Handle errors in ASP.NET Core

By Kirk Larkin, Tom Dykstra, and Steve Smith

This article covers common approaches to handling errors in ASP.NET Core web apps. See Handle errors in ASP.NET Core web APIs for web APIs.

View or download sample code. (How to download.) The network tab on the F12 browser developer tools is useful when testing the sample app.

Developer Exception Page

The Developer Exception Page displays detailed information about request exceptions. The ASP.NET Core templates generate the following code:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

The preceding highlighted code enables the developer exception page when the app is running in the Development environment.

The templates place UseDeveloperExceptionPage early in the middleware pipeline so that it can catch exceptions thrown in middleware that follows.

The preceding code enables the Developer Exception Page only when the app runs in the Development environment. Detailed exception information should not be displayed publicly when the app runs in the Production environment. For more information on configuring environments, see Use multiple environments in ASP.NET Core.

The Developer Exception Page includes the following information about the exception and the request:

  • Stack trace
  • Query string parameters if any
  • Cookies if any
  • Headers

Exception handler page

To configure a custom error handling page for the Production environment, call UseExceptionHandler. This exception handling middleware:

  • Catches and logs exceptions.
  • Re-executes the request in an alternate pipeline using the path indicated. The request isn't re-executed if the response has started. The template generated code re-executes the request using the /Error path.

In the following example, UseExceptionHandler adds the exception handling middleware in non-Development environments:

if (env.IsDevelopment())
{
    app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
}
else
{
    app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
    app.UseHsts();
}

The Razor Pages app template provides an Error page (.cshtml) and PageModel class (ErrorModel) in the Pages folder. For an MVC app, the project template includes an Error action method and an Error view for the Home controller.

Don't mark the error handler action method with HTTP method attributes, such as HttpGet. Explicit verbs prevent some requests from reaching the action method. Allow anonymous access to the method if unauthenticated users should see the error view.

Access the exception

Use IExceptionHandlerPathFeature to access the exception and the original request path in an error handler. The following code adds ExceptionMessage to the default Pages/Error.cshtml.cs generated by the ASP.NET Core templates:

[ResponseCache(Duration=0, Location=ResponseCacheLocation.None, NoStore=true)]
[IgnoreAntiforgeryToken]
public class ErrorModel : PageModel
{
    public string RequestId { get; set; }
    public bool ShowRequestId => !string.IsNullOrEmpty(RequestId);
    public string ExceptionMessage { get; set; }
    private readonly ILogger<ErrorModel> _logger;

    public ErrorModel(ILogger<ErrorModel> logger)
    {
        _logger = logger;
    }

    public void OnGet()
    {
        RequestId = Activity.Current?.Id ?? HttpContext.TraceIdentifier;

        var exceptionHandlerPathFeature =
        HttpContext.Features.Get<IExceptionHandlerPathFeature>();
        if (exceptionHandlerPathFeature?.Error is FileNotFoundException)
        {
            ExceptionMessage = "File error thrown";
            _logger.LogError(ExceptionMessage);
        }
        if (exceptionHandlerPathFeature?.Path == "/index")
        {
            ExceptionMessage += " from home page";
        }
    }
}

Warning

Do not serve sensitive error information to clients. Serving errors is a security risk.

To test the exception in the sample app:

  • Set the environment to production.
  • Remove the comments from webBuilder.UseStartup<Startup>(); in Program.cs.
  • Select Trigger an exception on the home page.

Exception handler lambda

An alternative to a custom exception handler page is to provide a lambda to UseExceptionHandler. Using a lambda allows access to the error before returning the response.

The following code uses a lambda for exception handling:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler(errorApp =>
        {
            errorApp.Run(async context =>
            {
                context.Response.StatusCode = 500;
                context.Response.ContentType = "text/html";

                await context.Response.WriteAsync("<html lang=\"en\"><body>\r\n");
                await context.Response.WriteAsync("ERROR!<br><br>\r\n");

                var exceptionHandlerPathFeature =
                    context.Features.Get<IExceptionHandlerPathFeature>();

                if (exceptionHandlerPathFeature?.Error is FileNotFoundException)
                {
                    await context.Response.WriteAsync(
                                              "File error thrown!<br><br>\r\n");
                }

                await context.Response.WriteAsync(
                                              "<a href=\"/\">Home</a><br>\r\n");
                await context.Response.WriteAsync("</body></html>\r\n");
                await context.Response.WriteAsync(new string(' ', 512)); 
            });
        });
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

Warning

Do not serve sensitive error information from IExceptionHandlerFeature or IExceptionHandlerPathFeature to clients. Serving errors is a security risk.

To test the exception handling lambda in the sample app:

  • Set the environment to production.
  • Remove the comments from webBuilder.UseStartup<StartupLambda>(); in Program.cs.
  • Select Trigger an exception on the home page.

UseStatusCodePages

By default, an ASP.NET Core app doesn't provide a status code page for HTTP error status codes, such as 404 - Not Found. When the app encounters an HTTP 400-499 error condition that doesn't have a body, it returns the status code and an empty response body. To provide status code pages, use the status code pages middleware. To enable default text-only handlers for common error status codes, call UseStatusCodePages in the Startup.Configure method:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseStatusCodePages();

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

Call UseStatusCodePages before request handling middleware. For example, call UseStatusCodePages before the Static File Middleware and the Endpoints Middleware.

When UseStatusCodePages isn't used, navigating to a URL without an endpoint returns a browser dependent error message indicating the endpoint can't be found. For example, navigating to Home/Privacy2. When UseStatusCodePages is called, the browser returns:

Status Code: 404; Not Found

UseStatusCodePages isn't typically used in production because it returns a message that isn't useful to users.

To test UseStatusCodePages in the sample app:

  • Set the environment to production.
  • Remove the comments from webBuilder.UseStartup<StartupUseStatusCodePages>(); in Program.cs.
  • Select the links on the home page on the home page.

UseStatusCodePages with format string

To customize the response content type and text, use the overload of UseStatusCodePages that takes a content type and format string:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseStatusCodePages(
        "text/plain", "Status code page, status code: {0}");

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

In the preceding code, {0} is a placeholder for the error code.

UseStatusCodePages with a format string isn't typically used in production because it returns a message that isn't useful to users.

To test UseStatusCodePages in the sample app, remove the comments from webBuilder.UseStartup<StartupFormat>(); in Program.cs.

UseStatusCodePages with lambda

To specify custom error-handling and response-writing code, use the overload of UseStatusCodePages that takes a lambda expression:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseStatusCodePages(async context =>
    {
        context.HttpContext.Response.ContentType = "text/plain";

        await context.HttpContext.Response.WriteAsync(
            "Status code page, status code: " +
            context.HttpContext.Response.StatusCode);
    });

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

UseStatusCodePages with a lambda isn't typically used in production because it returns a message that isn't useful to users.

To test UseStatusCodePages in the sample app, remove the comments from webBuilder.UseStartup<StartupStatusLambda>(); in Program.cs.

UseStatusCodePagesWithRedirects

The UseStatusCodePagesWithRedirects extension method:

  • Sends a 302 - Found status code to the client.
  • Redirects the client to the error handling endpoint provided in the URL template. The error handling endpoint typically displays error information and returns HTTP 200.
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseStatusCodePagesWithRedirects("/MyStatusCode?code={0}");

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

The URL template can include a {0} placeholder for the status code, as shown in the preceding code. If the URL template starts with ~ (tilde), the ~ is replaced by the app's PathBase. When specifying an endpoint in the app, create an MVC view or Razor page for the endpoint. For a Razor Pages example, see Pages/MyStatusCode.cshtml in the sample app.

This method is commonly used when the app:

  • Should redirect the client to a different endpoint, usually in cases where a different app processes the error. For web apps, the client's browser address bar reflects the redirected endpoint.
  • Shouldn't preserve and return the original status code with the initial redirect response.

To test UseStatusCodePages in the sample app, remove the comments from webBuilder.UseStartup<StartupSCredirect>(); in Program.cs.

UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute

The UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute extension method:

  • Returns the original status code to the client.
  • Generates the response body by re-executing the request pipeline using an alternate path.
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute("/MyStatusCode2", "?code={0}");

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

If an endpoint within the app is specified, create an MVC view or Razor page for the endpoint. Ensure UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute is placed before UseRouting so the request can be rerouted to the status page. For a Razor Pages example, see Pages/MyStatusCode2.cshtml in the sample app.

This method is commonly used when the app should:

  • Process the request without redirecting to a different endpoint. For web apps, the client's browser address bar reflects the originally requested endpoint.
  • Preserve and return the original status code with the response.

The URL and query string templates may include a placeholder {0} for the status code. The URL template must start with /.

The endpoint that processes the error can get the original URL that generated the error, as shown in the following example:

[ResponseCache(Duration = 0, Location = ResponseCacheLocation.None, NoStore = true)]
public class MyStatusCode2Model : PageModel
{
    public string RequestId { get; set; }
    public bool ShowRequestId => !string.IsNullOrEmpty(RequestId);

    public string ErrorStatusCode { get; set; }

    public string OriginalURL { get; set; }
    public bool ShowOriginalURL => !string.IsNullOrEmpty(OriginalURL);

    public void OnGet(string code)
    {
        RequestId = Activity.Current?.Id ?? HttpContext.TraceIdentifier;
        ErrorStatusCode = code;

        var statusCodeReExecuteFeature = HttpContext.Features.Get<
                                               IStatusCodeReExecuteFeature>();
        if (statusCodeReExecuteFeature != null)
        {
            OriginalURL =
                statusCodeReExecuteFeature.OriginalPathBase
                + statusCodeReExecuteFeature.OriginalPath
                + statusCodeReExecuteFeature.OriginalQueryString;
        }
    }
}

For a Razor Pages example, see Pages/MyStatusCode2.cshtml in the sample app.

To test UseStatusCodePages in the sample app, remove the comments from webBuilder.UseStartup<StartupSCreX>(); in Program.cs.

Disable status code pages

To disable status code pages for an MVC controller or action method, use the [SkipStatusCodePages] attribute.

To disable status code pages for specific requests in a Razor Pages handler method or in an MVC controller, use IStatusCodePagesFeature:

public void OnGet()
{
    // using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Diagnostics;
    var statusCodePagesFeature = HttpContext.Features.Get<IStatusCodePagesFeature>();

    if (statusCodePagesFeature != null)
    {
        statusCodePagesFeature.Enabled = false;
    }
}

Exception-handling code

Code in exception handling pages can also throw exceptions. Production error pages should be tested thoroughly and take extra care to avoid throwing exceptions of their own.

Response headers

Once the headers for a response are sent:

  • The app can't change the response's status code.
  • Any exception pages or handlers can't run. The response must be completed or the connection aborted.

Server exception handling

In addition to the exception handling logic in an app, the HTTP server implementation can handle some exceptions. If the server catches an exception before response headers are sent, the server sends a 500 - Internal Server Error response without a response body. If the server catches an exception after response headers are sent, the server closes the connection. Requests that aren't handled by the app are handled by the server. Any exception that occurs when the server is handling the request is handled by the server's exception handling. The app's custom error pages, exception handling middleware, and filters don't affect this behavior.

Startup exception handling

Only the hosting layer can handle exceptions that take place during app startup. The host can be configured to capture startup errors and capture detailed errors.

The hosting layer can show an error page for a captured startup error only if the error occurs after host address/port binding. If binding fails:

  • The hosting layer logs a critical exception.
  • The dotnet process crashes.
  • No error page is displayed when the HTTP server is Kestrel.

When running on IIS (or Azure App Service) or IIS Express, a 502.5 - Process Failure is returned by the ASP.NET Core Module if the process can't start. For more information, see Troubleshoot ASP.NET Core on Azure App Service and IIS.

Database error page

The Database developer page exception filter AddDatabaseDeveloperPageExceptionFilter captures database-related exceptions that can be resolved by using Entity Framework Core migrations. When these exceptions occur, an HTML response is generated with details of possible actions to resolve the issue. This page is enabled only in the Development environment. The following code was generated by the ASP.NET Core Razor Pages templates when individual user accounts were specified:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddDbContext<ApplicationDbContext>(options =>
        options.UseSqlServer(
            Configuration.GetConnectionString("DefaultConnection")));
    services.AddDatabaseDeveloperPageExceptionFilter();
    services.AddDefaultIdentity<IdentityUser>(options => options.SignIn.RequireConfirmedAccount = true)
        .AddEntityFrameworkStores<ApplicationDbContext>();
    services.AddRazorPages();
}

Exception filters

In MVC apps, exception filters can be configured globally or on a per-controller or per-action basis. In Razor Pages apps, they can be configured globally or per page model. These filters handle any unhandled exceptions that occur during the execution of a controller action or another filter. For more information, see Filters in ASP.NET Core.

Exception filters are useful for trapping exceptions that occur within MVC actions, but they're not as flexible as the built-in exception handling middleware, UseExceptionHandler. We recommend using UseExceptionHandler, unless you need to perform error handling differently based on which MVC action is chosen.

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
        app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapRazorPages();
    });
}

Model state errors

For information about how to handle model state errors, see Model binding and Model validation.

Additional resources

By Tom Dykstra, and Steve Smith

This article covers common approaches to handling errors in ASP.NET Core web apps. See Handle errors in ASP.NET Core web APIs for web APIs.

View or download sample code. (How to download.)

Developer Exception Page

The Developer Exception Page displays detailed information about request exceptions. The ASP.NET Core templates generate the following code:

if (env.IsDevelopment())
{
    app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
}
else
{
    app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
    app.UseHsts();
}

The preceding code enables the developer exception page when the app is running in the Development environment.

The templates place UseDeveloperExceptionPage before any middleware so exceptions are caught in the middleware that follows.

The preceding code enables the Developer Exception Page only when the app is running in the Development environment. Detailed exception information should not be displayed publicly when the app runs in production. For more information on configuring environments, see Use multiple environments in ASP.NET Core.

The Developer Exception Page includes the following information about the exception and the request:

  • Stack trace
  • Query string parameters if any
  • Cookies if any
  • Headers

Exception handler page

To configure a custom error handling page for the Production environment, use the Exception Handling Middleware. The middleware:

  • Catches and logs exceptions.
  • Re-executes the request in an alternate pipeline for the page or controller indicated. The request isn't re-executed if the response has started. The template generated code re-executes the request to /Error.

In the following example, UseExceptionHandler adds the Exception Handling Middleware in non-Development environments:

if (env.IsDevelopment())
{
    app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
}
else
{
    app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
    app.UseHsts();
}

The Razor Pages app template provides an Error page (.cshtml) and PageModel class (ErrorModel) in the Pages folder. For an MVC app, the project template includes an Error action method and an Error view in the Home controller.

Don't mark the error handler action method with HTTP method attributes, such as HttpGet. Explicit verbs prevent some requests from reaching the method. Allow anonymous access to the method if unauthenticated users should see the error view.

Access the exception

Use IExceptionHandlerPathFeature to access the exception and the original request path in an error handler controller or page:

[ResponseCache(Duration = 0, Location = ResponseCacheLocation.None, NoStore = true)]
public class ErrorModel : PageModel
{
    public string RequestId { get; set; }
    public bool ShowRequestId => !string.IsNullOrEmpty(RequestId);
    public string ExceptionMessage { get; set; }

    public void OnGet()
    {
        RequestId = Activity.Current?.Id ?? HttpContext.TraceIdentifier;

        var exceptionHandlerPathFeature =
            HttpContext.Features.Get<IExceptionHandlerPathFeature>();
        if (exceptionHandlerPathFeature?.Error is FileNotFoundException)
        {
            ExceptionMessage = "File error thrown";
        }
        if (exceptionHandlerPathFeature?.Path == "/index")
        {
            ExceptionMessage += " from home page";
        }
    }
}

Warning

Do not serve sensitive error information to clients. Serving errors is a security risk.

To trigger the preceding exception handling page, set the environment to productions and force an exception.

Exception handler lambda

An alternative to a custom exception handler page is to provide a lambda to UseExceptionHandler. Using a lambda allows access to the error before returning the response.

Here's an example of using a lambda for exception handling:

if (env.IsDevelopment())
{
    app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
}
else
{
   app.UseExceptionHandler(errorApp =>
   {
        errorApp.Run(async context =>
        {
            context.Response.StatusCode = 500;
            context.Response.ContentType = "text/html";

            await context.Response.WriteAsync("<html lang=\"en\"><body>\r\n");
            await context.Response.WriteAsync("ERROR!<br><br>\r\n");

            var exceptionHandlerPathFeature = 
                context.Features.Get<IExceptionHandlerPathFeature>();

            if (exceptionHandlerPathFeature?.Error is FileNotFoundException)
            {
                await context.Response.WriteAsync("File error thrown!<br><br>\r\n");
            }

            await context.Response.WriteAsync("<a href=\"/\">Home</a><br>\r\n");
            await context.Response.WriteAsync("</body></html>\r\n");
            await context.Response.WriteAsync(new string(' ', 512)); // IE padding
        });
    });
    app.UseHsts();
}

In the preceding code, await context.Response.WriteAsync(new string(' ', 512)); is added so the Internet Explorer browser displays the error message rather than an IE error message. For more information, see this GitHub issue.

Warning

Do not serve sensitive error information from IExceptionHandlerFeature or IExceptionHandlerPathFeature to clients. Serving errors is a security risk.

To see the result of the exception handling lambda in the sample app, use the ProdEnvironment and ErrorHandlerLambda preprocessor directives, and select Trigger an exception on the home page.

UseStatusCodePages

By default, an ASP.NET Core app doesn't provide a status code page for HTTP status codes, such as 404 - Not Found. The app returns a status code and an empty response body. To provide status code pages, use Status Code Pages middleware.

The middleware is made available by the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Diagnostics package.

To enable default text-only handlers for common error status codes, call UseStatusCodePages in the Startup.Configure method:

app.UseStatusCodePages();

Call UseStatusCodePages before request handling middleware (for example, Static File Middleware and MVC Middleware).

When UseStatusCodePages isn't used, navigating to a URL without an endpoint returns a browser dependent error message indicating the endpoint can't be found. For example, navigating to Home/Privacy2. When UseStatusCodePages is called, the browser returns:

Status Code: 404; Not Found

UseStatusCodePages with format string

To customize the response content type and text, use the overload of UseStatusCodePages that takes a content type and format string:

app.UseStatusCodePages(
    "text/plain", "Status code page, status code: {0}");            

UseStatusCodePages with lambda

To specify custom error-handling and response-writing code, use the overload of UseStatusCodePages that takes a lambda expression:


app.UseStatusCodePages(async context =>
{
    context.HttpContext.Response.ContentType = "text/plain";

    await context.HttpContext.Response.WriteAsync(
        "Status code page, status code: " + 
        context.HttpContext.Response.StatusCode);
});

UseStatusCodePagesWithRedirects

The UseStatusCodePagesWithRedirects extension method:

  • Sends a 302 - Found status code to the client.
  • Redirects the client to the location provided in the URL template.
app.UseStatusCodePagesWithRedirects("/StatusCode?code={0}");

The URL template can include a {0} placeholder for the status code, as shown in the example. If the URL template starts with ~ (tilde), the ~ is replaced by the app's PathBase. If you point to an endpoint within the app, create an MVC view or Razor page for the endpoint. For a Razor Pages example, see Pages/StatusCode.cshtml in the sample app.

This method is commonly used when the app:

  • Should redirect the client to a different endpoint, usually in cases where a different app processes the error. For web apps, the client's browser address bar reflects the redirected endpoint.
  • Shouldn't preserve and return the original status code with the initial redirect response.

UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute

The UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute extension method:

  • Returns the original status code to the client.
  • Generates the response body by re-executing the request pipeline using an alternate path.
app.UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute("/StatusCode","?code={0}");

If you point to an endpoint within the app, create an MVC view or Razor page for the endpoint. Ensure UseStatusCodePagesWithReExecute is placed before UseRouting so the request can be rerouted to the status page. For a Razor Pages example, see Pages/StatusCode.cshtml in the sample app.

This method is commonly used when the app should:

  • Process the request without redirecting to a different endpoint. For web apps, the client's browser address bar reflects the originally requested endpoint.
  • Preserve and return the original status code with the response.

The URL and query string templates may include a placeholder ({0}) for the status code. The URL template must start with a slash (/). When using a placeholder in the path, confirm that the endpoint (page or controller) can process the path segment. For example, a Razor Page for errors should accept the optional path segment value with the @page directive:

@page "{code?}"

The endpoint that processes the error can get the original URL that generated the error, as shown in the following example:

var statusCodeReExecuteFeature = HttpContext.Features.Get<IStatusCodeReExecuteFeature>();
if (statusCodeReExecuteFeature != null)
{
    OriginalURL =
        statusCodeReExecuteFeature.OriginalPathBase
        + statusCodeReExecuteFeature.OriginalPath
        + statusCodeReExecuteFeature.OriginalQueryString;
}

Disable status code pages

To disable status code pages for an MVC controller or action method, use the [SkipStatusCodePages] attribute.

To disable status code pages for specific requests in a Razor Pages handler method or in an MVC controller, use IStatusCodePagesFeature:

var statusCodePagesFeature = HttpContext.Features.Get<IStatusCodePagesFeature>();

if (statusCodePagesFeature != null)
{
    statusCodePagesFeature.Enabled = false;
}

Exception-handling code

Code in exception handling pages can throw exceptions. It's often a good idea for production error pages to consist of purely static content.

Response headers

Once the headers for a response are sent:

  • The app can't change the response's status code.
  • Any exception pages or handlers can't run. The response must be completed or the connection aborted.

Server exception handling

In addition to the exception handling logic in your app, the HTTP server implementation can handle some exceptions. If the server catches an exception before response headers are sent, the server sends a 500 - Internal Server Error response without a response body. If the server catches an exception after response headers are sent, the server closes the connection. Requests that aren't handled by your app are handled by the server. Any exception that occurs when the server is handling the request is handled by the server's exception handling. The app's custom error pages, exception handling middleware, and filters don't affect this behavior.

Startup exception handling

Only the hosting layer can handle exceptions that take place during app startup. The host can be configured to capture startup errors and capture detailed errors.

The hosting layer can show an error page for a captured startup error only if the error occurs after host address/port binding. If binding fails:

  • The hosting layer logs a critical exception.
  • The dotnet process crashes.
  • No error page is displayed when the HTTP server is Kestrel.

When running on IIS (or Azure App Service) or IIS Express, a 502.5 - Process Failure is returned by the ASP.NET Core Module if the process can't start. For more information, see Troubleshoot ASP.NET Core on Azure App Service and IIS.

Database error page

Database Error Page Middleware captures database-related exceptions that can be resolved by using Entity Framework migrations. When these exceptions occur, an HTML response with details of possible actions to resolve the issue is generated. This page should be enabled only in the Development environment. Enable the page by adding code to Startup.Configure:

if (env.IsDevelopment())
{
    app.UseDatabaseErrorPage();
}

UseDatabaseErrorPage requires the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Diagnostics.EntityFrameworkCore NuGet package.

Exception filters

In MVC apps, exception filters can be configured globally or on a per-controller or per-action basis. In Razor Pages apps, they can be configured globally or per page model. These filters handle any unhandled exception that occurs during the execution of a controller action or another filter. For more information, see Filters in ASP.NET Core.

Tip

Exception filters are useful for trapping exceptions that occur within MVC actions, but they're not as flexible as the Exception Handling Middleware. We recommend using the middleware. Use filters only where you need to perform error handling differently based on which MVC action is chosen.

Model state errors

For information about how to handle model state errors, see Model binding and Model validation.

Additional resources