Tutorial: Explore Azure Digital Twins with a sample client app

This tutorial introduces a sample application that implements a command-line client application, for interacting with an Azure Digital Twins instance. The client app is similar to the one written in Tutorial: Code a client app.

You can use this sample to perform essential Azure Digital Twins actions such as uploading models, creating and modifying twins, and creating relationships. You can also look at the code of the sample to learn about the Azure Digital Twins APIs, and practice implementing your own commands by modifying the sample project however you would like.

In this tutorial, you will...

  • Set up an Azure Digital Twins instance
  • Configure the sample command-line app to interact with the instance
  • Use the command-line app to explore Azure Digital Twins, including models, digital twins, relationships, and queries


If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Also before you start, install Visual Studio 2019, version 16.5 or later on your development machine. If you have an older version installed already, you can open the Visual Studio Installer app on your machine and follow the prompts to update your installation.

The tutorial is driven by a sample project written in C#. The sample is located here: Azure Digital Twins end-to-end samples. Get the sample project on your machine by navigating to the sample link, and selecting the Download ZIP button underneath the title.

This will download a .ZIP folder to your machine as Azure_Digital_Twins_end_to_end_samples.zip. Unzip the folder and extract the files.

Prepare an Azure Digital Twins instance

To work with Azure Digital Twins in this article, you first need to set up an Azure Digital Twins instance and the required permissions for using it. If you already have an Azure Digital Twins instance set up from previous work, you can use that instance.

Otherwise, follow the instructions in How-to: Set up an instance and authentication. The instructions also contain steps to verify that you have completed each step successfully and are ready to move on to using your new instance.

After setting up your Azure Digital Twins instance, you'll need the instance's host name (find in the Azure portal). Take note of this value so you can use it later to connect to the instance.

Set up local Azure credentials

This sample uses DefaultAzureCredential (part of the Azure.Identity library) to authenticate users with the Azure Digital Twins instance when you run it on your local machine. For more on different ways a client app can authenticate with Azure Digital Twins, see How-to: Write app authentication code.

With DefaultAzureCredential, the sample will search for credentials in your local environment, like an Azure login in a local Azure CLI or in Visual Studio/Visual Studio Code. This means that you should log into Azure locally through one of these mechanisms to set up credentials for the sample.

If you're using Visual Studio or Visual Studio Code to run the code sample, make sure you're logged into that editor with the same Azure credentials that you want to use to access your Azure Digital Twins instance.

Otherwise, you can install the local Azure CLI, start a command prompt on your machine, and run the az login command to log into your Azure account. After this, when you run your code sample, it should log you in automatically.

Configure the sample project

Next, set up a sample client application that will interact with your Azure Digital Twins instance.

Navigate on your machine to file you downloaded earlier from Azure Digital Twins end-to-end samples (and unzip it if you haven't already).

Once inside the folder, navigate into AdtSampleApp. Open AdtE2ESample.sln in Visual Studio 2019.

In Visual Studio, select the SampleClientApp > appsettings.json file to open it in the editing window. This will serve as a pre-set JSON file with the necessary configuration variables to run the project.

In the file body, change the instanceUrl to your Azure Digital Twins instance hostName URL (with https:// in front of it as shown below).

  "instanceUrl": "https://<your-Azure-Digital-Twins-instance-hostName>"

Save and close the file.

Next, configure the appsettings.json file to be copied to the output directory when you build the SampleClientApp. To do this, right-select the appsettings.json file, and choose Properties. In the Properties inspector, change the value of the Copy to Output Directory property to Copy if newer.

Excerpt from Visual Studio window showing the Solution Explorer pane with appsettings.json highlighted, and the Properties pane with 'Copy to Output Directory' property set to 'Copy if newer'

Keep the AdtE2ESample project open in Visual Studio to continue using it in the tutorial.

Explore with the sample solution

Now that the instance and sample app are configured, you will use the sample project and some pre-written example code to build out and explore a basic Azure Digital Twins solution. The major solution components are models, digital twins, and relationships, resulting in a queryable twin graph of an environment.

Model a physical environment with DTDL

The first step in creating an Azure Digital Twins solution is defining twin models for your environment.

Models are similar to classes in object-oriented programming languages; they provide user-defined templates for digital twins to follow and instantiate later. They are written in a JSON-like language called Digital Twins Definition Language (DTDL), and can define a twin's properties, telemetry, relationships, and components.


DTDL also allows for the definition of commands on digital twins. However, commands are not currently supported in the Azure Digital Twins service.

In your Visual Studio window where the AdtE2ESample project is open, use the Solution Explorer pane to navigate to the AdtSampleApp\SampleClientApp\Models folder. This folder contains sample models.

Select Room.json to open it in the editing window, and change it in the following ways:

  • Update the version number, to indicate that you are providing a more-updated version of this model. Do this by changing the 1 at the end of the @id value to a 2. Any number greater than the current version number will also work.

  • Edit a property. Change the name of the Humidity property to HumidityLevel (or something different if you'd like. If you use something different than HumidityLevel, remember what you used and continue using that instead of HumidityLevel throughout the tutorial).

  • Add a property. Underneath the HumidityLevel property that ends on line 15, paste the following code to add a RoomName property to the room:

      "@type": "Property",
      "name": "RoomName",
      "schema": "string"
  • Add a relationship. Underneath the RoomName property that you just added, paste the following code to add the ability for this type of twin to form contains relationships with other twins:

      "@type": "Relationship",
      "name": "contains",

When you are finished, the updated model should look like this:

Edited Room.json with updated version number, HumidityLevel and RoomName properties, and contains relationship

Make sure to save the file before moving on.


If you want to try creating your own model, you can paste the Room model code into a new file that you save with a .json extension in the AdtSampleApp\SampleClientApp\Models folder. Then, play around with adding properties and relationships to represent whatever you'd like. You can also look at the other sample models in this folder for ideas.


There is a language-agnostic DTDL Validator sample that you can use to check model documents to make sure the DTDL is valid. It is built on the DTDL parser library, which you can read more about in How-to: Parse and validate models.

Get started with the command-line app

Now that you've defined a model, the remaining steps involve using the sample app to interact with your Azure Digital Twins instance. Run the project with this button in the toolbar:

The Visual Studio start button (SampleClientApp project)

A console window will open, carry out authentication, and wait for a command.

  • Authentication is handled through the browser: your default web browser will open with an authentication prompt. Use this prompt to sign in with your Azure credentials. You can then close the browser tab or window.

Here is a screenshot of what the project console looks like:

Welcome message from the command-line app


For a list of all the possible commands you can use with this project, enter help in the project console and press return. Output of the help command

Keep the project console running for the rest of the steps in this tutorial.

Upload models to Azure Digital Twins

After designing models, you need to upload them to your Azure Digital Twins instance. This configures your Azure Digital Twins service instance with your own custom domain vocabulary. Once you have uploaded the models, you can create twin instances that use them.

In the project console window, run the following command to upload your updated Room model, as well as a Floor model that you'll also use in the next section to create different types of twins.

CreateModels Room Floor

The output should indicate the models were created successfully.


If you designed your own model earlier, you can also upload it here, by adding its file name (you can leave out the extension) to the Room Floor list in the command above.

Verify the models were created by running the command GetModels true. This will query the Azure Digital Twins instance for all models that have been uploaded, and print out their full information. Look for the edited Room model in the results:

Results of GetModels, showing the updated Room model


The sample application also handles errors from the service.

Re-run the CreateModels command to try re-uploading one of the same models you just uploaded, for a second time:

CreateModels Room

As models cannot be overwritten, this will now return a service error. For the details on how to delete existing models, see How-to: Manage custom models.

Response 409: Service request failed.
Status: 409 (Conflict)

{"error":{"code":"ModelAlreadyExists","message":"Could not add model dtmi:example:Room;2 as it already exists. Use Model_List API to view models that already exist. See the Swagger example.(http://aka.ms/ModelListSwSmpl)"}}

Strict-Transport-Security: REDACTED
Date: Wed, 20 May 2020 00:53:49 GMT
Content-Length: 223
Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8

Create digital twins

Now that some models have been uploaded to your Azure Digital Twins instance, you can create digital twins based on the model definitions. Digital twins represent the entities within your business environment—things like sensors on a farm, rooms in a building, or lights in a car.

To create a digital twin, you use the CreateDigitalTwin command. You must reference the model that the twin is based on, and can optionally define initial values for any properties in the model. You do not have to pass any relationship information at this stage.

Run this code in the running project console to create several twins, based on the Room model you updated earlier and another model, Floor. Recall that Room has three properties, so you can provide arguments with the initial values for these.

CreateDigitalTwin dtmi:example:Room;2 room0 RoomName string Room0 Temperature double 70 HumidityLevel double 30
CreateDigitalTwin dtmi:example:Room;2 room1 RoomName string Room1 Temperature double 80 HumidityLevel double 60
CreateDigitalTwin dtmi:example:Floor;1 floor0
CreateDigitalTwin dtmi:example:Floor;1 floor1


If you uploaded your own model earlier, try making your own CreateDigitalTwin command based on the commands above to add a twin of your own model type.

The output from these commands should indicate the twins were created successfully.

Excerpt from the results of CreateDigitalTwin commands, showing floor0, floor1, room0, and room1

You can also verify that the twins were created by running the Query command. This command queries your Azure Digital Twins instance for all the digital twins it contains. Look for the floor0, floor1, room0, and room1 twins in the results.

Modify a digital twin

You can also modify the properties of a twin you've created. Try running this command to change room0's RoomName from Room0 to PresidentialSuite:

UpdateDigitalTwin room0 add /RoomName string PresidentialSuite

The output should indicate the twin was updated successfully.

You can also verify by running this command to see room0's information:

GetDigitalTwin room0

The output should reflect the updated name.


The underlying REST API uses JSON Patch to define updates to a twin. The command-line app reflects this format, so that you can experiment with what the underlying APIs actually expect.

Create a graph by adding relationships

Next, you can create some relationships between these twins, to connect them into a twin graph. Twin graphs are used to represent an entire environment.

To add a relationship, use the CreateRelationship command. Specify the twin that the relationship is coming from, the type of relationship to add, and the twin that the relationship is connecting to. Lastly, provide a name (ID) for the relationship.

Run the following code to add a "contains" relationship from each of the Floor twins you created earlier to a corresponding Room twin. Note that there must be a contains relationship defined on the Floor model for this to be possible.

CreateRelationship floor0 contains room0 relationship0
CreateRelationship floor1 contains room1 relationship1

The output from these commands confirms that the relationships were created successfully:

Excerpt from the results of CreateRelationship commands, showing relationship0 and relationship1

You can also verify the relationships with any of the following commands, which query the relationships in your Azure Digital Twins instance.

  • To see all relationships coming off of each floor (viewing the relationships from one side),
    GetRelationships floor0
    GetRelationships floor1
  • To see all relationships arriving at each room (viewing the relationship from the "other" side),
    GetIncomingRelationships room0
  • To query for these relationships individually,
    GetRelationship floor0 relationship0
    GetRelationship floor1 relationship1

The twins and relationships you have set up in this tutorial form the following conceptual graph:

A graph showing floor0 connected via relationship0 to room0, and floor1 connected via relationship1 to room1

Query the twin graph to answer environment questions

A main feature of Azure Digital Twins is the ability to query your twin graph easily and efficiently to answer questions about your environment. Run the following commands in the running project console to get an idea of what this is like.

  • What are all the entities in my environment represented in Azure Digital Twins? (query all)


    This allows you to take stock of your environment at a glance, and make sure everything is represented as you'd like it to be within Azure Digital Twins. The result of this is an output containing each digital twin with its details. Here is an excerpt:

    Partial results of twin query, showing room0 and floor1


    In the sample project, the command Query without any additional arguments is the equivalent of Query SELECT * FROM DIGITALTWINS. To query all the twins in your instance using the Query APIs or the CLI commands, use the longer (complete) query.

  • What are all the rooms in my environment? (query by model)

    Query SELECT * FROM DIGITALTWINS T WHERE IS_OF_MODEL(T, 'dtmi:example:Room;2')

    You can restrict your query to twins of a certain type, to get more specific information about what's represented. The result of this shows room0 and room1, but does not show floor0 or floor1 (since they are floors, not rooms).

    Results of model query, showing only room0 and room1

  • What are all the rooms on floor0? (query by relationship)

    Query SELECT room FROM DIGITALTWINS floor JOIN room RELATED floor.contains where floor.$dtId = 'floor0'

    You can query based on relationships in your graph, to get information about how twins are connected or to restrict your query to a certain area. Only room0 is on floor0, so it's the only room in the result.

    Results of relationship query, showing room0

  • What are all the twins in my environment with a temperature above 75? (query by property)

    Query SELECT * FROM DigitalTwins T WHERE T.Temperature > 75

    You can query the graph based on properties to answer a variety of questions, including finding outliers in your environment that might need attention. Other comparison operators (<,>, =, or !=) are also supported. room1 shows up in the results here, because it has a temperature of 80.

    Results of property query, showing only room1

  • What are all the rooms on floor0 with a temperature above 75? (compound query)

    Query SELECT room FROM DIGITALTWINS floor JOIN room RELATED floor.contains where floor.$dtId = 'floor0' AND IS_OF_MODEL(room, 'dtmi:example:Room;2') AND room.Temperature > 75

    You can also combine the earlier queries like you would in SQL, using combination operators such as AND, OR, NOT. This query uses AND to make the previous query about twin temperatures more specific. The result now only includes rooms with temperatures above 75 that are on floor0—which in this case, is none of them. The result set is empty.

    Results of compound query, showing no results

Clean up resources

The project in this tutorial forms the basis for the next tutorial, Tutorial: Connect an end-to-end solution. If you plan to continue to the next tutorial, you can keep the resources you set up here to continue using this Azure Digital Twins instance and configured sample app.

  • In this case, you can use the sample app's DeleteAllTwins and DeleteAllModels commands to clear the twins and models in your instance, respectively. This will give you a clean slate for the next tutorial.

If you no longer need the resources created in this tutorial, follow these steps to delete them.

Using the Azure Cloud Shell, you can delete all Azure resources in a resource group with the az group delete command. This removes the resource group and the Azure Digital Twins instance.


Deleting a resource group is irreversible. The resource group and all the resources contained in it are permanently deleted. Make sure that you do not accidentally delete the wrong resource group or resources.

Open an Azure Cloud Shell and run the following command to delete the resource group and everything it contains.

az group delete --name <your-resource-group>

Finally, delete the project sample folder you downloaded to your local machine.

Next steps

In this tutorial, you got started with Azure Digital Twins by setting up an instance and a client application to interact with the instance. You used the client app to explore Azure Digital Twins, creating models, digital twins, and relationships. You also ran some queries on the solution, to get an idea of what kinds of questions Azure Digital Twins can answer about an environment.

Continue to the next tutorial to use the sample command-line app in combination with other Azure services to complete a data-driven, end-to-end scenario: