DynamicMethod.CreateDelegate Method

Definition

Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it.

Overloads

CreateDelegate(Type)

Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it.

CreateDelegate(Type, Object)

Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it, specifying the delegate type and an object the delegate is bound to.

CreateDelegate(Type)

Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it.

public:
 Delegate ^ CreateDelegate(Type ^ delegateType);
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
public Delegate CreateDelegate (Type delegateType);
member this.CreateDelegate : Type -> Delegate
Public Function CreateDelegate (delegateType As Type) As Delegate

Parameters

delegateType
Type

A delegate type whose signature matches that of the dynamic method.

Returns

A delegate of the specified type, which can be used to execute the dynamic method.

Attributes

Exceptions

The dynamic method has no method body.

delegateType has the wrong number of parameters or the wrong parameter types.

Examples

The following code example creates a dynamic method that takes two parameters. The example emits a simple function body that prints the first parameter to the console, and the example uses the second parameter as the return value of the method. The example completes the method by creating a delegate, invokes the delegate with different parameters, and finally invokes the dynamic method using the Invoke method.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Reflection;
using namespace System::Reflection::Emit;

public ref class Test
{   
};

// Declare a delegate that will be used to execute the completed
// dynamic method.
delegate int HelloInvoker(String^ msg, int ret);

int main()
{
    // Create an array that specifies the types of the parameters
    // of the dynamic method. This method has a string parameter
    // and an int parameter.
    array<Type^>^ helloArgs = {String::typeid, int::typeid};

    // Create a dynamic method with the name "Hello", a return type
    // of int, and two parameters whose types are specified by the
    // array helloArgs. Create the method in the module that
    // defines the Test class.
    DynamicMethod^ hello = gcnew DynamicMethod("Hello", 
        int::typeid,
        helloArgs,
        Test::typeid->Module);

    // Create an array that specifies the parameter types of the
    // overload of Console.WriteLine to be used in Hello.
    array<Type^>^ writeStringArgs = {String::typeid};
    // Get the overload of Console.WriteLine that has one
    // String parameter.
    MethodInfo^ writeString =
        Console::typeid->GetMethod("WriteLine", writeStringArgs);

    // Get an ILGenerator and emit a body for the dynamic method.
    ILGenerator^ ilgen = hello->GetILGenerator();
    // Load the first argument, which is a string, onto the stack.
    ilgen->Emit(OpCodes::Ldarg_0);
    // Call the overload of Console.WriteLine that prints a string.
    ilgen->EmitCall(OpCodes::Call, writeString, nullptr);
    // The Hello method returns the value of the second argument;
    // to do this, load the onto the stack and return.
    ilgen->Emit(OpCodes::Ldarg_1);
    ilgen->Emit(OpCodes::Ret);

    // Create a delegate that represents the dynamic method. This
    // action completes the method, and any further attempts to
    // change the method will cause an exception.
    HelloInvoker^ helloDelegate =
        (HelloInvoker^) hello->CreateDelegate(HelloInvoker::typeid);

    // Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method. Save and
    // print the return value.
    int returnValue = helloDelegate("\r\nHello, World!", 42);
    Console::WriteLine("helloDelegate(\"Hello, World!\", 42) returned {0}",
        returnValue);

    // Do it again, with different arguments.
    returnValue = helloDelegate("\r\nHi, Mom!", 5280);
    Console::WriteLine("helloDelegate(\"Hi, Mom!\", 5280) returned {0}",
        returnValue);

    // Create an array of arguments to use with the Invoke method.
    array<Object^>^ delegateArgs = {"\r\nHello, World!", 42};
    // Invoke the dynamic method using the arguments. This is much
    // slower than using the delegate, because you must create an
    // array to contain the arguments, and ValueType arguments
    // must be boxed.
    Object^ returnValueObject = hello->Invoke(nullptr, delegateArgs);
    Console::WriteLine("hello.Invoke returned {0}", returnValueObject);
}
using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;
using Microsoft.VisualBasic;

public class Test
{
    // Declare a delegate that will be used to execute the completed
    // dynamic method. 
    private delegate int HelloInvoker(string msg, int ret);

    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create an array that specifies the types of the parameters
        // of the dynamic method. This method has a string parameter
        // and an int parameter.
        Type[] helloArgs = {typeof(string), typeof(int)};

        // Create a dynamic method with the name "Hello", a return type
        // of int, and two parameters whose types are specified by the
        // array helloArgs. Create the method in the module that
        // defines the Test class.
        DynamicMethod hello = new DynamicMethod("Hello", 
            typeof(int), 
            helloArgs, 
            typeof(Test).Module);

        // Create an array that specifies the parameter types of the
        // overload of Console.WriteLine to be used in Hello.
        Type[] writeStringArgs = {typeof(string)};
        // Get the overload of Console.WriteLine that has one
        // String parameter.
        MethodInfo writeString = 
            typeof(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine", writeStringArgs);

        // Get an ILGenerator and emit a body for the dynamic method.
        ILGenerator il = hello.GetILGenerator();
        // Load the first argument, which is a string, onto the stack.
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
        // Call the overload of Console.WriteLine that prints a string.
        il.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeString, null);
        // The Hello method returns the value of the second argument;
        // to do this, load the onto the stack and return.
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

        // Create a delegate that represents the dynamic method. This
        // action completes the method, and any further attempts to
        // change the method will cause an exception.
        HelloInvoker hi = 
            (HelloInvoker) hello.CreateDelegate(typeof(HelloInvoker));

        // Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method. Save and
        // print the return value.
        int retval = hi("\r\nHello, World!", 42);
        Console.WriteLine("Executing delegate hi(\"Hello, World!\", 42) returned {0}",
            retval);

        // Do it again, with different arguments.
        retval = hi("\r\nHi, Mom!", 5280);
        Console.WriteLine("Executing delegate hi(\"Hi, Mom!\", 5280) returned {0}",
            retval);
        
        // Create an array of arguments to use with the Invoke method.
        object[] invokeArgs = {"\r\nHello, World!", 42};
        // Invoke the dynamic method using the arguments. This is much
        // slower than using the delegate, because you must create an
        // array to contain the arguments, and ValueType arguments
        // must be boxed.
        object objRet = hello.Invoke(null, invokeArgs);
        Console.WriteLine("hello.Invoke returned {0}", objRet);
    }
}
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.Reflection.Emit

Public Class Test
    ' Declare a delegate that will be used to execute the completed
    ' dynamic method. 
    Private Delegate Function HelloInvoker(ByVal msg As String, _
        ByVal ret As Integer) As Integer

    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' Create an array that specifies the types of the parameters
        ' of the dynamic method. This method has a String parameter
        ' and an Integer parameter.
        Dim helloArgs() As Type = {GetType(String), GetType(Integer)}

        ' Create a dynamic method with the name "Hello", a return type
        ' of Integer, and two parameters whose types are specified by
        ' the array helloArgs. Create the method in the module that
        ' defines the Test class.
        Dim hello As New DynamicMethod("Hello", _
            GetType(Integer), _
            helloArgs, _
            GetType(Test).Module)

        ' Create an array that specifies the parameter types of the
        ' overload of Console.WriteLine to be used in Hello.
        Dim writeStringArgs() As Type = {GetType(String)}
        ' Get the overload of Console.WriteLine that has one
        ' String parameter.
        Dim writeString As MethodInfo = GetType(Console). _
            GetMethod("WriteLine", writeStringArgs) 

        ' Get an ILGenerator and emit a body for the dynamic method.
        Dim il As ILGenerator = hello.GetILGenerator()
        ' Load the first argument, which is a string, onto the stack.
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0)
        ' Call the overload of Console.WriteLine that prints a string.
        il.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeString, Nothing)
        ' The Hello method returns the value of the second argument;
        ' to do this, load the onto the stack and return.
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1)
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ret)

        ' Create a delegate that represents the dynamic method. This
        ' action completes the method, and any further attempts to
        ' change the method will cause an exception.
    Dim hi As HelloInvoker = _
            hello.CreateDelegate(GetType(HelloInvoker))

        ' Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method. Save and
        ' print the return value.
        Dim retval As Integer = hi(vbCrLf & "Hello, World!", 42)
        Console.WriteLine("Executing delegate hi(""Hello, World!"", 42) returned " _
            & retval)

        ' Do it again, with different arguments.
        retval = hi(vbCrLf & "Hi, Mom!", 5280)
        Console.WriteLine("Executing delegate hi(""Hi, Mom!"", 5280) returned " _
            & retval)

        ' Create an array of arguments to use with the Invoke method.
        Dim invokeArgs() As Object = {vbCrLf & "Hello, World!", 42}
        ' Invoke the dynamic method using the arguments. This is much
        ' slower than using the delegate, because you must create an
        ' array to contain the arguments, and ValueType arguments
        ' must be boxed. Note that this overload of Invoke is 
        ' inherited from MethodBase, and simply calls the more 
        ' complete overload of Invoke.
        Dim objRet As Object = hello.Invoke(Nothing, invokeArgs)
        Console.WriteLine("hello.Invoke returned " & objRet)
    End Sub
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Hello, World!
'Executing delegate hi("Hello, World!", 42) returned 42
'
'Hi, Mom!
'Executing delegate hi("Hi, Mom!", 5280) returned 5280
'
'Hello, World!
'hello.Invoke returned 42
'

Remarks

Calling the CreateDelegate method or the Invoke method completes the dynamic method. Any further attempt to alter the dynamic method, such as modifying parameter definitions or emitting more Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), is ignored; no exception is thrown.

To create a method body for a dynamic method when you have your own MSIL generator, call the GetDynamicILInfo method to obtain a DynamicILInfo object. If you do not have your own MSIL generator, call the GetILGenerator method to obtain an ILGenerator object that can be used to generate the method body.

See also

CreateDelegate(Type, Object)

Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it, specifying the delegate type and an object the delegate is bound to.

public:
 Delegate ^ CreateDelegate(Type ^ delegateType, System::Object ^ target);
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
public Delegate CreateDelegate (Type delegateType, object target);
member this.CreateDelegate : Type * obj -> Delegate
Public Function CreateDelegate (delegateType As Type, target As Object) As Delegate

Parameters

delegateType
Type

A delegate type whose signature matches that of the dynamic method, minus the first parameter.

target
Object

An object the delegate is bound to. Must be of the same type as the first parameter of the dynamic method.

Returns

A delegate of the specified type, which can be used to execute the dynamic method with the specified target object.

Attributes

Exceptions

The dynamic method has no method body.

target is not the same type as the first parameter of the dynamic method, and is not assignable to that type.

-or-

delegateType has the wrong number of parameters or the wrong parameter types.

Examples

The following code example creates delegate that binds a DynamicMethod to an instance of a type, so that the method acts on the same instance each time it is invoked.

The code example defines a class named Example with a private field, a class named DerivedFromExample that derives from the first class, a delegate type named UseLikeStatic that returns Int32 and has parameters of type Example and Int32, and a delegate type named UseLikeInstance that returns Int32 and has one parameter of type Int32.

The example code then creates a DynamicMethod that changes the private field of an instance of Example and returns the previous value.

Note

In general, changing the internal fields of classes is not good object-oriented coding practice.

The example code creates an instance of Example and then creates two delegates. The first is of type UseLikeStatic, which has the same parameters as the dynamic method. The second is of type UseLikeInstance, which lacks the first parameter (of type Example). This delegate is created using the CreateDelegate(Type, Object) method overload; the second parameter of that method overload is an instance of Example, in this case the instance just created, which is bound to the newly created delegate. Whenever that delegate is invoked, the dynamic method acts on the bound instance of Example.

Note

This is an example of the relaxed rules for delegate binding introduced in the .NET Framework 2.0, along with new overloads of the Delegate.CreateDelegate method. For more information, see the Delegate class.

The UseLikeStatic delegate is invoked, passing in the instance of Example that is bound to the UseLikeInstance delegate. Then the UseLikeInstance delegate is invoked, so that both delegates act on the same instance of Example. The changes in the values of the internal field are displayed after each call. Finally, a UseLikeInstance delegate is bound to an instance of DerivedFromExample, and the delegate calls are repeated.

using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;

// These classes are for demonstration purposes.
//
public class Example
{
    private int id = 0;
    public Example(int id)
    {
        this.id = id;
    }
    public int ID { get { return id; }}
}

public class DerivedFromExample : Example
{
    public DerivedFromExample(int id) : base(id) {} 
}

// Two delegates are declared: UseLikeInstance treats the dynamic
// method as if it were an instance method, and UseLikeStatic
// treats the dynamic method in the ordinary fashion.
// 
public delegate int UseLikeInstance(int newID);
public delegate int UseLikeStatic(Example ex, int newID);

public class Demo
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // This dynamic method changes the private id field. It has
        // no name; it returns the old id value (return type int);
        // it takes two parameters, an instance of Example and 
        // an int that is the new value of id; and it is declared 
        // with Example as the owner type, so it can access all 
        // members, public and private.
        //
        DynamicMethod changeID = new DynamicMethod(
            "",
            typeof(int),
            new Type[] { typeof(Example), typeof(int) },
            typeof(Example)
        );

        // Get a FieldInfo for the private field 'id'.
        FieldInfo fid = typeof(Example).GetField(
            "id",
            BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Instance
        );
    
        ILGenerator ilg = changeID.GetILGenerator();

        // Push the current value of the id field onto the 
        // evaluation stack. It's an instance field, so load the
        // instance of Example before accessing the field.
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldfld, fid);

        // Load the instance of Example again, load the new value 
        // of id, and store the new field value. 
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Stfld, fid);

        // The original value of the id field is now the only 
        // thing on the stack, so return from the call.
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

        // Create a delegate that uses changeID in the ordinary
        // way, as a static method that takes an instance of
        // Example and an int.
        //
        UseLikeStatic uls = 
            (UseLikeStatic) changeID.CreateDelegate(
                typeof(UseLikeStatic)
            );

        // Create an instance of Example with an id of 42.
        //
        Example ex = new Example(42);

        // Create a delegate that is bound to the instance of 
        // of Example. This is possible because the first 
        // parameter of changeID is of type Example. The 
        // delegate has all the parameters of changeID except
        // the first.
        UseLikeInstance uli = 
            (UseLikeInstance) changeID.CreateDelegate(
                typeof(UseLikeInstance),
                ex
            );

        // First, change the value of id by calling changeID as
        // a static method, passing in the instance of Example.
        //
        Console.WriteLine(
            "Change the value of id; previous value: {0}",
            uls(ex, 1492)
        );

        // Change the value of id again using the delegate bound
        // to the instance of Example.
        //
        Console.WriteLine(
            "Change the value of id; previous value: {0}",
            uli(2700)
        );

        Console.WriteLine("Final value of id: {0}", ex.ID);

        // Now repeat the process with a class that derives
        // from Example.
        //
        DerivedFromExample dfex = new DerivedFromExample(71);

        uli = (UseLikeInstance) changeID.CreateDelegate(
                typeof(UseLikeInstance),
                dfex
            );

        Console.WriteLine(
            "Change the value of id; previous value: {0}",
            uls(dfex, 73)
        );
        Console.WriteLine(
            "Change the value of id; previous value: {0}",
            uli(79)
        );
        Console.WriteLine("Final value of id: {0}", dfex.ID);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Change the value of id; previous value: 42
Change the value of id; previous value: 1492
Final value of id: 2700
Change the value of id; previous value: 71
Change the value of id; previous value: 73
Final value of id: 79
 */
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.Reflection.Emit

' These classes are for demonstration purposes.
'
Public Class Example
    Private _id As Integer = 0
    
    Public Sub New(ByVal newId As Integer) 
        _id = newId    
    End Sub
    
    Public ReadOnly Property ID() As Integer 
        Get
            Return _id
        End Get
    End Property 
End Class

Public Class DerivedFromExample
    Inherits Example
    
    Public Sub New(ByVal newId As Integer) 
        MyBase.New(newId)
    End Sub
End Class
 
' Two delegates are declared: UseLikeInstance treats the dynamic
' method as if it were an instance method, and UseLikeStatic
' treats the dynamic method in the ordinary fashion.
' 
Public Delegate Function UseLikeInstance(ByVal newID As Integer) _
    As Integer 
Public Delegate Function UseLikeStatic(ByVal ex As Example, _
    ByVal newID As Integer) As Integer 

Public Class Demo
    
    Public Shared Sub Main() 
        ' This dynamic method changes the private _id field. It 
        ' has no name; it returns the old _id value (return type 
        ' Integer); it takes two parameters, an instance of Example 
        ' and an Integer that is the new value of _id; and it is 
        ' declared with Example as the owner type, so it can 
        ' access all members, public and private.
        '
        Dim changeID As New DynamicMethod( _
            "", _
            GetType(Integer), _
            New Type() {GetType(Example), GetType(Integer)}, _
            GetType(Example) _
        )
        
        ' Get a FieldInfo for the private field '_id'.
        Dim fid As FieldInfo = GetType(Example).GetField( _
            "_id", _
            BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Instance _
        )
        
        Dim ilg As ILGenerator = changeID.GetILGenerator()
        
        ' Push the current value of the id field onto the 
        ' evaluation stack. It's an instance field, so load the
        ' instance of Example before accessing the field.
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0)
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldfld, fid)
        
        ' Load the instance of Example again, load the new value 
        ' of id, and store the new field value. 
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0)
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1)
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Stfld, fid)
        
        ' The original value of the id field is now the only 
        ' thing on the stack, so return from the call.
        ilg.Emit(OpCodes.Ret)
        
        
        ' Create a delegate that uses changeID in the ordinary
        ' way, as a static method that takes an instance of
        ' Example and an Integer.
        '
        Dim uls As UseLikeStatic = CType( _
            changeID.CreateDelegate(GetType(UseLikeStatic)), _
            UseLikeStatic _
        )
        
        ' Create an instance of Example with an id of 42.
        '
        Dim ex As New Example(42)
        
        ' Create a delegate that is bound to the instance of 
        ' of Example. This is possible because the first 
        ' parameter of changeID is of type Example. The 
        ' delegate has all the parameters of changeID except
        ' the first.
        Dim uli As UseLikeInstance = CType( _
            changeID.CreateDelegate( _
                GetType(UseLikeInstance), _
                ex), _
            UseLikeInstance _
        )
        
        ' First, change the value of _id by calling changeID as
        ' a static method, passing in the instance of Example.
        '
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Change the value of _id; previous value: {0}", _
            uls(ex, 1492) _
        )
        
        ' Change the value of _id again using the delegate 
        ' bound to the instance of Example.
        '
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Change the value of _id; previous value: {0}", _
            uli(2700) _
        )
        
        Console.WriteLine("Final value of _id: {0}", ex.ID)
    

        ' Now repeat the process with a class that derives
        ' from Example.
        '
        Dim dfex As New DerivedFromExample(71)

        uli = CType( _
            changeID.CreateDelegate( _
                GetType(UseLikeInstance), _
                dfex), _
            UseLikeInstance _
        )

        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Change the value of _id; previous value: {0}", _
            uls(dfex, 73) _
        )
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Change the value of _id; previous value: {0}", _
            uli(79) _
        )
        Console.WriteLine("Final value of _id: {0}", dfex.ID)

    End Sub
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Change the value of _id; previous value: 42
'Change the value of _id; previous value: 1492
'Final value of _id: 2700
'Change the value of _id; previous value: 71
'Change the value of _id; previous value: 73
'Final value of _id: 79' 

Remarks

This method overload creates a delegate bound to a particular object. Such a delegate is said to be closed over its first argument. Although the method is static, it acts as if it were an instance method; the instance is target.

This method overload requires target to be of the same type as the first parameter of the dynamic method, or to be assignable to that type (for example, a derived class). The signature of delegateType has all the parameters of the dynamic method except the first. For example, if the dynamic method has the parameters String, Int32, and Byte, then delegateType has the parameters Int32 and Byte; target is of type String.

Calling the CreateDelegate method or the Invoke method completes the dynamic method. Any further attempt to alter the dynamic method, such as modifying parameter definitions or emitting more Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), is ignored; no exception is thrown.

To create a method body for a dynamic method when you have your own MSIL generator, call the GetDynamicILInfo method to obtain a DynamicILInfo object. If you do not have your own MSIL generator, call the GetILGenerator method to obtain an ILGenerator object that can be used to generate the method body.

Applies to