管理 QoS 原則Manage QoS Policy

適用於:Windows Server(以每年次管道)、Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

您可以使用本主題以了解如何使用 QoS 原則精靈來建立、編輯,或移除 QoS 原則。You can use this topic to learn about using the QoS Policy wizard to create, edit, or delete a QoS Policy.

注意

本主題中,除了下列 QoS 原則管理文件會提供。In addition to this topic, the following QoS Policy management documentation is available.

Windows 作業系統,在 QoS 原則,請使用群組原則管理性結合標準型 QoS 的功能。In Windows operating systems, QoS Policy combines the functionality of standards-based QoS with the manageability of Group Policy. 輕鬆 QoS 原則應用程式可設定的這個組合群組原則物件。Configuration of this combination makes for easy application of QoS policies to Group Policy Objects. Windows 包含 QoS 原則精靈可協助您進行下列工作。Windows includes a QoS Policy Wizard to help you do the following tasks.

建立 QoS 原則Create a QoS policy

建立 QoS 原則之前,請務必您了解可用來管理網路流量的兩個按鍵 QoS 控制項:Before you create a QoS policy, it is important that you understand the two key QoS controls that are used to manage network traffic:

  • DSCP 值。DSCP value

  • 調節率Throttle rate

設定資料傳輸與 DSCP 優先順序Prioritizing traffic with DSCP

在前一個範例業務的應用程式中所述,您可以使用定義輸出網路流量的優先順序指定 DSCP 值來設定 QoS 原則的特定 DSCP 值。As noted in the previous line-of-business application example, you can define the priority of outbound network traffic by using Specify DSCP Value to configure a QoS policy with a specific DSCP value.

RFC 2474 所述,DSCP 可 0 63 IPv4 封包 TO 欄位中和 IPv6 中流量課程欄位中指定的值。As described in RFC 2474, DSCP allows values from 0 to 63 to be specified within the TOS field of an IPv4 packet and within the Traffic Class field in IPv6. 網路路由器使用 DSCP 值分類網路封包並適當地佇列它們。Network routers use the DSCP value to classify network packets and to queue them appropriately.

注意

根據預設,Windows 流量有 DSCP 設定為 0。By default, Windows traffic has a DSCP value of 0.

佇列和優先順序行為的數目需要為您的組織 QoS 策略的一部分。The number of queues and their prioritization behavior needs to be designed as part of your organization's QoS strategy. 例如,您的組織可能選擇五個佇列:延遲顧慮流量、控制流量、關鍵性流量、最佳流量,以及大量資料傳輸交通。For example, your organization may choose to have five queues: latency-sensitive traffic, control traffic, business-critical traffic, best-effort traffic, and bulk-data-transfer traffic.

節流流量Throttling traffic

加上 DSCP 值,節流是管理頻寬另一個按鍵的控制項。Along with DSCP values, throttling is another key control for managing network bandwidth. 如之前所述,您可以使用指定節流閥速率來設定 QoS 原則的特定節流閥的輸出資料傳輸速率的設定。As mentioned earlier, you can use the Specify Throttle Rate setting to configure a QoS policy with a specific throttle rate for outbound traffic. 藉由使用節流,QoS 原則限制指定的節流閥速率傳出網路流量。By using throttling, a QoS policy limits the outgoing network traffic to a specified throttle rate. DSCP 標示和節流可以管理流量有效一起使用。Both DSCP marking and throttling can be used together to manage traffic effectively.

注意

根據預設,指定調節速率未選取核取方塊。By default, the Specify Throttle Rate check box is not selected.

若要建立 QoS 原則,編輯的群組原則物件 (GPO) 從「群組原則管理主控台 (GPMC)」工具中的設定。To create a QoS policy, edit the settings of a Group Policy Object (GPO) from within the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) tool. GPMC 開啟群組原則物件編輯器。GPMC then opens the Group Policy Object Editor.

您必須唯一 QoS 原則的名稱。QoS policy names must be unique. 伺服器並終端使用者如何套用原則而定 QoS 原則儲存在群組原則物件編輯器:How policies are applied to servers and end users depends on where the QoS policy is stored in the Group Policy Object Editor:

  • 在 [電腦設定 windows 設定 Settings\QoS 原則 QoS 原則適用於電腦,無論目前登入的使用者。A QoS policy in Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\QoS Policy applies to computers, regardless of the user that is currently logged on. 您通常可以使用電腦的 QoS 原則伺服器電腦。You typically use computer-based QoS policies for server computers.

  • 使用者 \windows Settings\QoS 原則 QoS 原則套用到使用者他們已登入之後,無論哪一部電腦他們已登入。A QoS policy in User Configuration\Windows Settings\QoS Policy applies to users after they have logged on, regardless of which computer they have logged on to.

建立新原則 QoS QoS 原則精靈To create a new QoS policy with the QoS Policy wizard

  • 群組原則物件編輯器] 中,將其中一項步驟以滑鼠右鍵按一下QoS 原則節點,然後再按一下建立新原則In Group Policy Object Editor, right-click either of the QoS Policy nodes, and then click Create a new policy.

1-原則設定檔] 精靈頁面Wizard page 1 - Policy Profile

在 QoS 原則精靈中的第一個頁面上,您可以指定原則名稱,並設定 QoS 控制項傳出網路流量的方式。On the first page of the QoS Policy wizard, you can specify a policy name and configure how QoS controls outgoing network traffic.

設定原則設定檔] 頁面的 [QoS 型原則精靈To configure the Policy Profile page of the QoS-based Policy wizard

  1. 原則的名稱,輸入「QoS 原則的名稱。In Policy name, type a name for the QoS policy. 名稱唯一必須找出原則。The name must uniquely identify the policy.

  2. 或者,使用指定 DSCP 值可讓 DSCP 標記,並設定 DSCP 介於 0 和 63。Optionally, use Specify DSCP Value to enable DSCP marking, and then configure a DSCP value between 0 and 63.

  3. 或者,使用指定節流閥速率可讓您交通節流和設定節流閥速率。Optionally, use Specify Throttle Rate to enable traffic throttling and configure the throttle rate. 必須大於 1 流速速率值,您可以指定的第二個 (KBps) 每 kb 為單位或每個第二個 (MBps) mb 單位。The throttle rate value must be greater than 1 and you can specify units of kilobytes per second (KBps) or megabytes per second (MBps).

  4. 按一下下一步Click Next.

精靈頁面 2-應用程式的名稱Wizard page 2 - Application Name

在第二個頁面的 [QoS 原則精靈您可以到 [所有應用程式特定的應用程式套用原則有如由可執行檔名稱,路徑和應用程式名稱,或針對特定 URL 處理要求 HTTP 伺服器應用程式。In the second page of the QoS Policy wizard you can apply the policy to all applications, to a specific application as identified by its executable name, to a path and application name, or to the HTTP server applications that handle requests for a specific URL.

  • 所有應用程式指定 QoS 原則精靈中的第一個頁面上的資料傳輸管理設定套用到所有應用程式。All applications specifies that the traffic management settings on the first page of the QoS Policy wizard apply to all applications.

  • 這可執行檔名稱的應用程式指定 QoS 原則精靈中的第一個頁面上的資料傳輸管理設定都是針對特定應用程式。Only applications with this executable name specifies that the traffic management settings on the first page of the QoS Policy wizard are for a specific application. 可執行檔命名,並.exe 副檔名必須結束。The executable file name and must end with the .exe file name extension.

  • 僅限 HTTP 伺服器應用程式的此 URL 回應要求指定 QoS 原則精靈中的第一個頁面上的資料傳輸管理設定適用於特定 HTTP 伺服器應用程式。Only HTTP server applications responding to requests for this URL specifies that the traffic management settings on the first page of the QoS Policy wizard apply to certain HTTP server applications only.

或者,您可以輸入應用程式路徑。Optionally, you can enter the application path. 若要指定的應用程式路徑,包括應用程式名稱與路徑。To specify an application path, include the path with the application name. 路徑可以包含環境變數。The path can include environment variables. 例如,%ProgramFiles%\My Path\MyApp.exe 應用程式或 c:\program files\my application path\myapp.exe。For example, %ProgramFiles%\My Application Path\MyApp.exe, or c:\program files\my application path\myapp.exe.

注意

應用程式路徑無法包含路徑解析符號的連結。The application path cannot include a path that resolves to a symbolic link.

URL 必須符合RFC 1738,格式為http[s]://<hostname\>:<port\>/<url-path>The URL must conform to RFC 1738, in the form of http[s]://<hostname\>:<port\>/<url-path>. 您可以使用萬用字元,‘*’,適用於<hostname>和(或) <port>,例如http://training.\*/, https://\*.\*,但萬用字元不能代表的子<hostname><port>You can use a wildcard, ‘*’, for <hostname> and/or <port>, e.g. http://training.\*/, https://\*.\*, but the wildcard cannot denote a substring of <hostname> or <port>.

不亦即,http://my\*site/https://\*training\*/是有效的。In other words, neither http://my\*site/ nor https://\*training\*/ is valid.

或者,您可以檢查包含子目錄和檔案來執行符合所有子目錄與檔案下列 URL。Optionally, you can check Include subdirectories and files to perform matching on all subdirectories and files following a URL. 例如,如果選取此選項且 URL http://training,QoS 原則會考慮要求適用於http://training/video告訴您一個好相符項目。For example, if this option is checked and the URL is http://training, QoS Policy will consider requests forhttp://training/video a good match.

設定原則 QoS 精靈中的應用程式名稱頁面To configure the Application Name page of the QoS Policy wizard

  1. 這個 QoS 原則適用於,選取的所有應用程式可執行檔名稱的應用程式In This QoS policy applies to, select either All applications or Only applications with this executable name.

  2. 如果您選取 [這個可執行檔名稱的應用程式,指定結束.exe 副檔名可執行檔名稱。If you select Only applications with this executable name, specify an executable name ending with the .exe file name extension.

  3. 按一下下一步Click Next.

3-IP 位址] 精靈頁面Wizard page 3 - IP Addresses

第三個頁面 QoS 原則精靈中,您可以指定 IP 位址 QoS 原則,包括下列條件:In the third page of the QoS Policy wizard you can specify IP address conditions for the QoS policy, including the following:

  • 所有來源 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址或特定的來源 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址All source IPv4 or IPv6 addresses or specific source IPv4 or IPv6 addresses

  • 全部目的 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址] 或 [特定目的 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址All destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses or specific destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses

如果您選取 [來源下列的 IP 位址的僅適用於的目的地下列的 IP 位址只,您必須輸入下列其中一個動作:If you select Only for the following source IP address or Only for the following destination IP address, you must type one of the following:

  • 例如,IPv4 位址An IPv4 address, such as 192.168.1.1

  • 使用網路首碼長度標記,例如 IPv4 位址前置詞An IPv4 address prefix using network prefix length notation, such as 192.168.1.0/24

  • 例如 IPv6 位址An IPv6 address, such as 3ffe:ffff::1

  • IPv6 位址前置詞例如An IPv6 address prefix, such as 3ffe:ffff::/48

如果您同時選取來源下列的 IP 位址的僅適用於的目的地下列的 IP 位址只,同時地址或地址前置詞必須任一 IPv4 或 IPv6 為基礎。If you select both Only for the following source IP address and Only for the following destination IP address, both addresses or address prefixes must be either IPv4- or IPv6-based.

如果您在精靈上一頁指定的應用程式 HTTP 伺服器的 URL,您會注意到來源 QoS 原則精靈本頁上的 IP 位址灰色。If you specified the URL for HTTP server applications in the previous wizard page, you’ll notice that the source IP address for the QoS policy on this wizard page is grayed out.

因為來源 IP 位址 HTTP 伺服器位址,它可設定此處不是如此。This is true because the source IP address is the HTTP server address and it is not configurable here. 手動,您仍然可以自訂原則藉由目的地 IP 位址。On the other hand, you can still customize the policy by specifying the destination IP address. 這可讓您可以使用相同的 HTTP 伺服器應用程式的不同戶端建立不同的原則。This makes it possible for you to create different policies for different clients by using the same HTTP server applications.

若要設定 QoS 原則精靈的 IP 位址] 頁面To configure the IP Addresses page of the QoS Policy wizard

  1. 此 QoS 原則適用於(來源),選取 [任何來源 IP 位址僅供下列的 IP 來源位址In This QoS policy applies to (source), select Any source IP address or Only for the following IP source address.

  2. 如果您選取 [只下列的 IP 來源位址,指定 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址,或是前置詞。If you selected Only the following IP source address, specify an IPv4 or IPv6 address or prefix.

  3. 此 QoS 原則適用於(目的地),選取 [任何目的地位址僅供下列的 IP 位址目的。In This QoS policy applies to (destination), select Any destination address or Only for the following IP destination address.

  4. 如果您選取 [下列的 IP 位址目的地的僅適用於,指定 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址前置詞位址的類型或指定來源位址前置詞。If you selected Only for the following IP destination address, specify an IPv4 or IPv6 address or prefix that corresponds to the type of address or prefix specified for the source address.

  5. 按一下下一步Click Next.

精靈頁面 4-通訊協定與連接埠Wizard page 4 - Protocols and Ports

在 [QoS 原則精靈第四個頁面上,您可以指定的類型的資料傳輸與精靈中的第一個頁面上的設定所控制連接埠。On the fourth page of the QoS Policy wizard, you can specify the types of traffic and the ports that are controlled by the settings on the first page of the wizard. 您可以指定:You can specify:

  • TCP 流量、UDP 交通,或兩者TCP traffic, UDP traffic, or both

  • 所有來源連接埠,各種來源的連接埠或特定來源連接埠All source ports, a range of source ports, or a specific source port

  • 所有目的地連接埠,有各種不同的目的地連接埠或特定目的連接埠All destination ports, a range of destination ports, or a specific destination port

設定原則 QoS 精靈的通訊協定與連接埠] 頁面To configure the Protocols and Ports page of the QoS Policy wizard

  1. 選取通訊協定 QoS 這項原則套用到TCPUDP,或TCP 與 UDPIn Select the protocol this QoS policy applies to, select TCP, UDP, or TCP and UDP.

  2. 指定來源連接埠號碼,請選取的任何來源連接埠從這個來源連接埠號碼In Specify the source port number, select From any source port or From this source port number.

  3. 如果您選取 [這個來源連接埠號碼的,輸入 1 之間 65535 連接埠號碼。If you selected From this source port number, type a port number between 1 and 65535.

    或者,您可以指定連接埠各種不同的格式」:,「其中代表下限和上限的連接埠範圍,並依。Optionally, you can specify a port range, in the format of "Low:High," where Low and High represent the lower bounds and upper bounds of the port range, inclusively. 每一個必須是介於 1 與 65535。Low and High each must be a number between 1 and 65535. 允許不空間之間分號(:)的字元和數字。No space is allowed between the colon (:) character and the numbers.

  4. 指定目的地連接埠號碼,請選取以任何目的地連接埠到此目標連接埠號碼In Specify the destination port number, select To any destination port or To this destination port number.

  5. 如果您選取 [到此目標連接埠號碼在上一個步驟中,輸入 1 之間 65535 連接埠號碼。If you selected To this destination port number in the previous step, type a port number between 1 and 65535.

若要完成建立新的 QoS 原則,按一下 [完成通訊協定與連接埠QoS 原則精靈的頁面。To complete the creation of the new QoS policy, click Finish on the Protocols and Ports page of the QoS Policy wizard. 完成時,在詳細資料窗格中的 [群組原則物件編輯器列出的新 QoS 原則。When completed, the new QoS policy is listed in the details pane of the Group Policy Object Editor.

若要套用 QoS 原則設定的使用者或電腦,在其中的 QoS 原則位於 Active Directory Domain Services 容器,例如 「 網域、 網站或組織單位 (組織單位) 將 GPO 連結。To apply the QoS policy settings to users or computers, link the GPO in which the QoS policies are located to an Active Directory Domain Services container, such as a domain, a site, or an organizational unit (OU).

檢視、 編輯,或移除 QoS 原則View, Edit, or Delete a QoS Policy

當您檢視或編輯的原則時所顯示網頁屬性先前對應的 QoS 原則精靈中所述之。The pages of the QoS Policy wizard described previously correspond to the properties pages that are displayed when you view or edit the properties of a policy.

若要檢視的屬性 QoS 原則To view the properties of a QoS policy

  • 在詳細資料窗格中的群組原則物件編輯器原則的名稱上按一下滑鼠右鍵,然後按一下屬性Right-click the policy name in the details pane of the Group Policy Object Editor, and then click Properties.

    群組原則物件編輯器會顯示下列索引標籤的屬性頁面:The Group Policy Object Editor displays the properties page with the following tabs:

    • 原則設定檔Policy Profile

    • 應用程式的名稱Application Name

    • IP 位址IP Addresses

    • 通訊協定與連接埠Protocols and Ports

若要編輯 QoS 原則To edit a QoS policy

  • 在詳細資料窗格中的群組原則物件編輯器原則的名稱上按一下滑鼠右鍵,然後按一下編輯現有的原則Right-click the policy name in the details pane of the Group Policy Object Editor, and then click Edit existing policy.

    群組原則物件編輯器會顯示編輯現有 QoS 原則對話方塊。The Group Policy Object Editor displays the Edit an existing QoS policy dialog box.

若要 delete QoS 原則To delete a QoS policy

  • 在詳細資料窗格中的群組原則物件編輯器原則的名稱上按一下滑鼠右鍵,然後按一下Delete 原則Right-click the policy name in the details pane of the Group Policy Object Editor, and then click Delete policy.

QoS 原則 GPMC 報告QoS Policy GPMC Reporting

在您的組織套用 QoS 原則數目之後,可能需要定期檢查如何套用原則甚至。After you have applied a number of QoS policies across your organization, it may be useful or necessary to periodically review how the policies are applied. 使用 GPMC 報告可以檢視 QoS 原則的特定的使用者或電腦的摘要。A summary of the QoS policies for a specific user or computer can be viewed by using GPMC reporting.

若要執行 QoS 原則的報告的群組原則結果精靈To run the Group Policy Results Wizard for a report of QoS policies

  • 在 gpmc 中,以滑鼠右鍵按一下群組原則結果節點,然後再選取功能表選項的群組原則結果精靈。In GPMC, right-click the Group Policy Results node, and then select the menu option for Group Policy Results Wizard.

群組原則結果專之後,請按一下設定索引標籤。在設定索引標籤上,可以在 [電腦設定 windows 設定 Settings\QoS 原則」和「使用者 \windows Settings\QoS 原則」節點找到 QoS 原則。After Group Policy results are generated, click the Settings tab. On the Settings tab, the QoS policies can be found under the "Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\QoS Policy" and "User Configuration\Windows Settings\QoS Policy" nodes.

設定索引標籤上,QoS 原則會列出它們 DSCP 值、 節流閥速率、 原則條件,QoS 原則的名稱來和贏得 GPO 列在同一行。On the Settings tab, the QoS policies are listed by their QoS policy names with their DSCP value, throttle rate, policy conditions, and winning GPO listed in the same row..

群組原則結果檢視辨識獲勝 GPO。The Group Policy results view uniquely identifies the winning GPO. 當多個 Gpo 有 QoS 原則相同的 QoS 原則名稱時,以最高優先順序 GPO GPO 會套用。When multiple GPOs have QoS policies with the same QoS policy name, the GPO with the highest GPO precedence is applied. 這是獲勝 GPO。This is the winning GPO. 發生衝突 QoS 原則 (由原則的名稱),已連接到較低優先順序 GPO 並不會套用。Conflicting QoS policies (identified by policy name) that are attached to a lower priority GPO are not applied. 請注意 GPO 優先順序定義哪些 QoS 原則適當地部署網站、 網域,或滑鼠。Note the GPO priorities define which QoS policies are deployed in the site, domain, or OU, as appropriate. 部署之後,在使用者或電腦的層級, QoS 原則優先順序規則允許的流量並封鎖判斷。After deployment, at a user or computer level, the QoS Policy Precedence Rules determine which traffic is allowed and blocked.

QoS 原則的 DSCP 值、 節流閥速率和原則條件也是顯示在群組原則物件編輯器 (GPOE)The QoS policy's DSCP value, throttle rate, and policy conditions are also visible in Group Policy Object Editor (GPOE)

進階漫遊和遠端使用者的設定Advanced settings for roaming and remote users

使用 QoS 原則,目標是管理企業的網路流量。With QoS Policy, the goal is to manage traffic on an enterprise's network. 在行動裝置版案例中,使用者可能會傳送資料傳輸或企業網路關閉。In mobile scenarios, users might be sending traffic on or off the enterprise network. 由於 QoS 原則不相關的企業網路離開時,才只在適用於 Windows 8、 Windows 7 或 Windows Vista 連接到企業網路介面 QoS 原則。Because QoS policies are not relevant while away from the enterprise's network, QoS policies are enabled only on network interfaces that are connected to the enterprise for Windows 8, Windows 7, or Windows Vista.

例如,使用者可能會她筆記型電腦透過 virtual 私人網路 (VPN) 他們企業網路從連接咖啡館。For example, a user might connect her portable computer to her enterprise's network via virtual private network (VPN) from a coffee shop. Vpn、 實體網路介面 (例如無線) 並不會套用 QoS 原則。For VPN, the physical network interface (such as wireless) will not have QoS policies applied. 不過,VPN 介面會有套用,因為它連接到企業 QoS 原則。However, the VPN interface will have QoS policies applied because it connects to the enterprise. 如果使用者稍後輸入不需要 AD DS 信任關係的另一個企業網路,將不支援 QoS 原則。If the user later enters another enterprise's network that does not have an AD DS trust relationship, QoS policies will not be enabled.

請注意,在這些案例中行動裝置版不會套用到伺服器工作負載。Note that these mobile scenarios do not apply to server workloads. 例如,有多個網路介面卡的伺服器可能坐邊緣的企業網路。For example, a server with multiple network adapters might sit on the edge of an enterprise's network. 選擇 IT 部門可能 QoS 原則節流閥流量之 egresses 企業;不過,這傳送此輸出流量網路介面卡不一定連接到企業網路。The IT department might choose to have QoS policies throttle traffic that egresses the enterprise; however, this network adapter that sends this egress traffic does not necessarily connect back to the enterprise network. 基於這個原因,QoS 原則的隨時支援所有的網路介面執行 Windows Server 2012 的電腦上。For this reason, QoS policies are always enabled on all network interfaces of a computer running Windows Server 2012.

注意

選擇性提供僅適用於 QoS 原則,而非討論本文件中的下一步進階 QoS 設定。Selective enablement only applies to QoS policies and not to the Advanced QoS settings discussed next in this document.

進階的 QoS 設定Advanced QoS settings

進階的設定] QoS 提供額外控制,IT 系統管理員,管理電腦網路消耗和 DSCP 標示為。Advanced QoS settings provide additional controls for IT administrators to manage computer network consumption and DSCP markings. 而 QoS 原則可以在電腦和使用者層級套用只能在電腦層級,適用於進階的 QoS 設定。Advanced QoS settings apply only at the computer level, whereas QoS policies can be applied at both the computer and user levels.

若要設定 QoS 的進階的設定To configure advanced QoS settings

  1. 按一下電腦設定,然後按一下 [群組原則中的 Windows 設定Click Computer Configuration, and then click Windows Settings in Group Policy.

  2. 以滑鼠右鍵按一下QoS 原則,然後按一下 [進階 QoS 設定]Right-click QoS Policy, and then click Advanced QoS Settings.

    下圖顯示這兩個進階 QoS 設定] 索引標籤:輸入 TCP 流量將會覆寫 DSCPThe following figure shows the two advanced QoS settings tabs: Inbound TCP Traffic and DSCP Marking Override.

注意

進階的 QoS 設定的層級電腦群組原則設定。Advanced QoS Settings are computer-level Group Policy settings.

進階 QoS 設定: 輸入 TCP 流量Advanced QoS settings: inbound TCP traffic

靠近花朵的 TCP 流量而 QoS 原則影響輸出的 TCP 與 UDP 傳輸控制項一邊收件者的 TCP 頻寬使用量。Inbound TCP Traffic controls the TCP bandwidth consumption on the receiver's side, whereas QoS policies affect the outbound TCP and UDP traffic.

設定較低處理能力層級在輸入 TCP 流量索引標籤,將會限制 TCP 其此處刊登的 TCP 大小接收視窗。By setting a lower throughput level on the Inbound TCP Traffic tab, TCP will limit the size of its advertised TCP receive window. 這項設定的效果將會增加的輸送量並連結以更高頻寬或延遲 (頻寬延遲 product) 的 TCP 連接的使用量。The effect of this setting will be increased throughput rates and link utilization for TCP connections with higher bandwidths or latencies (bandwidth delay product). 根據預設,在執行 Windows Server 2012、 Windows 8、 Windows Server 2008 R2、 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Vista 的電腦設定為最大的輸送量層級。By default, computers running Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista are set to the maximum throughput level.

TCP 收到視窗已經在 Windows Server 2012、 Windows 8、 Windows Server 2008 R2、 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Vista 從先前的 Windows 版本。The TCP receive window has changed in Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista from previous versions of Windows. 舊版 Windows 設計的有限的 TCP 接收端視窗最多 64 (kb),而 Windows Server 2012、 Windows 8、 Windows Server 2008 R2、 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Vista 動態接收端調整視窗大小達 16 (mb)。Previous versions of Windows limited the TCP receive-side window to a maximum of 64 kilobytes (KB), whereas Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista dynamically size the receive-side window up to 16 megabytes (MB). 在輸入的 TCP 傳輸控制項中,您可以控制輸入的輸送量層級設定 TCP 收到視窗可以一起拓展的最大值。In the Inbound TCP Traffic control, you can control the inbound throughput level by setting the maximum value to which the TCP receive-window can grow. 層級對應至下列最大值。The levels correspond to the following maximum values.

輸入的輸送量層級Inbound throughput level 最大值Maximum
00 64 KB64 KB
11 256 KB256 KB
22 1 MB1 MB
33 16 MB16 MB

實際的視窗大小可能等於或小於根據網路條件,最大值。The actual window size may be a value equal to or smaller than the maximum, depending on network conditions.

若要設定的 TCP 接收端視窗To set the TCP receive-side window
  1. 群組原則物件編輯器] 中,按一下 [本機電腦原則,按一下 [ Windows 設定,以滑鼠右鍵按一下QoS 原則,,然後按一下 [進階 QoS 設定]In Group Policy Object Editor, click Local Computer Policy, click Windows Settings, right click QoS Policy, and then click Advanced QoS Settings.

  2. TCP 接收輸送量,請選取設定 TCP 接收輸送量,然後選取 [輸送量您想要的層級。In TCP Receiving Throughput, select Configure TCP Receiving Throughput, and then select the level of throughput that you want.

  3. 將 GPO 連結到組織單位。Link the GPO to the OU.

進階 QoS 設定: 將會覆寫 DSCPAdvanced QoS settings: DSCP Marking Override

將會覆寫 DSCP 限制指定的應用程式的能力,或 「 標記 」-DSCP 值以外 QoS 原則中指定的。DSCP Marking Override restricts the ability of applications to specify—or "mark"—DSCP values other than those specified in QoS policies. 藉由應用程式可設定 DSCP 值,應用程式可以設定為零 DSCP 值。By specifying that applications are allowed to set DSCP values, applications can set non-zero DSCP values.

藉由忽略],使用 QoS Api 的應用程式將會有設定為零,其 DSCP 值,並只 QoS 原則設定 DSCP 值。By specifying Ignore, applications that use QoS APIs will have their DSCP values set to zero, and only QoS policies can set DSCP values.

根據預設,可執行 Windows Server 2016、 Windows 10、 Windows Server 2012 R2、 Windows 8.1、 Windows Server 2012、 Windows 8、 Windows Server 2008 R2、 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Vista 的電腦讓應用程式指定 DSCP 值。不覆寫應用程式和裝置,請不要使用 QoS Api。By default, computers running Windows Server 2016, Windows 10, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista allow applications to specify DSCP values; applications and devices that do not use the QoS APIs are not overridden.

Wireless 多媒體及 DSCP 值Wireless Multimedia and DSCP values

Alliance Wi ‑ Fi已建立憑證 Wireless 多媒體 (WMM) 定義四個存取分類 (WMM_AC) 排列網路流量傳輸 wireless Wi\ Wi-fi 網路。The Wi-Fi Alliance has established a certification for Wireless Multimedia (WMM) that defines four access categories (WMM_AC) for prioritizing network traffic transmitted on a Wi-Fi wireless network. 存取分類包括 \ (依的最高的最低 priority\): 語音、 視訊、 最佳努力及背景。分別縮寫 VO、 VI、 相當,以及亮度。The access categories include (in order of highest-to-lowest priority): voice, video, best effort, and background; respectively abbreviated as VO, VI, BE, and BK. WMM 規格會定義哪個 DSCP 每個的四個存取分類的對應的值:The WMM specification defines which DSCP values correspond with each of the four access categories:

DSCP 值。DSCP Value WMM 存取明細WMM Access Category
48-6348-63 語音 (VO)Voice (VO)
32-4732-47 影片 (VI)Video (VI)
24-31, 0-724-31, 0-7 最佳效果 (相當)Best effort (BE)
8-238-23 背景 (亮度)Background (BK)

您可以建立 QoS 原則,以確保 WMM wireless 卡筆記型電腦與 Wi-Fi Certified™ 收到時相關聯 Wi\ Wi-fi 認證 WMM 存取點的優先順序的處理使用這些 DSCP 值。You can create QoS policies that use these DSCP values to ensure that portable computers with Wi-Fi Certified™ for WMM wireless adapters receive prioritized handling when associated with Wi-Fi Certified for WMM access points.

QoS 原則優先順序規則QoS Policy Precedence Rules

類似 GPO 的優先順序 QoS 原則有衝突時多個 QoS 原則套用到特定的設定的資料傳輸到優先順序規則。Similar to GPO's priorities, QoS policies have precedence rules to resolve conflicts when multiple QoS policies apply to a specific set of traffic. 輸出 TCP 或 UDP 流量,可以一次,這表示 QoS 原則,不需要累積效果,例如想加總節流閥率套用只有一個 QoS 原則。For outbound TCP or UDP traffic, only one QoS policy can be applied at a time, which means that QoS policies do not have a cumulative effect, such as where throttle rates would be summed.

一般而言,贏得 QoS 原則與最符合的條件。In general, the QoS policy with the most matching conditions wins. 規則時多個 QoS 原則適用的選項,可分成三種: 使用者層級與電腦層級。應用程式與網路 quintuple;並在網路 quintuple。When multiple QoS policies apply, the rules fall into three categories: user-level versus computer-level; application versus the network quintuple; and among the network quintuple.

藉由網路 5 倍,我們來源 IP 位址,目的地 IP 位址、來源連接埠,目的連接埠,表示和 (TCP/UDP) 通訊協定。By network quintuple, we mean the source IP address, destination IP address, source port, destination port, and protocol (TCP/UDP).

使用者層級 QoS 原則優先順序高於電腦層級 QoS 原則User-level QoS policy takes precedence over computer-level QoS policy

此規則會大幅幫助 QoS Gpo,尤其是使用者型群組原則的網路管理員管理。This rule greatly facilitates network administrators’ management of QoS GPOs, particularly for user group–based policies. 例如網路系統管理員想要定義 QoS 使用者群組原則,他們可以只建立並散發 GPO 以該群組。For example, if the network admin wants to define a QoS policy for a user group, they can just create and distribute a GPO to that group. 他們不用擔心有關電腦的這些使用者登入並是否這些電腦將會有定義,QoS 原則衝突,因為如果衝突,使用者層級原則一律優先。They don’t have to worry about which computers those users are logged on to and whether those computers will have conflicting QoS policies defined, because, if a conflict exists, the user-level policy always takes precedence.

注意

使用者層級 QoS 原則僅適用於流量使用者所。A user-level QoS policy is only applicable to traffic that is generated by that user. 其他使用者的特定的電腦和電腦本身不會受任何 QoS 原則使用者所定義。Other users of a specific computer, and the computer itself, will not be subject to any QoS policies that are defined for that user.

特定應用程式和網路 quintuple 拍攝優先Application specificity and taking precedence over network quintuple

多個 QoS 原則符合特定流量時, 詳細特定原則。When multiple QoS policies match the specific traffic, the more specific policy is applied. 之間找出應用程式的原則,被視為只辨識的應用程式名稱(無路徑)的另一個原則比更為明確的原則,包括傳送的應用程式的檔案路徑。Among policies that identify applications, a policy that includes the sending application's file path is considered more specific than another policy that only identifies the application name (no path). 如果仍然適用的應用程式使用多個原則,優先順序規則使用網路 5 倍尋找最佳比對。If multiple policies with applications still apply, the precedence rules use the network quintuple to find the best match.

或者,多 QoS 原則可能會套用到相同的流量藉由不重疊的條件。Alternatively, multiple QoS policies might apply to the same traffic by specifying non-overlapping conditions. 條件的應用程式和網路 quintuple,指定的應用程式原則會被視為詳細特定並套用。Between the conditions of applications and the network quintuple, the policy that specifies the application is considered more specific and is applied.

例如 policy_A 只指定的應用程式名稱 (app.exe),和 policy_B 指定目的地 IP 位址 192.168.1.0 月 24。For example, policy_A only specifies an application name (app.exe), and policy_B specifies the destination IP address 192.168.1.0/24. 在這些 QoS 原則衝突 \(app.exe 會傳送資料傳輸到範圍 192.168.4.0 日 24\ 的 IP 位址,)policy_A 取得套用。When these QoS policies conflict (app.exe sends traffic to an IP address within the range of 192.168.4.0/24), policy_A gets applied.

更多的細節優先網路 5 倍More specificity takes precedence within the network quintuple

在網路 quintuple 原則衝突的原則與最符合的條件優先順序。For policy conflicts within the network quintuple, the policy with the most matching conditions takes precedence. 例如,假設 policy_C 指定來源 IP 位址] 任何」,目的地 IP 位址來源連接埠,10.0.0.1」任何」,目的地連接埠「任何,「通訊協定」TCP」。For example, assume policy_C specifies source IP address "any", destination IP address 10.0.0.1, source port "any", destination port "any", and protocol "TCP".

接下來,假設 policy_D 指定來源 IP 位址] 任何」、目的地 IP 位址來源連接埠,10.0.0.1」任何」,目的地連接埠 80,和通訊協定」TCP」。Next, assume policy_D specifies source IP address "any", destination IP address 10.0.0.1, source port "any", destination port 80, and protocol "TCP". 然後 policy_C 和 policy_D 符合目的地 10.0.0.1:80 連接。Then policy_C and policy_D both match connections to destination 10.0.0.1:80. 因為 QoS 原則套用原則的特定最符合的條件,policy_D 優先在此範例中。Because QoS Policy applies the policy with the most specific matching conditions, policy_D takes precedence in this example.

不過,QoS 原則可能會有相同數量的條件。However, QoS policies might have an equal number of conditions. 例如,數個原則可能每指定只有一個(但不是相同)網路 quintuple 有如。For example, several policies may each specify only one (but not the same) piece of the network quintuple. 網路 quintuple,下列順序是來自高優先順序較低:Among the network quintuple, the following order is from higher to lower precedence:

  • 來源 IP 位址Source IP address

  • 目的地 IP 位址Destination IP address

  • 來源連接埠Source port

  • 目的地連接埠Destination port

  • 通訊協定(TCP 或 UDP)Protocol (TCP or UDP)

特定的條件,例如 IP 位址,更特定的 IP 位址都會被視為優先順序較高。例如,IP 位址 192.168.4.1 是詳細特定超過 192.168.4.0 月 24。Within a specific condition, such as IP address, a more specific IP address is treated with higher precedence; for example, an IP address 192.168.4.1 is more specific than 192.168.4.0/24.

設計原則 QoS 儘可能針對特定簡化您組織的能力的原則才會生效。Design your QoS policies as specifically as possible to simplify your organization's ability to understand which policies are in effect.

本指南下一步主題,請查看QoS 原則事件和錯誤For the next topic in this guide, see QoS Policy Events and Errors.

本指南中第一次主題,請查看品質服務 (QoS) 原則For the first topic in this guide, see Quality of Service (QoS) Policy.