Operations Manager 管理組件包含哪些元素?What is in an Operations Manager management pack?

重要

已不再支援此版本的 Operations Manager,建議升級至 Operations Manager 2019This version of Operations Manager has reached the end of support, we recommend you to upgrade to Operations Manager 2019.

管理組件通常包含應用程式和服務的監視設定。Management packs typically contain monitoring settings for applications and services. 將管理組件匯入管理群組後,System Center - Operations Manager 就會根據管理組件中定義的預設組態和閾值,立即開始監視物件。After a management pack is imported into a management group, System Center - Operations Manager immediately begins monitoring objects based on default configurations and thresholds that are defined in the management pack.

每個管理組件可包含下列任何或所有組件:Each management pack can contain any or all of the following parts:

  • 監視,其指示代理程式追蹤受管理元件各個組件的狀態。Monitors, which direct an agent to track the state of various parts of a managed component.

  • 規則,其指示代理程式收集效能與探索資料、傳送警示與事件,等等。Rules, which direct an agent to collect performance and discovery data, send alerts and events, and more.

  • 工作,其定義可由代理程式或主控台執行的活動。Tasks, which define activities that can be executed by either the agent or the console.

  • 知識,其提出文字建議,以協助操作員診斷與修正問題。Knowledge, which provides textual advice to help operators diagnose and fix problems.

  • 檢視,其提供自訂的使用者介面,以供監視與管理此元件之用。Views, which offer customized user interfaces for monitoring and managing this component.

  • 報表,其定義具體的方式以報告此受管理元件的相關資訊。Reports, which define specialized ways to report on information about this managed component.

  • 物件探索,其識別要監視的物件。Object discoveries, which identify objects to be monitored.

  • 執行身分設定檔,其可讓您在不同的電腦使用不同帳戶來執行不同的規則、工作、監視或探索。Run As profiles, which allow you to run different rules, tasks, monitors, or discoveries under different accounts on different computers.

管理組件的組件Parts of a management pack

每個管理組件皆定義其管理的元件模型。Every management pack defines a model of the component that it manages. 此模型可以用一或多種類別來表示,每種類別則代表某種可受監視或管理的事物。This model is expressed as one or more classes, each representing something that can be monitored and managed. 當管理組件的資訊傳送至代理程式時,代理程式將根據管理組件中特定的探索規則,尋找此組件定義之類別的實際執行個體。When a management pack's information is sent to an agent, the agent relies on specific discovery rules in the management pack to find the actual instances of the classes this pack defines.

為了降低代理程式的網路用量與儲存需求,只有代理程式執行監視時所需之管理組件的組件會下載至代理程式供本機儲存。To reduce network utilization and storage requirements on the agent, only the parts of the management pack that are required by the agent to perform monitoring are downloaded to the agent for local storage. 例如,管理組件中定義規則與監視的區段會被下載,而定義知識和報表的區段則不會被下載。For example, the sections of the management packs which define rules and monitors are downloaded, while the sections for knowledge and reports are not.

監視Monitors

每個管理組件將定義一或多種可受管理的類別,然後指定監視群組作為該類別的執行個體。Each management pack defines one or more classes that can be managed, and then specifies a group of monitors for instances of the classes. 這些監視會持續追蹤每個類別執行個體的狀態,輕鬆地避免問題發生。These monitors keep track of the state of each class instance, making it easier to avoid problems before they occur.

每個監視將反應類別執行個體某方面的狀態,並隨著類別執行個體狀態的變更而變更。Each monitor reflects the state of some aspect of a class instance, and changes as the state of the class instance changes. 例如,追蹤磁碟使用量的監視可能處於以下三種狀態之一:綠色,表示磁碟使用量低於 75%;黃色,表示磁碟使用量介於 75% 到 90% 之間;紅色,表示磁碟使用量超過 90%。For example, a monitor that tracks disk utilization might be in one of three states: green, if the disk is less than 75 percent full; yellow, if it is between 75 and 90 percent full; and red, if the disk is more than 90 percent full. 追蹤應用程式可用性的監視只有兩種可能狀態:綠色,表示應用程式執行中;紅色,表示未執行。A monitor that tracks the availability of an application might have only two states: green, if the application is running; and red, if it is not. 每個管理組件的作者將定義該組件包含的監視、每個監視有多少種狀態,以及此監視要追蹤受管理類別的哪個方面。The author of each management pack defines the monitors it contains, how many states each monitor has, and what aspect of the managed class this monitor tracks.

規則Rules

在 Operations Manager 中,規則定義要從電腦收集哪些事件和效能資料,以及在收集後要對資訊採取哪些動作。In Operations Manager, a rule defines the events and performance data to collect from computers, and what to do with the information after it is collected. 簡單來說,我們可以將規則視為 if/then 陳述式。A simple way to think about rules is as an if/then statement. 例如,應用程式的管理組件可能包含如下所示的規則:For example, a management pack for an application might contain rules such as the following:

  • 若指出應用程式正在關機的訊息出現在事件記錄中,則傳送警示。If a message indicating that the application is shutting down appears in the event log, send an alert.

  • 若登入嘗試失敗,則收集指出此失敗的事件。If a logon attempt fails, collect the event that indicates this failure.

如同上述範例所示,規則可傳送警示、事件或效能資料。As these examples show, rules can send alerts, events, or performance data. 規則也可執行指令碼,例如允許某個規則嘗試重新啟動失敗的應用程式。Rules can also run scripts, such as allowing a rule to attempt to restart a failed application.

檢視和儀表板Views and dashboards

Operations Manager Operations 主控台提供標準檢視,例如狀態、警示與效能。The Operations Manager Operations console provides standard views such as State, Alerts, and Performance. 主控台也包括儀表板,可針對特定服務或應用程式的操作資料進行彙總並視覺化,以提供進一步的深入解析和可見度。The console also includes dashboards to consolidate and visualize the operational data for specific services or applications for increased insight and visibility. 此外,您可以在 Operations 主控台中建立個人化的檢視。In addition, you can create a personalized view in the Operations console.

知識Knowledge

知識是規則和監視所內嵌的內容,包含警示原因的管理組件作者的資訊,以及如何解決警示的發生原因等建議事項。Knowledge is content, embedded in rules and monitors, that contains information from the management pack author about the causes of an alert and suggestions on how to fix the issue that caused an alert to be raised. 知識以文字出現在主控台中,其目的在於協助操作員診斷與修正問題。Knowledge appears as text in the console, and its goal is to help an operator diagnose and fix problems. 該文字可包含至工作的連結,讓此知識的作者可協助操作員完成整個復原程序。The text can include links to tasks, allowing the author of this knowledge to walk an operator through the recovery process. 例如,操作員可能收到指示先執行 A 工作,然後根據此工作的結果,再決定執行 B 工作或 C 工作。知識也可包含至效能檢視與報表的連結,讓操作員可直接存取所需的資訊以解決問題。For example, the operator might first be instructed to run task A, and then based on the result of this task, run either task B or task C. Knowledge can also contain links to performance views and to reports, giving the operator direct access to information needed to solve a problem.

知識也可稱為「產品知識」 或「公司知識」 。Knowledge is referred to as product knowledge or company knowledge. 產品知識是由管理組件作者加入管理組件中。Product knowledge is added to the management pack by the management pack author. 系統管理員可將其擁有的知識新增至規則及監視,以擴展疑難排解資訊,並針對操作人員提供公司特定的資訊,即所謂的公司知識。Administrators can add their own knowledge to rules and monitors to expand the troubleshooting information and provide company-specific information for operators, which is known as company knowledge. 如需將公司知識加入到管理組件的詳細資訊,請參閱如何將知識加入到管理組件For more information on adding company knowledge to a management pack, see How to Add Knowledge to a Management Pack.

工作Tasks

工作是在管理伺服器上或受管理之伺服器、用戶端或其他裝置上執行的指令檔或其他可執行程式碼。A task is a script or other executable code that runs either on the management server or on the server, client, or other device that is being managed. 工作可能可以執行任何一種活動,包括重新啟動失敗的應用程式及刪除檔案。Tasks can potentially perform any kind of activity, including restarting a failed application and deleting files. 如同管理組件其他方面,每個工作也與特定管理的類別相關聯。Like other aspects of a management pack, each task is associated with a particular managed class. 例如,只有在磁碟機上執行 chkdsk 才有意義,而重新啟動 Microsoft Exchange Server 的工作也只有在執行 Exchange Server 的電腦上才有意義。For example, running chkdsk makes sense only on a disk drive while a task that restarts Microsoft Exchange Server is meaningful only on a computer that is running Exchange Server. 若有必要,操作員也可同時在多個管理的系統上執行相同的工作。If necessary, an operator can also run the same task simultaneously on multiple managed systems. 監視可具有兩種與其相關聯的特殊工作:嘗試探索問題成因的診斷工作,以及嘗試修正問題的復原工作。Monitors can have two special kinds of tasks associated with them: diagnostic tasks that try to discover the cause of a problem, and recovery tasks that try to fix the problem. 上述工作可以在監視進入提供自動化解決問題方法的錯誤狀態時自動執行。These tasks can be run automatically when the monitor enters an error state, providing an automated way to solve problems. 工作也可以手動執行,因為自動化復原並非始終是慣用作法。They can also be run manually, because automated recovery isn't always the preferred approach.

報告Reports

管理組件可包含針對其作為目標之物件所自訂的檢視,也可包含自訂報表。Just as a management pack can contain views customized for the objects that management pack targets, it can also contain custom reports. 例如,管理組件可能包含其中一種 Operations Manager 內建報表的自訂定義,指出該報表應該視為目標的確切物件。For example, a management pack might include a customized definition of one of Operations Manager's built-in reports, specifying the exact objects that the report should target.

物件探索Object discoveries

物件探索可用來尋找網路上需要監視的特定物件。Object discoveries are used to find the specific objects on a network that need to be monitored. 管理組件則定義管理組件所監視的物件類型。Management packs define the type of objects that the management pack monitors. 物件探索能夠利用登錄機碼、WMI、指令碼、OLE DB、LDAP 或甚至自訂的 Managed 程式碼來尋找網路上的物件。The object discoveries can use the registry, WMI, scripts, OLE DB, LDAP, or even custom managed code to find objects on a network. 如果物件探索在網路上找到您不想監視的物件,您可以使用覆寫來限制物件探索的範圍。If an object discovery finds objects on your network that you do not want to monitor, you can limit the scope of object discoveries by using overrides.

執行身分設定檔Run As profiles

管理組件可包含一或多個執行身分設定檔。A management pack can include one or more Run As profiles. 執行身分設定檔與執行身分帳戶可用來選取具有執行規則、工作及監視所需權限的使用者。Run As profiles and Run As accounts are used to select users with the privileges needed for running rules, tasks, and monitors.

管理組件作者可建立執行身分設定檔,然後將該設定檔與一或多個規則、監視、工作或探索建立關聯。Management pack authors can create a Run As profile and associate the profile with one or more rules, monitors, tasks, or discoveries. 具名執行身分設定檔會隨管理組件一起匯入 Operations Manager 中。The named Run As profile is imported along with the management pack into Operations Manager. 接著 Operations Manager 系統管理員會建立具名執行身分帳戶,並指定使用者與群組。The Operations Manager administrator then creates a named Run As account and specifies users and groups. 系統管理員會將執行身分帳戶新增至執行身分設定檔,並指定應執行該帳戶的目標電腦。The administrator adds the Run As account to the Run As profile and specifies the target computers that the account should run on. 執行身分帳戶提供認證,以執行與該執行身分帳戶所屬之執行身分設定檔相關的規則、監視、工作及探索。The Run As account provides the credentials for running the rules, monitors, tasks, and discoveries that are associated with the Run As profile to which the Run As account belongs.

密封與未密封的管理組件Sealed and unsealed management packs

管理組件不是密封就是未密封的管理組件。Management packs are either sealed or unsealed. 密封的管理組件是無法編輯的二進位檔案。A sealed management pack is a binary file that cannot be edited. 未密封的管理組件則是可以編輯的 XML 檔案。An unsealed management pack is an XML file that can be edited. 密封的管理組件附檔名為 .mp,未密封的管理組件則為 .xml。Sealed management packs should have an .mp extension, while unsealed management packs should have an .xml extension.

一般而言,從應用程式或硬體裝置廠商取得的管理組件大多為密封格式。In general, management packs obtained from an application or hardware device vendor are sealed.

雖然您無法變更密封管理組件中的設定,但仍然可以使用覆寫或是建立取代管理組件預設設定的其他設定 (例如規則、監視和工作),在匯入管理組件後自訂管理組件套用的設定。Although you cannot change the settings in a sealed management pack, you can still customize the applied settings of a management pack after it is imported by using overrides or by creating additional settings such as rules, monitors, and tasks that supersede the management pack's default settings. 您建立的所有自訂項目都會儲存在個別的管理組件檔案中。All customizations that you create are saved to a separate management pack file.

管理組件程式庫與相依性Management pack libraries and dependencies

某些管理組件稱為「程式庫」 ,因其提供其他管理組件之相依類別的基礎。Certain management packs are referred to as libraries, because they provide a foundation of classes on which other management packs depend. 您從 Operations Manager 類別目錄下載的管理組件可能包含程式庫管理組件。A management pack that you download from the Operations Manager Catalog might include a library management pack. 在 Operations Manager 的安裝程序中,系統會一併匯入幾個程式庫管理組件。Several library management packs are imported as part of the Operations Manager installation process. 如需 Operations Manager 安裝期間所匯入的管理組件清單,請參閱與 Operations Manager 一起安裝的管理組件For a list of management packs imported during the installation of Operations Manager, see Management Packs Installed with Operations Manager.

當管理組件參照其他管理組件時,表示有相依性存在。A dependency exists when a management pack references other management packs. 您必須先匯入所有參照的管理組件,然後才能匯入相依於這些管理組件的管理組件。You must import all referenced management packs before you can import the management pack that depends on those management packs. 管理組件包含一份應載明管理組件相依性的管理組件指南。Management packs include a management pack guide that should document the dependencies of the management pack. 此外,如果您嘗試匯入管理組件,而該管理組件相依的管理組件並不存在,[匯入管理組件] 對話方塊將會顯示管理組件無法匯入的訊息,以及遺失的管理組件清單。In addition, if you attempt to import a management pack and the management packs that it is dependent on are not present, the Import Management Packs dialog box will display a message that the management pack will fail to import and a list of the missing management packs. 匯入管理組件後,您可以在 Operations 主控台中檢視其相依性。After you import a management pack, you can view its dependencies in the Operations console.

若要檢視管理組件的相依性To view the dependencies for a management pack

  1. 在 Operations 主控台中的 [系統管理] 工作區中,按一下 [管理組件] 。In the Operations console, in the Administration workspace, click Management Packs.

  2. 以滑鼠右鍵按一下所需的管理組件,然後按一下 [內容]。Right-click the desired management pack, and then click Properties.

  3. 在管理組件的 [內容] 對話方塊中,按一下 [相依性] 索引標籤。In the Properties dialog box for the management pack, click the Dependencies tab.

    [相依性] 索引標籤會列出所選管理組件相依的任何管理組件,以及相依於所選管理組件的任何管理組件。The Dependencies tab lists any management packs that the selected management pack depends on and any management packs that depend on the selected management pack.

後續步驟Next steps