View security policies
This article explains how security policies are configured, and how to view them in Security Center. Azure Security Center automatically assigns its built-in security policies on each subscription that is onboarded. You can configure them in Azure Policy, which also enables you to set policies across Management groups and across multiple subscriptions.
For instructions on how to set policies using PowerShell, see Quickstart: Create a policy assignment to identify non-compliant resources using the Azure RM PowerShell module.
What are security policies?
A security policy defines the desired configuration of your workloads and helps ensure compliance with company or regulatory security requirements. In Azure Policy, you can define policies for your Azure subscriptions and tailor them to your type of workload or the sensitivity of your data. For example, applications that use regulated data, such as personally identifiable information, might require a higher level of security than other workloads. To set a policy across subscriptions or on Management groups, set them in Azure Policy.
Your security policies drive the security recommendations you get in Azure Security Center. You can monitor compliance with them to help you identify potential vulnerabilities and mitigate threats. For more information about how to determine the option that is appropriate for you, see the list of built-in security policies.
If your organization has many subscriptions, you may need a way to efficiently manage access, policies, and compliance for those subscriptions. Azure Management Groups provides a level of scope above subscriptions. You organize subscriptions into containers called "management groups" and apply your governance policies to the management groups. All subscriptions within a management group automatically inherit the policies applied to the management group. Each directory is given a single top-level management group called the "root" management group. This root management group is built into the hierarchy to have all management groups and subscriptions fold up to it. This root management group allows for global policies and RBAC assignments to be applied at the directory level. To set up management groups for use with Azure Security Center, follow the instructions in Gain tenant-wide visibility for Azure Security Center.
It’s important that you understand the hierarchy of management groups and subscriptions. See Organize your resources with Azure Management Groups to learn more about management groups, root management, and management group access.
How security policies work
Security Center automatically creates a default security policy for each of your Azure subscriptions. You can edit the policies in Azure Policy to do the following things:
- Create new policy definitions.
- Assign policies across management groups and subscriptions, which can represent an entire organization or a business unit within the organization.
- Monitor policy compliance.
For more information about Azure Policy, see Create and manage policies to enforce compliance.
An Azure policy consists of the following components:
- A policy is a rule.
- An initiative is a collection of policies.
- An assignment is the application of an initiative or a policy to a specific scope (management group, subscription, or resource group).
A resource is evaluated against the policies that are assigned to it and receives a compliance ratio according to the number of policies the resource is compliant to.
Who can edit security policies?
Security Center uses Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), which provides built-in roles that can be assigned to users, groups, and services in Azure. When users open Security Center, they see only information that's related to resources they have access to. Which means that users are assigned the role of owner, contributor, or reader to the subscription or resource group that a resource belongs to. In addition to these roles, there are two specific Security Center roles:
- Security reader: Have view rights to Security Center, which includes recommendations, alerts, policy, and health, but they can't make changes.
- Security admin: Have the same view rights as security reader, and they can also update the security policy and dismiss recommendations and alerts.
Edit security policies
You can edit the default security policy for each of your Azure subscriptions and management groups in Azure Policy. To modify a security policy, you must be an owner, contributor, or security administrator of the subscription or the containing management group.
For instructions on how to edit a security policy in Azure Policy, see and Create and manage policies to enforce compliance.
View security policies
To view your security policies in Security Center:
In the Security Center dashboard, select Security policy.
In the Policy management screen, you can see the number of management groups, subscriptions, and workspaces as well as your management group structure.
- The Security Center dashboard may show a higher number of subscriptions under Subscription coverage than the number of subscriptions shown under Policy management. Subscription coverage shows the number of Standard, Free, and “not covered” subscriptions. The “not covered” subscriptions do not have Security Center enabled and are not displayed under Policy management.
The columns in the table display:
- Policy initiative assignment – Security Center built-in policies and initiatives that are assigned to a subscription or management group.
- Compliance – Overall compliance score for a management group, subscription, or workspace. The score is the weighted average of the assignments. The weighted average factors in the number of policies in a single assignment and the number of resources the assignment applies to.
For example, if your subscription has two VMs and an initiative with five policies assigned to it, then you have 10 assessments in your subscription. If one of the VMs doesn't comply to two of the policies, then the overall compliance score of your subscription’s assignment is 80%.
- Coverage – Identifies the pricing tier, Free or Standard, that the management group, subscription, or workspace is running on. See Pricing to learn more about Security Center's pricing tiers.
- Settings – Subscriptions have the link Edit settings. Selecting Edit settings lets you update your Security Center settings for each subscription or management group.
Select the subscription or management group whose policies you want to view.
- The Security policy screen reflects the action taken by the policies assigned on the subscription or management group you selected.
- At the top, use the links provided to open each policy assignment that applies on the subscription or management group. You can use the links to access the assignment and edit or disable the policy. For example, if you see that a particular policy assignment is effectively denying endpoint protection, you can use the link to access the policy and edit or disable it.
- In the list of policies, you can see the effective application of the policy on your subscription or management group. This means that the settings of each policy that apply to the scope are taken into consideration and you are provided with the cumulative outcome of what action is taken by the policy. For example, if in one assignment the policy is disabled, but in another it is set to AuditIfNotExist, then the cumulative effect applies AuditIfNotExist. The more active effect always takes precedence.
- The policies' effect can be: Append, Audit, AuditIfNotExists, Deny, DeployIfNotExists, Disabled. For more information on how effects are applied, see Understand Policy effects.
- When you view assigned policies, you can see multiple assignments and you can see how each assignment is configured on its own.
In this article, you learned how to configure security policies in Security Center. To learn more about Security Center, see the following articles:
- Azure Security Center planning and operations guide: Learn how to plan and understand the design considerations about Azure Security Center.
- Security health monitoring in Azure Security Center: Learn how to monitor the health of your Azure resources.
- Manage and respond to security alerts in Azure Security Center: Learn how to manage and respond to security alerts.
- Monitor partner solutions with Azure Security Center: Learn how to monitor the health status of your partner solutions.
- Gain tenant-wide visibility for Azure Security Center: Learn how to set up management groups for Azure Security Center.
- Azure Security Center FAQ: Get answers to frequently asked questions about using the service.
- Azure Security Blog: Find blog posts about Azure security and compliance.
To learn more about Azure Policy, see What is Azure Policy?