Enumerable.Single Method

Definition

Returns a single, specific element of a sequence.

Overloads

Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource,Boolean>)

Returns the only element of a sequence that satisfies a specified condition, and throws an exception if more than one such element exists.

Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>)

Returns the only element of a sequence, and throws an exception if there is not exactly one element in the sequence.

Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource,Boolean>)

Returns the only element of a sequence that satisfies a specified condition, and throws an exception if more than one such element exists.

public static TSource Single<TSource> (this System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> source, Func<TSource,bool> predicate);
Type Parameters
TSource

The type of the elements of source.

Parameters
source
IEnumerable<TSource>

An IEnumerable<T> to return a single element from.

predicate
Func<TSource,Boolean>

A function to test an element for a condition.

Returns

The single element of the input sequence that satisfies a condition.

Exceptions

source or predicate is null.

No element satisfies the condition in predicate.

-or-

More than one element satisfies the condition in predicate.

-or-

The source sequence is empty.

Examples

The following code example demonstrates how to use Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource,Boolean>) to select the only element of an array that satisfies a condition.

string[] fruits = { "apple", "banana", "mango", 
                      "orange", "passionfruit", "grape" };

string fruit1 = fruits.Single(fruit => fruit.Length > 10);

Console.WriteLine(fruit1);

/*
 This code produces the following output:

 passionfruit
*/

' Create an array of strings.
Dim fruits() As String =
{"apple", "banana", "mango", "orange", "passionfruit", "grape"}

' Get the single item in the array whose length is greater than 10.
Dim result As String =
fruits.Single(Function(fruit) fruit.Length > 10)

' Display the result.
MsgBox("First query: " & result)

The following code example demonstrates that Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource,Boolean>) throws an exception when the sequence does not contain exactly one element that satisfies the condition.

string fruit2 = null;

try
{
    fruit2 = fruits.Single(fruit => fruit.Length > 15);
}
catch (System.InvalidOperationException)
{
    Console.WriteLine(@"The collection does not contain exactly 
                    one element whose length is greater than 15.");
}

Console.WriteLine(fruit2);

// This code produces the following output:
//
// The collection does not contain exactly  
// one element whose length is greater than 15.

result = String.Empty

' Try to get the single item in the array whose length is > 15.
Try
    result = fruits.Single(Function(fruit) _
                           fruit.Length > 15)
Catch ex As System.InvalidOperationException
    result = "There is not EXACTLY ONE element whose length is > 15."
End Try

' Display the result.
MsgBox("Second query: " & result)

' This code produces the following output:
'
' First query: passionfruit
' Second query: There is not EXACTLY ONE element whose length is > 15.

Remarks

The Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource,Boolean>) method throws an exception if the input sequence contains no matching element. To instead return null when no matching element is found, use SingleOrDefault.

Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>)

Returns the only element of a sequence, and throws an exception if there is not exactly one element in the sequence.

public static TSource Single<TSource> (this System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> source);
Type Parameters
TSource

The type of the elements of source.

Parameters
source
IEnumerable<TSource>

An IEnumerable<T> to return the single element of.

Returns

The single element of the input sequence.

Exceptions

source is null.

The input sequence contains more than one element.

-or-

The input sequence is empty.

Examples

The following code example demonstrates how to use Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>) to select the only element of an array.

string[] fruits1 = { "orange" };

string fruit1 = fruits1.Single();

Console.WriteLine(fruit1);

/*
 This code produces the following output:

 orange
*/

' Create an array that contains one item.
Dim fruits1() As String = {"orange"}

' Get the single item in the array.
Dim result As String = fruits1.Single()

' Display the result.
MsgBox("First query: " & result)

The following code example demonstrates that Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>) throws an exception when the sequence does not contain exactly one element.

string[] fruits2 = { "orange", "apple" };
string fruit2 = null;

try
{
    fruit2 = fruits2.Single();
}
catch (System.InvalidOperationException)
{
    Console.WriteLine("The collection does not contain exactly one element.");
}

Console.WriteLine(fruit2);

/*
 This code produces the following output:

 The collection does not contain exactly one element.
*/

' Create an array that contains two items.
Dim fruits2() As String = {"orange", "apple"}

result = String.Empty

' Try to get the 'single' item in the array.
Try
    result = fruits2.Single()
Catch ex As System.InvalidOperationException
    result = "The collection does not contain exactly one element."
End Try

' Display the result.
MsgBox("Second query: " & result)

' This code produces the following output:
'
' First query: orange
' Second query: The collection does not contain exactly one element.

Remarks

The Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>) method throws an exception if the input sequence is empty. To instead return null when the input sequence is empty, use SingleOrDefault.

Applies to