Scheduler concepts, terminology, + entity hierarchy

Scheduler entity hierarchy

The following table describes the main resources exposed or used by the Scheduler API:

Resource Description
Job collection A job collection contains a group of jobs and maintains settings, quotas, and throttles that are shared by jobs within the collection. A job collection is created by a subscription owner and groups jobs together based on usage or application boundaries. It’s constrained to one region. It also allows the enforcement of quotas to constrain the usage of all jobs in that collection. The quotas include MaxJobs and MaxRecurrence.
Job A job defines a single recurrent action, with simple or complex strategies for execution. Actions may include HTTP, storage queue, service bus queue, or service bus topic requests.
Job history A job history represents details for an execution of a job. It contains success vs. failure, as well as any response details.

Scheduler entity management

At a high level, the scheduler and the service management API expose the following operations on the resources:

Capability Description and URI address
Job collection management GET, PUT, and DELETE support for creating and modifying job collections and the jobs contained therein. A job collection is a container for jobs and maps to quotas and shared settings. Examples of quotas, described later, are maximum number of jobs and smallest recurrence interval.

PUT and DELETE:{subscriptionId}/resourceGroups/{resourceGroupName}/providers/Microsoft.Scheduler/jobCollections/{jobCollectionName}


Job management GET, PUT, POST, PATCH, and DELETE support for creating and modifying jobs. All jobs must belong to a job collection that already exists, so there is no implicit creation.{subscriptionId}/resourceGroups/{resourceGroupName}/providers/Microsoft.Scheduler/jobCollections/{jobCollectionName}/jobs/{jobName}

Job history management GET support for fetching 60 days of job execution history, such as job elapsed time and job execution results. Adds query string parameter support for filtering based on state and status.{subscriptionId}/resourceGroups/{resourceGroupName}/providers/Microsoft.Scheduler/jobCollections/{jobCollectionName}/jobs/{jobName}/history

Job types

There are multiple types of jobs: HTTP jobs (including HTTPS jobs that support SSL), storage queue jobs, service bus queue jobs, and service bus topic jobs. HTTP jobs are ideal if you have an endpoint of an existing workload or service. You can use storage queue jobs to post messages to storage queues, so those jobs are ideal for workloads that use storage queues. Similarly, service bus jobs are ideal for workloads that use service bus queues and topics.

The "job" entity in detail

At a basic level, a scheduled job has several parts:

  • The action to perform when the job timer fires
  • (Optional) The time to run the job
  • (Optional) When and how often to repeat the job
  • (Optional) An action to fire if the primary action fails

Internally, a scheduled job also contains system-provided data such as the next scheduled execution time.

The following code provides a comprehensive example of a scheduled job. Details are provided in subsequent sections.

    "startTime": "2012-08-04T00:00Z",               // optional
        "type": "http",
        "retryPolicy": { "retryType":"none" },
            "uri": "",        // required
            "method": "PUT",                        // required
            "body": "Posting from a timer",         // optional
            "headers":                              // optional

                "Content-Type": "application/json"
           "type": "http",
               "uri": "",
               "method": "POST",
    "recurrence":                                   // optional
        "frequency": "week",                        // can be "year" "month" "day" "week" "minute"
        "interval": 1,                              // optional, how often to fire (default to 1)
        "schedule":                                 // optional (advanced scheduling specifics)
            "weekDays": ["monday", "wednesday", "friday"],
            "hours": [10, 22]
        "count": 10,                                 // optional (default to recur infinitely)
        "endTime": "2012-11-04",                     // optional (default to recur infinitely)
    "state": "disabled",                           // enabled or disabled
    "status":                                       // controlled by Scheduler service
        "lastExecutionTime": "2007-03-01T13:00:00Z",
        "nextExecutionTime": "2007-03-01T14:00:00Z ",
        "executionCount": 3,
                                            "failureCount": 0,
                                            "faultedCount": 0

As seen in the sample scheduled job above, a job definition has several parts:

  • Start time (“startTime”)
  • Action (“action”), which includes error action (“errorAction”)
  • Recurrence (“recurrence”)
  • State (“state”)
  • Status (“status”)
  • Retry policy (“retryPolicy”)

Let’s examine each of these in detail:


The "startTime” is the start time and allows the caller to specify a time zone offset on the wire in ISO-8601 format.

action and errorAction

The “action” is the action invoked on each occurrence and describes a type of service invocation. The action is what will be executed on the provided schedule. Scheduler supports HTTP, storage queue, service bus topic, and service bus queue actions.

The action in the example above is an HTTP action. Below is an example of a storage queue action:

        "type": "storageQueue",
            "storageAccount": "myStorageAccount",  // required
            "queueName": "myqueue",                // required
            "sasToken": "TOKEN",                   // required
            "message":                             // required
                "My message body",

Below is an example of a service bus topic action.

"action": { "type": "serviceBusTopic", "serviceBusTopicMessage": { "topicPath": "t1",
"namespace": "mySBNamespace", "transportType": "netMessaging", // Can be either netMessaging or AMQP "authentication": { "sasKeyName": "QPolicy", "type": "sharedAccessKey" }, "message": "Some message", "brokeredMessageProperties": {}, "customMessageProperties": { "appname": "FromScheduler" } }, }

Below is an example of a service bus queue action:

"action": { "serviceBusQueueMessage": { "queueName": "q1",
"namespace": "mySBNamespace", "transportType": "netMessaging", // Can be either netMessaging or AMQP "authentication": {
"sasKeyName": "QPolicy", "type": "sharedAccessKey" }, "message": "Some message",
"brokeredMessageProperties": {}, "customMessageProperties": { "appname": "FromScheduler" } }, "type": "serviceBusQueue" }

The “errorAction” is the error handler, the action invoked when the primary action fails. You can use this variable to call an error-handling endpoint or send a user notification. This can be used for reaching a secondary endpoint in the case that the primary is not available (e.g., in the case of a disaster at the endpoint’s site) or can be used for notifying an error handling endpoint. Just like the primary action, the error action can be simple or composite logic based on other actions. To learn how to create a SAS token, refer to Create and Use a Shared Access Signature.


Recurrence has several parts:

  • Frequency: One of minute, hour, day, week, month, year
  • Interval: Interval at the given frequency for the recurrence
  • Prescribed schedule: Specify minutes, hours, weekdays, months, and monthdays of the recurrence
  • Count: Count of occurrences
  • End time: No jobs will execute after the specified end time

A job is recurring if it has a recurring object specified in its JSON definition. If both count and endTime are specified, the completion rule that occurs first is honored.


The state of the job is one of four values: enabled, disabled, completed, or faulted. You can PUT or PATCH jobs so as to update them to the enabled or disabled state. If a job has been completed or faulted, that is a final state that cannot be updated (though the job can still be DELETED). An example of the state property is as follows:

    "state": "disabled", // enabled, disabled, completed, or faulted

Completed and faulted jobs are deleted after 60 days.


Once a Scheduler job has started, information will be returned about the current status of the job. This object is not settable by the user—it’s set by the system. However, it is included in the job object (rather than a separate linked resource) so that one can obtain the status of a job easily.

Job status includes the time of the previous execution (if any), the time of the next scheduled execution (for in-progress jobs), and the execution count of the job.


If a Scheduler job fails, it is possible to specify a retry policy to determine whether and how the action is retried. This is determined by the retryType object—it is set to none if there is no retry policy, as shown above. Set it to fixed if there is a retry policy.

To set a retry policy, two additional settings may be specified: a retry interval (retryInterval) and the number of retries (retryCount).

The retry interval, specified with the retryInterval object, is the interval between retries. Its default value is 30 seconds, its minimum configurable value is 15 seconds, and its maximum value is 18 months. Jobs in Free job collections have a minimum configurable value of 1 hour. It is defined in the ISO 8601 format. Similarly, the value of the number of retries is specified with the retryCount object; it is the number of times a retry is attempted. Its default value is 4, and its maximum value is 20. Both retryInterval and retryCount are optional. They are given their default values if retryType is set to fixed and no values are specified explicitly.

See also

What is Scheduler?

Get started using Scheduler in the Azure portal

Plans and billing in Azure Scheduler

How to build complex schedules and advanced recurrence with Azure Scheduler

Azure Scheduler REST API reference

Azure Scheduler PowerShell cmdlets reference

Azure Scheduler high-availability and reliability

Azure Scheduler limits, defaults, and error codes

Azure Scheduler outbound authentication