Connect Raspberry Pi to Azure IoT Hub (C)
In this tutorial, you begin by learning the basics of working with Raspberry Pi that's running Raspbian. You then learn how to seamlessly connect your devices to the cloud by using Azure IoT Hub. For Windows 10 IoT Core samples, go to the Windows Dev Center.
What you do
Create an IoT hub.
Register a device for Pi in your IoT hub.
Setup Raspberry Pi.
Run a sample application on Pi to send sensor data to your IoT hub.
Connect Raspberry Pi to an IoT hub that you create. Then you run a sample application on Pi to collect temperature and humidity data from a BME280 sensor. Finally, you send the sensor data to your IoT hub.
What you learn
How to create an Azure IoT hub and get your new device connection string.
How to connect Pi with a BME280 sensor.
How to collect sensor data by running a sample application on Pi.
How to send sensor data to your IoT hub.
What you need
The Raspberry Pi 2 or Raspberry Pi 3 board.
An active Azure subscription. If you don't have an Azure account, create a free Azure trial account in just a few minutes.
A monitor, a USB keyboard, and mouse that connect to Pi.
A Mac or a PC that is running Windows or Linux.
An Internet connection.
A 16 GB or above microSD card.
A USB-SD adapter or microSD card to burn the operating system image onto the microSD card.
A 5-volt 2-amp power supply with the 6-foot micro USB cable.
The following items are optional:
An assembled Adafruit BME280 temperature, pressure, and humidity sensor.
6 F/M jumper wires.
A diffused 10-mm LED.
These items are optional because the code sample supports simulated sensor data.
Create an IoT hub
This section describes how to create an IoT hub using the Azure portal.
Log in to the Azure portal.
Choose +Create a resource, then Search the Marketplace for the IoT Hub.
Select IoT Hub and click the Create button. You see the first screen for creating an IoT hub.
Fill in the fields.
Subscription: Select the subscription to use for your IoT hub.
Resource Group: You can create a new resource group or use an existing one. To create a new one, click Create new and fill in the name you want to use. To use an existing resource group, click Use existing and select the resource group from the dropdown list. For more information, see Manage Azure Resource Manager resource groups.
Region: This is the region in which you want your hub to be located. Select the location closest to you from the dropdown list.
IoT Hub Name: Put in the name for your IoT Hub. This name must be globally unique. If the name you enter is available, a green check mark appears.
The IoT hub will be publicly discoverable as a DNS endpoint, so make sure to avoid any sensitive information while naming it.
Click Next: Size and scale to continue creating your IoT hub.
On this screen, you can take the defaults and just click Review + create at the bottom.
Pricing and scale tier: You can choose from several tiers depending on how many features you want and how many messages you send through your solution per day. The free tier is intended for testing and evaluation. It allows 500 devices to be connected to the IoT hub and up to 8,000 messages per day. Each Azure subscription can create one IoT Hub in the free tier.
IoT Hub units: The number of messages allowed per unit per day depends on your hub's pricing tier. For example, if you want the IoT hub to support ingress of 700,000 messages, you choose two S1 tier units.
For details about the other tier options, see Choosing the right IoT Hub tier.
Advanced / Device-to-cloud partitions: This property relates the device-to-cloud messages to the number of simultaneous readers of the messages. Most IoT hubs only need four partitions.
Click Review + create to review your choices. You see something similar to this screen.
Click Create to create your new IoT hub. Creating the hub takes a few minutes.
Retrieve connection string for IoT hub
After your hub has been created, retrieve the connection string for the hub. This is used to connect devices and applications to your hub.
Click on your hub to see the IoT Hub pane with Settings, and so on. Click Shared access policies.
In Shared access policies, select the iothubowner policy.
Under Shared access keys, copy the Connection string -- primary key to be used later.
For more information, see Access control in the "IoT Hub developer guide."
Register a new device in the IoT hub
In this section, you create a device identity in the identity registry in your IoT hub. A device cannot connect to IoT hub unless it has an entry in the identity registry. For more information, see the "Identity registry" section of the IoT Hub developer guide
In your IoT hub navigation menu, open IoT Devices, then select Add to register a new device in your IoT hub.
Provide a name for your new device, such as myDeviceId, and select Save. This action creates a new device identity for your IoT hub.
The device ID may be visible in the logs collected for customer support and troubleshooting, so make sure to avoid any sensitive information while naming it.
After the device is created, open the device from the list in the IoT devices pane. Copy the Connection string---primary key to use later.
The IoT Hub identity registry only stores device identities to enable secure access to the IoT hub. It stores device IDs and keys to use as security credentials, and an enabled/disabled flag that you can use to disable access for an individual device. If your application needs to store other device-specific metadata, it should use an application-specific store. For more information, see IoT Hub developer guide.
Set up Raspberry Pi
Now set up the Raspberry Pi.
Install the Raspbian operating system for Pi
Prepare the microSD card for installation of the Raspbian image.
Download Raspbian Stretch with Desktop (the .zip file).
Extract the Raspbian image to a folder on your computer.
Install Raspbian to the microSD card.
Run Etcher and select the Raspbian image that you extracted in step 1.
Select the microSD card drive. Note that Etcher may have already selected the correct drive.
Click Flash to install Raspbian to the microSD card.
Remove the microSD card from your computer when installation is complete. It's safe to remove the microSD card directly because Etcher automatically ejects or unmounts the microSD card upon completion.
Insert the microSD card into Pi.
Enable SSH and SPI
Connect Pi to the monitor, keyboard and mouse, start Pi and then sign in to Raspbian by using
pias the user name and
raspberryas the password.
Click the Raspberry icon > Preferences > Raspberry Pi Configuration.
On the Interfaces tab, set SPI and SSH to Enable, and then click OK. If you don't have physical sensors and want to use simulated sensor data, this step is optional.
Connect the sensor to Pi
Use the breadboard and jumper wires to connect an LED and a BME280 to Pi as follows. If you don’t have the sensor, skip this section.
The BME280 sensor can collect temperature and humidity data. And the LED will blink if there is a communication between device and the cloud.
For sensor pins, use the following wiring:
|Start (Sensor & LED)||End (Board)||Cable Color|
|LED VDD (Pin 5G)||GPIO 4 (Pin 7)||White cable|
|LED GND (Pin 6G)||GND (Pin 6)||Black cable|
|VDD (Pin 18F)||3.3V PWR (Pin 17)||White cable|
|GND (Pin 20F)||GND (Pin 20)||Black cable|
|SCK (Pin 21F)||SPI0 SCLK (Pin 23)||Orange cable|
|SDO (Pin 22F)||SPI0 MISO (Pin 21)||Yellow cable|
|SDI (Pin 23F)||SPI0 MOSI (Pin 19)||Green cable|
|CS (Pin 24F)||SPI0 CS (Pin 24)||Blue cable|
Click to view Raspberry Pi 2 & 3 Pin mappings for your reference.
After you've successfully connected BME280 to your Raspberry Pi, it should be like below image.
Connect Pi to the network
Turn on Pi by using the micro USB cable and the power supply. Use the Ethernet cable to connect Pi to your wired network or follow the instructions from the Raspberry Pi Foundation to connect Pi to your wireless network. After your Pi has been successfully connected to the network, you need to take a note of the IP address of your Pi.
Run a sample application on Pi
Sign into your Raspberry Pi
Use one of the following SSH clients from your host computer to connect to your Raspberry Pi.
- Download and install PuTTY for Windows.
- Copy the IP address of your Pi into the Host name (or IP address) section and select SSH as the connection type.
Mac and Ubuntu Users
Use the built-in SSH client on Ubuntu or macOS. You might need to run
ssh pi@<ip address of pi>to connect Pi via SSH.
The default username is
pi, and the password is
Configure the sample application
Clone the sample application by running the following command:
sudo apt-get install git-core git clone https://github.com/Azure-Samples/iot-hub-c-raspberrypi-client-app.git
Run setup script:
cd ./iot-hub-c-raspberrypi-client-app sudo chmod u+x setup.sh sudo ./setup.sh
If you don't have a physical BME280, you can use '--simulated-data' as command line parameter to simulate temperature&humidity data.
sudo ./setup.sh --simulated-data
Build and run the sample application
Build the sample application by running the following command:
cmake . && make
Run the sample application by running the following command:
sudo ./app '<DEVICE CONNECTION STRING>'
Make sure you copy-paste the device connection string into the single quotes.
You should see the following output that shows the sensor data and the messages that are sent to your IoT hub.
Read the messages received by your hub
One way to monitor messages received by your IoT hub from your device is to use the Azure IoT Tools for Visual Studio Code. To learn more, see Use Azure IoT Tools for Visual Studio Code to send and receive messages between your device and IoT Hub.
For more ways to process data sent by your device, continue on to the next section.
You’ve run a sample application to collect sensor data and send it to your IoT hub.
To continue to get started with Azure IoT Hub and to explore all extended IoT scenarios, see the following:
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