將新磁碟初始化Initialize new disks

適用於: Windows 10、Windows 8.1、Windows 7、Windows Server (半年通道)、Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies To: Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 7, Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

如果您將全新的磁碟新增至電腦,而且它未顯示在檔案總管中,您可能需要新增磁碟機代號,或將它初始化再使用它。If you add a brand new disk to your PC and it doesn't show up in File Explorer, you might need to add a drive letter, or initialize it before using it. 您只能將尚未格式化的磁碟機初始化。You can only initialize a drive that's not yet formatted. 將磁碟初始化會清除磁碟上的所有內容並準備好供 Windows 使用,在這之後,您可以將它格式化,再將檔案儲存至其中。Initializing a disk erases everything on it and prepares it for use by Windows, after which you can format it and then store files on it.

警告

如果您的磁碟上已有重要檔案,請勿將它初始化 - 您將會遺失所有檔案。If your disk already has files on it that you care about, don't initialize it - you'll lose all the files. 相反地,建議針對磁碟進行疑難排解,看看是否可以讀取檔案 - 請參閱磁碟的狀態為未初始化或磁碟已完全遺失Instead we recommend troubleshooting the disk to see if you can read the files - see A disk's status is Not Initialized or the disk is missing entirely.

將新磁碟初始化To initialize new disks

以下說明如何使用 [磁碟管理] 將新磁碟初始化。Here's how to initialize a new disk using Disk Management. 如果您偏好使用 PowerShell,請改用 initialize-disk Cmdlet。If you prefer using PowerShell, use the initialize-disk cmdlet instead.

  1. 使用系統管理員權限開啟 [磁碟管理]。Open Disk Management with administrator permissions.

    若要執行這項操作,請在工作列的搜尋方塊中鍵入磁碟管理,選取並按住 (或以滑鼠右鍵按一下) [磁碟管理] ,然後選取 [以系統管理員身分執行] > [是] 。To do so, in the search box on the taskbar, type Disk Management, select and hold (or right-click) Disk Management, then select Run as administrator > Yes. 如果無法以系統管理員身分將它開啟,請改鍵入電腦管理,然後移至 [儲存體] > [磁碟管理] 。If you can't open it as an administrator, type Computer Management instead, and then go to Storage > Disk Management.

  2. 在 [磁碟管理] 中,以滑鼠右鍵按一下您要初始化的磁碟,然後按一下 [初始化磁碟] (如下所示)。In Disk Management, right-click the disk you want to initialize, and then click Initialize Disk (shown here). 如果磁碟列為「離線」 ,請先以滑鼠右鍵按一下它,然後選取 [線上] 。If the disk is listed as Offline, first right-click it and select Online.

    請注意,某些 USB 磁碟機沒有初始化選項,只有格式化選項和磁碟機代號Note that some USB drives don't have the option to be initialized, they just get formatted and a drive letter.

    顯示未格式化磁碟的 [磁碟管理],並顯示 [初始化磁碟] 捷徑功能表

  3. 在 [初始化磁碟] 對話方塊中 (如下所示),檢查以確定選取了正確的磁碟,然後按一下 [確定] 接受預設磁碟分割樣式。In the Initialize Disk dialog box (shown here), check to make sure that the correct disk is selected and then click OK to accept the default partition style. 如果您需要變更磁碟分割樣式 (GPT 或 MBR),請參閱關於磁碟分割樣式 - GPT 和 MBRIf you need to change the partition style (GPT or MBR) see About partition styles - GPT and MBR.

    磁碟狀態會短暫變更為 [正在初始化] ,再變更為 [線上] 狀態。The disk status briefly changes to Initializing and then to the Online status. 如果因某些原因而導致初始化失敗,請參閱磁碟的狀態為未初始化或磁碟已完全遺失If initializing fails for some reason, see A disk's status is Not Initialized or the disk is missing entirely.

    選取 GPT 磁碟分割樣式的 [初始化磁碟] 對話方塊

  4. 選取並按住 (或以滑鼠右鍵按一下) 磁碟機上未配置的空間,然後選取 [新增簡單磁碟區] 。Select and hold (or right-click) the unallocated space on the drive and then select New Simple Volume.

  5. 選取 [下一步] ,指定磁碟區的大小 (您可能會想要使用預設值,而使用整個磁碟機),然後選取 [下一步] 。Select Next, specify the size of the volume (you'll likely want to stick with the default, which uses the whole drive), and then select Next.

  6. 指定您要指派給磁碟區的磁碟機代號,然後選取 [下一步] 。Specify the drive letter you want to assign to the volume and then select Next.

  7. 指定您要使用的檔案系統 (通常是 NTFS),選取 [下一步] ,然後選取 [完成] 。Specify the file system you want to use (usually NTFS), select Next, and then Finish.

關於磁碟分割樣式 - GPT 和 MBRAbout partition styles - GPT and MBR

磁碟可以分割成多個區塊,稱為磁碟分割。Disks can be divided up into multiple chunks called partitions. 每個磁碟分割都必須具有磁碟分割樣式 GPT 或 MBR,即使只有一個磁碟分割也一樣。Each partition - even if you have only one - has to have a partition style - GPT or MBR. Windows 使用磁碟分割樣式來了解如何存取磁碟上的資料。Windows uses the partition style to understand how to access the data on the disk.

雖然這聽起或許不太有趣,但重點是,今日通常不需要擔心磁碟分割樣式,Windows 會自動使用適當的磁碟類型。As fascinating as this probably isn't, the bottom line is that these days, you don't usually have to worry about partition style - Windows automatically uses the appropriate disk type.

大多數電腦針對硬碟和 SSD 使用 GUID 磁碟分割表格 (GPT) 磁碟類型。Most PCs use the GUID Partition Table (GPT) disk type for hard drives and SSDs. GPT 更穩固且允許大於 2 TB 的磁碟區。GPT is more robust and allows for volumes bigger than 2 TB. 32 位元電腦、舊版電腦和抽取式磁碟機 (例如記憶卡) 會使用舊版主開機記錄 (MBR) 磁碟類型。The older Master Boot Record (MBR) disk type is used by 32-bit PCs, older PCs, and removable drives such as memory cards.

若要在 MBR 與 GPT 之間轉換磁碟,您必須先從磁碟刪除所有磁碟區,以清除磁碟上的所有內容。To convert a disk from MBR to GPT or vice versa, you first have to delete all volumes from the disk, erasing everything on the disk. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱將 MBR 磁碟轉換為 GPT 磁碟將 GPT 磁碟轉換為 MBR 磁碟For more info, see Convert an MBR disk into a GPT disk, or Convert a GPT disk into an MBR disk.