資訊。Ideally, a management pack tells you everything you want to know about the application or technology that you are monitoring and nothing that you do not want to know. 管理組件的設計可針對大多數環境提供有用的監視操作體驗,不過,您可以測試、調整和自訂每個管理組件來提供最佳的效果,並且符合您組織的需求。Management packs are designed to provide a useful monitoring experience for most environments, however you will want to test, tune, and tailor each management pack to provide optimal results for your organization's needs.

下表所述的管理組件生命週期是使用管理組件的建議方法。The management pack lifecycle, described in the following table, is the recommended approach to using management packs. 此表格後面的章節將提供各階段的詳細資訊。The sections following the table provide details for each stage.

階段Stage DescriptionDescription
在進入生產階段前環境中審視和評估管理組件。-Review and evaluate management packs in a pre-production environment 在生產環境中部署管理組件之前,您應熟悉管理組件和指南的內容,並在進入生產階段前或測試環境中匯入管理套件。-Before you deploy a management pack in your production environment, you should familiarize yourself with the contents of the management pack and guide, and import the management pack in a pre-production or test environment. 您也可以在虛擬機器環境中檢視管理組件。You can also view the management pack in a virtual machine environment.
調整管理組件設定並儲存在自訂管理組件中Tune the management pack settings and save in a customized management pack 使用覆寫調整管理組件的設定,如監視、規則、物件探索和屬性,以進一步滿足組織的需求。Use overrides to tune the settings of a management pack-such as monitors, rules, object discoveries, and attributes-to better meet your organization's needs. 請將覆寫儲存到您建立的管理組件。You should save overrides to a management pack that you create.
將管理組件部署到生產環境Deploy management packs into a production environment 匯出與您要部署之管理組件相關的管理組件和覆寫,然後將管理組件匯入到生產環境。Export the management pack with overrides that is associated with the management pack that you are going to deploy, and import management packs in your production environment.
維護管理組件Maintain management pack 部署之後,管理組件可能需要再調整,例如下列情況:After deployment, a management pack might need additional tuning, such as in following circumstances:

- 環境改變,例如新增硬體或新增作業系統- Environmental changes, such as new hardware or new operating system
- 將新的應用程式新增到生產環境- Adding a new application to the production environment
- 升級應用程式的版本- Upgrading a version of an application
- 有新版本或更新版本的管理組件可用時- When a new or updated version of the management pack is available
- 原則變更,根據商業需求增加或減少監視- Policy changes, which result in more or less monitoring based on business needs

審視和評估Review and evaluate

每個管理組件都應隨附管理組件指南,此指南安裝在與管理組件相同的資料夾中。Each management pack should be accompanied by a management pack guide that is installed to the same folder as the management pack. 管理組件指南包含安裝和設定管理組件的指示,以及管理組件的相關資訊,例如管理組件探索的物件以及健全狀況的彙總方式。A management pack guide contains instructions for installing and configuring the management pack, and information about the management pack, such as objects that the management pack discovers and how health rolls up. 您可以使用這些資訊協助您視需要自訂管理組件。You can use this information to help you customize the management pack for your purposes. 匯入管理組件之前,請務必先閱覽管理組件指南。You should always review the management pack guide before you import the management pack.

檢閱密封管理組件的工具之一是 MPViewer,可顯示管理組件的下列內容:規則、監視、檢視、工作、主控台工作和報表。A tool for reviewing the contents of a sealed management pack is the MPViewer, which can display the following contents of a management pack: rules, monitors, views, tasks, console tasks, and reports. MPViewer 也會顯示與特定管理組件項目相關聯的知識。MPViewer will also display the knowledge associated with the particular management pack item. 您可以在安裝 Operations Manager Operations 主控台的任何電腦上安裝和使用 MPViewerYou can install and use MPViewer on any computer on which the Operations Manager Operations console is installed.

當您有新的管理組件時,應將它匯入到 前置生產 環境。When you have a new management pack, you should import it to a pre-production environment. 在 Operations Manager 中,最佳作法是使用生產實作和前置生產實作。生產實作是用來監視生產應用程式,而前置生產實作和生產環境沒有太多的互動。In Operations Manager, it is a best practice to have a production implementation that is used for monitoring your production applications and a pre-production implementation that has minimal interaction with the production environment. 前置生產管理群組可在部署至生產環境之前,用以測試及調整管理組件功能。The pre-production management group is used for testing and tuning management pack functionality before the management pack is deployed in the production environment.

為能正確測量管理組件收集的資料,代理程式必須暴露在生產環境的高需求下。To accurately measure the data that a management pack gathers, you need to expose the agent to the demands of your production environment. 前置生產環境中的管理伺服器硬體應反映生產環境中使用的硬體。The hardware of the management server in the pre-production environment should reflect the hardware that is in use in your production environment. 前置生產管理群組匯入管理伺服器的管理組件應與生產管理群組相同。Your pre-production management group should have the same management packs imported to the management server as the production management group. 為測試交互操作性,前置生產環境也應包含與生產環境中相同但規模較小的伺服器角色類型。To test interoperability, your pre-production environment should also include the same types of server roles that are in your production environment, just on a smaller scale.

您可以將 Operations Manager 代理程式指派給多個管理群組,這稱為「多路連接」 。You can assign an Operations Manager agent to more than one management group, which is called multihoming. 如果您在生產環境和預先生產環境中多路連接一組代表性的代理程式,預先生產環境應可提供正確調整管理組件所需的許多資訊。If you multihome a representative subset of agents in your production environment and your pre-production environment, the pre-production environment should give you much of the information you need to correctly tune the management pack. 如需多路連接代理程式的詳細資訊,請參閱設定 Windows 代理程式For more information on multihoming agents, see Configuring Windows Agents.

調整和自訂Tune and customize

您可以使用覆寫修正 Operations Manager 中監視物件的設定,包括監視、規則、物件探索和屬性。You can use overrides to refine the settings of a monitoring object in Operations Manager, including monitors, rules, object discoveries, and attributes. 您應建立管理組件來儲存您所進行的自訂項目。You should create a management pack in which to save customizations that you make.

若要有效調整 IT 服務的監視設定 (根據該服務的複雜度而定,其中可能包含一或多個管理組件),您應該納入服務擁有者或主題專家、服務台的人員、營運團隊成員的代表 (此團隊會監視警示和事件,並在發生某個需要注意的事項時採取行動),以及負責 Operations Manager 基礎結構的工程小組。To effectively tune the monitoring configuration of your IT services, which may involve one or more management packs depending on the complexity of that service, you should involve the service owner or subject matter experts, a representative from the service desk, a representative from the operations team members who monitor the alerts and events and take action when something requires attention, and the engineering team responsible for the Operations Manager infrastructure. 根據管理組件所監視的服務而定,您可能也要納入網路和安全性團隊的代表。Depending on the service that is monitored by the management pack(s), you might also include representation from the networking and security teams. 負責 Operations Manager 基礎結構的人員可能沒有服務的知識和體驗,在沒有專家協助的情況下,無法有效調整管理組件。Those responsible for the Operations Manager infrastructure might not have the knowledge and experience with the service to effectively tune the management pack(s) without expert input.

一開始請致力於審視最常見的警示,藉由將焦點放在大量產生的警示上,來改善監視的準確性。Start by reviewing the most common alerts in an effort to improve monitoring accuracy by focusing on high-volume alerts. 識別下列各項,並根據影響程度來排定優先順序:Identify the following and prioritize based on impact:

  • 由現有/已知問題所導致的警示數目與百分比Number and percentage of alerts caused by existing/known problems
  • 重複執行或重複發生的警示數目和百分比。Number and percentage of repeated or duplicate alerts. 可能表示需要進行額外的調整,或者有潛在的問題需要進一步調查。May indicate additional tuning is necessary or there is a potential issue to investigate further.
  • 指出效能或可用性問題的警示數目和百分比Number and percentage of alerts indicating performance or availability issues
  • 所產生的警示與票證的比率Ratio of alerts to tickets generated
  • 已將其解決狀態設定為表示工作流程會產生大量警示之狀態的警示,且會透過調查,由操作或第 2 層支援判斷為有誤Alerts whose resolution state has been set to a state indicating the workflow is generating a high volume of alerts and is determined through investigation to be faulty by operations or tier-2 support

運用下列報告來判斷是否需要進行額外的調整:Leverage the following reports to determine if additional tuning is required:

  • 最常見的警示報表Most Common Alerts Report
  • 警示報表Alerts Report
  • 資料量 (依據管理組件)Data Volume by Management Pack

下列報告對於確認我們是否正有效地監視整個服務非常重要,而且不會:The following reports are important to validate we are efficiently monitoring the service in its entirety, and there isn’t:

  • 因為探索規則執行頻率太高或收集了經常變更的內容/屬性而導致設定變換Configuration churn due to discovery rules running too frequently or there is a property/attribute being collected that changes frequently
  • 太過頻繁地收集效能資料,或者不需要收集效能資料,因為組織將不會在報告、檢視或儀表板中用到該資料Performance data being collected too frequently or doesn’t need to be collected because the organization will not use it in a report, view, or dashboard
  • 收集未新增任何值或只基於疑難排解目的 (短期) 而啟用的事件資料Event data being collected which adds no value and is only enabled for troubleshooting (short period of time)
  • 因為設定不正確、錯誤或其他徵兆而導致健全狀況狀態觸發Health State flip flopping due to misconfiguration, bug, or other symptom
  • 具有高重複計數的警示規則Alert rule with high repeat count

每個工作流程至少都應根據下列準則進行評估:At a minimum, each workflow should be evaluated according to the following criteria:

  • 可測量且容易識別的發生次數。Measurable and identifiable occurrence. 已停用所有與該類別不一致的項目。Anything not aligning with that category is disabled.
  • 當警示發生時,我們知道該如何解決嗎?When the alert occurs, do we know how to resolve it?
  • 例外狀況 (警告) 會提供潛在服務影響的主動式通知,並公開至 NOC/服務台,但任何指出服務中斷的事件 (錯誤) 除外。Exceptions (warnings) that provide a proactive notice of potential service impact are exposed to the NOC/Service Desk, besides any Incident (error) that indicates disruption of service.
  • 探索執行頻率太高?Is discovery running too frequent?
  • 我們需要收集此效能資料嗎?Do we need to collect this performance data? 是否有用?Is it useful?
  • 警示是否容易理解、相關且保有最新狀態?Is the alert understandable, relevant, and up to date?
  • 如果徵兆或問題能夠自行修正,監視是否應該自動解決?Should the monitor auto-resolve if the symptom/problem corrects itself?

調整的內容What to Tune

  • 探索頻率Discovery frequency

  • 監視閾值Monitor thresholds

  • 目標Targets

  • 以指令碼為基礎的規則/監視和效能集合規則的間隔Intervals for script-based rules/monitors and performance collection rules

  • 參數Parameters

提示Tips

  • 檢閱針對使用新管理組件監視的伺服器所回報的任何新警示。Review any new alerts reported for servers monitored with the new management pack. 您可以使用「警示」和「最常見的警示」報表協助您找出最常見的警示。You can use the Alerts and Most Common Alerts reports to help you discover your most common alerts. 當您一開始安裝管理組件時,常會探索到許多先前未知的問題。When you first install a management pack, it tends to discover a multitude of previously unknown issues. 請監視警示來判斷可能的問題區域Monitor the alerts to determine potential areas of concern

  • 視情況針對特殊類別的所有物件、群組或特定物件覆寫監視或規則。Override the monitor or rule as applicable for all objects of a particular class, a group, or a specific object.

  • 如果問題沒嚴重到需要發出警示,而且您不需要知道正在受到監視的特定情況,請停用監視或規則。Disable the monitor or rule if the issue is not severe enough to warrant an alert and you do not need to be made aware of the specific situation being monitored.

  • 如果您想要監視潛在的情況,但系統在狀況實際成為您特定環境的問題之前就產生警示,請變更監視的閾值。Change the threshold of the monitor that is generating the alert if you want the underlying condition to be monitored, but the alert is being generated before the condition is actually a problem for your particular environment.

  • 當您設定管理組件的覆寫時,請將覆寫儲存到名為 ManagementPack_Override 的管理組件 (其中 ManagementPack 是套用覆寫的密封管理組件名稱)。When you set overrides for a management pack, save them to a management pack that is named ManagementPack_Override, where ManagementPack is the name of the sealed management pack to which the overrides apply.

部署Deploy

當您在預先生產環境中對於管理組件的效能和結果滿意時,可以在生產環境中部署管理組件及其自訂項目。When you are satisfied with the performance and results of the management pack in the pre-production environment, you can deploy the management pack and its customizations in the production environment. 您必須匯出儲存自訂項目的管理組件,以便匯入其他電腦。The management pack in which you saved the customizations must be exported so that you can import it to other computers. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱如何匯入、匯出及移除管理組件For more information, see How to Import, Export, and Remove Management Packs. 包含您所設定之覆寫的管理組件依存於原始管理組件,可以只匯入裝有原始管理組件的管理群組。The management pack that contains the overrides that you set is dependent on the original management pack and can be imported only to management groups that have the original management pack installed.

維護Maintain

部署管理組件之後,您應定期評估它在生產環境中的效能和結果,以確保仍能滿足商業需求。After a management pack has been deployed, you should periodically evaluate its performance and results in the production environment to ensure that it continues to meet business needs. 下列清單說明可能需要變更管理組件的常見事件:The following list describes common events that might require changes to a management pack:

  • 環境改變,例如新增硬體或新增作業系統Environmental changes, such as new hardware or a new operating system

    當您測試即將新增至生產環境的新硬體或新作業系統時,應將現有管理組件包含在測試計畫中,以確認是否需要進行任何其他調整。When you are testing new hardware or a new operating system that you plan to add to your production environment, you should include existing management packs in your test plan to identify any additional tuning that might be necessary. 若為新作業系統,您可能需要匯入適用於該作業系統的新管理組件。For a new operating system, you might need to import new management packs specific to that operating system.

  • 將新的應用程式新增到生產環境Adding a new application to the production environment

    新應用程式可能需要使用新管理組件或調整現有管理組件。A new application might require a new management pack or adjustments to existing management packs.

  • 升級應用程式的版本Upgrading a version of an application

    當組織升級應用程式版本時,通常會分階段升級 (應用程式的兩個版本將同時存在於網路),或一次升級應用程式的所有安裝。When organizations upgrade application versions, they usually either upgrade in stages, during which both versions of the application will exist in the network, or upgrade all installations of the application at one time. 使用新版本測試管理組件並進行必要調整後,您應使用部署升級的相同方法來部署管理組件。After testing the management packs with the new version and making any necessary adjustments, you should use the same approach for deploying the management packs that you use for deploying the upgrades. 如果會同時使用應用程式的兩個版本,您應安裝適用於各版本的管理組件。If both versions of the application will be in use at one time, you should install management packs appropriate for each version. 如果應用程式的所有安裝將一次全部升級,請移除舊版應用程式的管理組件,然後再安裝新版本的管理組件。If all installations of the application will be upgraded at one time, remove the management pack for the old version of the application and install the management pack for the new version.

  • 有新版本或更新版本的管理組件可用When a new or updated version of the management pack is available

    您應使用前置生產環境來審視和調整管理組件的新版本或更新版本。You should use the pre-production environment to review and tune new or updated versions of a management pack.

  • 原則變更Policy changes

    由於企業或組織會不斷變化,因此可能需要調整管理組件,以增加或減少監視。Ongoing changes in your business or organization might require adjustments to management packs to accomplish more monitoring or less monitoring.

變更控制的最佳作法Best Practices for change control

以下是管理 Operations Manager 管理組件時應遵循的一些最佳作法:The following are some best practices to follow when managing Operations Manager management packs:

  • 保存管理組件版本,以便在需要時復原變更。Maintain an archive of management pack versions to enable you to roll back changes when necessary. 保存版本的有效方法之一是使用版本控制軟體,例如 Microsoft Team Foundation Server 或 SharePoint Server。An efficient method for maintaining the archive is by using version control software, such as Microsoft Team Foundation Server or SharePoint Server. 另一種方法是使用網路上的檔案共用,將每個管理組件版本儲存在個別資料夾中。Another method is to use a file share on the network with individual folders for each management pack version.

  • 當您設定管理組件的覆寫時,請將覆寫儲存到名為 ManagementPack_Override 的管理組件 (其中 ManagementPack 是套用覆寫的密封管理組件名稱)。When you set overrides for a management pack, save them to a management pack that is named ManagementPack_Override, where ManagementPack is the name of the sealed management pack to which the overrides apply. 例如,管理組件 Microsoft.SQLServer.2012.Monitoring.mp 的覆寫會儲存到 Microsoft.SQLServer.2012.Monitoring_Overrides.xml。For example, overrides to the management pack Microsoft.SQLServer.2012.Monitoring.mp would be saved to Microsoft.SQLServer.2012.Monitoring_Overrides.xml. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Creating a Management Pack for OverridesFor more information, see Creating a Management Pack for Overrides.

  • 當管理組件更新時,請使用新的版本號碼更新對應的 _Overrides.xml 檔案。When a management pack is updated, update the corresponding _Overrides.xml file with the new version number. 您必須使用 XML 編輯器來更新 _Overrides.xml 檔案的版本號碼。You must use an XML editor to update the version number of the _Overrides.xml file. 如果您對 _Overrides.xml 檔案進行變更,但未變更版本屬性,則可以匯入檔案,但不會套用檔案中的設定。If you make changes to an _Overrides.xml file but do not change the version attribute, you can import the file but the settings in the file will not be applied.

  • 請記錄您對管理組件進行的覆寫。Document the overrides that you make to management packs. 當您設定覆寫時,請在 [覆寫內容] 對話方塊的 [詳細資料] 窗格中按一下 [編輯] ,在描述欄位中加入您所採取動作的說明和原因。When you set an override, add an explanation of the action you are taking and the reason for it to the description field by clicking Edit in the Details pane of the Override Properties dialog box. 您也可以使用試算表或其他方式來記錄對管理組件進行的變更。You may also want to maintain a spreadsheet or other form to document changes that you make to management packs.

後續步驟Next steps