Random.NextDouble Method

Definition

Returns a random floating-point number that is greater than or equal to 0.0, and less than 1.0.

public:
 virtual double NextDouble();
public virtual double NextDouble ();
abstract member NextDouble : unit -> double
override this.NextDouble : unit -> double
Public Overridable Function NextDouble () As Double

Returns

Double

A double-precision floating point number that is greater than or equal to 0.0, and less than 1.0.

Examples

The following example uses the NextDouble method to generate sequences of random doubles.

// Example of the Random class constructors and Random::NextDouble() 
// method.
using namespace System;
using namespace System::Threading;

// Generate random numbers from the specified Random object.
void RunIntNDoubleRandoms(Random^ randObj)
{
   
   // Generate the first six random integers.
   for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
      Console::Write(" {0,10} ", randObj->Next());
   Console::WriteLine();
   
   // Generate the first six random doubles.
   for (int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
      Console::Write(" {0:F8} ", randObj->NextDouble());
   Console::WriteLine();
}


// Create a Random object with the specified seed.
void FixedSeedRandoms(int seed)
{
   Console::WriteLine("\nRandom numbers from a Random object with seed = {0}:", seed);
   Random^ fixRand = gcnew Random(seed);
   RunIntNDoubleRandoms(fixRand);
}


// Create a random object with a timer-generated seed.
void AutoSeedRandoms()
{
   
   // Wait to allow the timer to advance.
   Thread::Sleep(1);
   Console::WriteLine("\nRandom numbers from a Random object "
   "with an auto-generated seed:");
   Random^ autoRand = gcnew Random;
   RunIntNDoubleRandoms(autoRand);
}

int main()
{
   Console::WriteLine("This example of the Random class constructors and Random"
   "::NextDouble() \ngenerates the following output.\n");
   Console::WriteLine("Create Random objects, and then generate and "
   "display six integers and \nsix doubles from each.");
   FixedSeedRandoms(123);
   FixedSeedRandoms(123);
   FixedSeedRandoms(456);
   FixedSeedRandoms(456);
   AutoSeedRandoms();
   AutoSeedRandoms();
   AutoSeedRandoms();
}

/*
This example of the Random class constructors and Random::NextDouble()
generates an output similar to the following:

Create Random objects, and then generate and display six integers and
six doubles from each.

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
 1624372556  1894939458   302472229   588108304    23919954  1085111949
 0.14595512  0.30162298  0.92267372  0.55707657  0.25430079  0.74143239

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
 2105952511  1753605347   280739490   876793040  1129567796   524571616
 0.62652210  0.31846701  0.15984073  0.24458755  0.62160607  0.54857684

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
  440048819  1612271236   259006751  1165477776    87731991  2111514930
 0.10708907  0.33531104  0.39700773  0.93209853  0.98891135  0.35572129
*/
// Example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble()
// method.
using System;
using System.Threading;

public class RandomObjectDemo
{
    // Generate random numbers from the specified Random object.
    static void RunIntNDoubleRandoms(Random randObj)
    {
        // Generate the first six random integers.
        for(int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
            Console.Write(" {0,10} ", randObj.Next());
        Console.WriteLine();

        // Generate the first six random doubles.
        for(int j = 0; j < 6; j++)
            Console.Write(" {0:F8} ", randObj.NextDouble());
        Console.WriteLine();
    }

    // Create a Random object with the specified seed.
    static void FixedSeedRandoms(int seed)
    {
        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nRandom numbers from a Random object with " +
            "seed = {0}:", seed);
        Random fixRand = new Random(seed);

        RunIntNDoubleRandoms(fixRand);
    }

    // Create a random object with a timer-generated seed.
    static void AutoSeedRandoms()
    {
        // Wait to allow the timer to advance.
        Thread.Sleep(1);

        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nRandom numbers from a Random object " +
            "with an auto-generated seed:");
        Random autoRand = new Random();

        RunIntNDoubleRandoms(autoRand);
    }

    static void Main()
    {	
        Console.WriteLine(
            "This example of the Random class constructors and " +
            "Random.NextDouble() \n" +
            "generates the following output.\n");
        Console.WriteLine(
            "Create Random objects, and then generate and " +
            "display six integers and \nsix doubles from each.");

        FixedSeedRandoms(123);
        FixedSeedRandoms(123);

        FixedSeedRandoms(456);
        FixedSeedRandoms(456);

        AutoSeedRandoms();
        AutoSeedRandoms();
        AutoSeedRandoms();
    }
}

/*
This example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble()
generates an output similar to the following:

Create Random objects, and then generate and display six integers and
six doubles from each.

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
 2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
 0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
 2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
 0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
  380213349   127379247  1969091178  1983029819  1963098450  1648433124
 0.08824121  0.41249688  0.36445811  0.05637512  0.62702451  0.49595560

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
  861793304  2133528783  1947358439   124230908   921262645  1087892791
 0.56880819  0.42934091  0.60162512  0.74388610  0.99432979  0.30310005

Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
 1343373259  1992194672  1925625700   412915644  2026910487   527352458
 0.04937517  0.44618494  0.83879212  0.43139707  0.36163507  0.11024451
*/
' Example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble() 
' method.
Imports System.Threading

Module RandomObjectDemo

    ' Generate random numbers from the specified Random object.
    Sub RunIntNDoubleRandoms(randObj As Random)

        ' Generate the first six random integers.
        Dim j As Integer
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write(" {0,10} ", randObj.Next())
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine()
            
        ' Generate the first six random doubles.
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write(" {0:F8} ", randObj.NextDouble())
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub 
        
    ' Create a Random object with the specified seed.
    Sub FixedSeedRandoms(seed As Integer)

        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & _
            "Random numbers from a Random object with " & _
            "seed = {0}:", seed)
        Dim fixRand As New Random(seed)
            
        RunIntNDoubleRandoms(fixRand)
    End Sub 
        
    ' Create a random object with a timer-generated seed.
    Sub AutoSeedRandoms()

        ' Wait to allow the timer to advance.
        Thread.Sleep(1)
            
        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & _
            "Random numbers from a Random object " & _ 
            "with an auto-generated seed:")
        Dim autoRand As New Random()
            
        RunIntNDoubleRandoms(autoRand)
    End Sub 
        
    Sub Main()
        Console.WriteLine(_
            "This example of the Random class constructors " & _
            "and Random.NextDouble() " & vbCrLf & _
            "generates the following output." & vbCrLf)
        Console.WriteLine("Create Random " & _
            "objects, and then generate and display six " & _
            "integers and " & vbCrLf & "six doubles from each.")
            
        FixedSeedRandoms(123)
        FixedSeedRandoms(123)
            
        FixedSeedRandoms(456)
        FixedSeedRandoms(456)
            
        AutoSeedRandoms()
        AutoSeedRandoms()
        AutoSeedRandoms()
    End Sub
End Module 

' This example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble()
' generates an output similar to the following:
' 
' Create Random objects, and then generate and display six integers and
' six doubles from each.
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
'  2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
'  0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
'  2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
'  0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
'  2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
'  0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
'  2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
'  0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'  1920831619  1346865774  2006582766  1968819760   332463652   110770792
'  0.71326689  0.50383335  0.50446082  0.66312569  0.94517193  0.58059287
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'   254927927  1205531663  1984850027   110020849  1438111494  1697714106
'  0.19383387  0.52067738  0.74162783  0.35063667  0.31247720  0.38773733
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'   736507882  1064197552  1963117288   398705585   396275689  1137173773
'  0.67440084  0.53752140  0.97879483  0.03814764  0.67978248  0.19488178

The following example calls the NextDouble method to generate 100 random numbers and displays their frequency distribution.

int[] frequency = new int[10];
double number;
Random rnd = new Random();

for (int ctr = 0; ctr <= 99; ctr++) {
   number = rnd.NextDouble();
   frequency[(int) Math.Floor(number*10)] ++;
}
Console.WriteLine("Distribution of Random Numbers:");
for (int ctr = frequency.GetLowerBound(0); ctr <= frequency.GetUpperBound(0); ctr++)
   Console.WriteLine("0.{0}0-0.{0}9       {1}", ctr, frequency[ctr]);

// The following example displays output similar to the following:
//       Distribution of Random Numbers:
//       0.00-0.09       16
//       0.10-0.19       8
//       0.20-0.29       8
//       0.30-0.39       11
//       0.40-0.49       9
//       0.50-0.59       6
//       0.60-0.69       13
//       0.70-0.79       6
//       0.80-0.89       9
//       0.90-0.99       14
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim frequency(9) As Integer
      Dim number As Double
      Dim rnd As New Random()
      
      For ctr As Integer = 0 To 99
         number = rnd.NextDouble()
         frequency(CInt(Math.Floor(number*10))) += 1
      Next
      Console.WriteLine("Distribution of Random Numbers:")
      For ctr As Integer = frequency.GetLowerBound(0) To frequency.GetUpperBound(0)
         Console.WriteLine("0.{0}0-0.{0}9       {1}", ctr, frequency(ctr))
      Next         
   End Sub
End Module
' The following example displays output similar to the following:
'       Distribution of Random Numbers:
'       0.00-0.09       16
'       0.10-0.19       8
'       0.20-0.29       8
'       0.30-0.39       11
'       0.40-0.49       9
'       0.50-0.59       6
'       0.60-0.69       13
'       0.70-0.79       6
'       0.80-0.89       9
'       0.90-0.99       14

Remarks

The actual upper bound of the random number returned by this method is 0.99999999999999978.

To retrieve random floating-point values within a range other than 0.0 and 1.0, see the "Retrieve floating-point values in a specified range" section of the Random class topic.

This method is the public version of the protected method, Sample.

Applies to