What's new in C# 7.0 through C# 7.3

C# 7.0 through C# 7.3 brought a number of features and incremental improvements to your development experience with C#. This article provides an overview of the new language features and compiler options. The descriptions describe the behavior for C# 7.3, which is the most recent version supported for .NET Framework-based applications.

The language version selection configuration element was added with C# 7.1, which enables you to specify the compiler language version in your project file.

C# 7.0-7.3 adds these features and themes to the C# language:

  • Tuples and discards
    • You can create lightweight, unnamed types that contain multiple public fields. Compilers and IDE tools understand the semantics of these types.
    • Discards are temporary, write-only variables used in assignments when you don't care about the value assigned. They're most useful when deconstructing tuples and user-defined types, as well as when calling methods with out parameters.
  • Pattern Matching
    • You can create branching logic based on arbitrary types and values of the members of those types.
  • async Main method
    • The entry point for an application can have the async modifier.
  • Local Functions
    • You can nest functions inside other functions to limit their scope and visibility.
  • More expression-bodied members
    • The list of members that can be authored using expressions has grown.
  • throw Expressions
    • You can throw exceptions in code constructs that previously weren't allowed because throw was a statement.
  • default literal expressions
    • You can use default literal expressions in default value expressions when the target type can be inferred.
  • Numeric literal syntax improvements
    • New tokens improve readability for numeric constants.
  • out variables
    • You can declare out values inline as arguments to the method where they're used.
  • Non-trailing named arguments
    • Named arguments can be followed by positional arguments.
  • private protected access modifier
    • The private protected access modifier enables access for derived classes in the same assembly.
  • Improved overload resolution
    • New rules to resolve overload resolution ambiguity.
  • Techniques for writing safe efficient code
    • A combination of syntax improvements that enable working with value types using reference semantics.

Finally, the compiler has new options:

  • -refout and -refonly that control reference assembly generation.
  • -publicsign to enable Open Source Software (OSS) signing of assemblies.
  • -pathmap to provide a mapping for source directories.

The remainder of this article provides an overview of each feature. For each feature, you'll learn the reasoning behind it and the syntax. You can explore these features in your environment using the dotnet try global tool:

  1. Install the dotnet-try global tool.
  2. Clone the dotnet/try-samples repository.
  3. Set the current directory to the csharp7 subdirectory for the try-samples repository.
  4. Run dotnet try.

Tuples and discards

C# provides a rich syntax for classes and structs that is used to explain your design intent. But sometimes that rich syntax requires extra work with minimal benefit. You may often write methods that need a simple structure containing more than one data element. To support these scenarios tuples were added to C#. Tuples are lightweight data structures that contain multiple fields to represent the data members. The fields aren't validated, and you can't define your own methods. C# tuple types support == and !=. For more information.


Tuples were available before C# 7.0, but they were inefficient and had no language support. This meant that tuple elements could only be referenced as Item1, Item2 and so on. C# 7.0 introduces language support for tuples, which enables semantic names for the fields of a tuple using new, more efficient tuple types.

You can create a tuple by assigning a value to each member, and optionally providing semantic names to each of the members of the tuple:

(string Alpha, string Beta) namedLetters = ("a", "b");
Console.WriteLine($"{namedLetters.Alpha}, {namedLetters.Beta}");

The namedLetters tuple contains fields referred to as Alpha and Beta. Those names exist only at compile time and aren't preserved, for example when inspecting the tuple using reflection at run time.

In a tuple assignment, you can also specify the names of the fields on the right-hand side of the assignment:

var alphabetStart = (Alpha: "a", Beta: "b");
Console.WriteLine($"{alphabetStart.Alpha}, {alphabetStart.Beta}");

There may be times when you want to unpackage the members of a tuple that were returned from a method. You can do that by declaring separate variables for each of the values in the tuple. This unpackaging is called deconstructing the tuple:

(int max, int min) = Range(numbers);

You can also provide a similar deconstruction for any type in .NET. You write a Deconstruct method as a member of the class. That Deconstruct method provides a set of out arguments for each of the properties you want to extract. Consider this Point class that provides a deconstructor method that extracts the X and Y coordinates:

public class Point
    public Point(double x, double y)
        => (X, Y) = (x, y);

    public double X { get; }
    public double Y { get; }

    public void Deconstruct(out double x, out double y) =>
        (x, y) = (X, Y);

You can extract the individual fields by assigning a Point to a tuple:

var p = new Point(3.14, 2.71);
(double X, double Y) = p;

Many times when you initialize a tuple, the variables used for the right side of the assignment are the same as the names you'd like for the tuple elements: The names of tuple elements can be inferred from the variables used to initialize the tuple:

int count = 5;
string label = "Colors used in the map";
var pair = (count, label); // element names are "count" and "label"

You can learn more about this feature in the Tuple types article.

Often when deconstructing a tuple or calling a method with out parameters, you're forced to define a variable whose value you don't care about and don't intend to use. C# adds support for discards to handle this scenario. A discard is a write-only variable whose name is _ (the underscore character); you can assign all of the values that you intend to discard to the single variable. A discard is like an unassigned variable; apart from the assignment statement, the discard can't be used in code.

Discards are supported in the following scenarios:

  • When deconstructing tuples or user-defined types.
  • When calling methods with out parameters.
  • In a pattern matching operation with the is and switch statements.
  • As a standalone identifier when you want to explicitly identify the value of an assignment as a discard.

The following example defines a QueryCityDataForYears method that returns a 6-tuple that contains data for a city for two different years. The method call in the example is concerned only with the two population values returned by the method and so treats the remaining values in the tuple as discards when it deconstructs the tuple.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
    public static void Main()
        var (_, _, _, pop1, _, pop2) = QueryCityDataForYears("New York City", 1960, 2010);

        Console.WriteLine($"Population change, 1960 to 2010: {pop2 - pop1:N0}");

    private static (string, double, int, int, int, int) QueryCityDataForYears(string name, int year1, int year2)
        int population1 = 0, population2 = 0;
        double area = 0;

        if (name == "New York City")
            area = 468.48;
            if (year1 == 1960)
                population1 = 7781984;
            if (year2 == 2010)
                population2 = 8175133;
            return (name, area, year1, population1, year2, population2);

        return ("", 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
// The example displays the following output:
//      Population change, 1960 to 2010: 393,149

For more information, see Discards.

Pattern matching

Pattern matching is a set of features that enable new ways to express control flow in your code. You can test variables for their type, values or the values of their properties. These techniques create more readable code flow.

Pattern matching supports is expressions and switch expressions. Each enables inspecting an object and its properties to determine if that object satisfies the sought pattern. You use the when keyword to specify additional rules to the pattern.

The is pattern expression extends the familiar is operator to query an object about its type and assign the result in one instruction. The following code checks if a variable is an int, and if so, adds it to the current sum:

if (input is int count)
    sum += count;

The preceding small example demonstrates the enhancements to the is expression. You can test against value types as well as reference types, and you can assign the successful result to a new variable of the correct type.

The switch match expression has a familiar syntax, based on the switch statement already part of the C# language. The updated switch statement has several new constructs:

  • The governing type of a switch expression is no longer restricted to integral types, Enum types, string, or a nullable type corresponding to one of those types. Any type may be used.
  • You can test the type of the switch expression in each case label. As with the is expression, you may assign a new variable to that type.
  • You may add a when clause to further test conditions on that variable.
  • The order of case labels is now important. The first branch to match is executed; others are skipped.

The following code demonstrates these new features:

public static int SumPositiveNumbers(IEnumerable<object> sequence)
    int sum = 0;
    foreach (var i in sequence)
        switch (i)
            case 0:
            case IEnumerable<int> childSequence:
                foreach(var item in childSequence)
                    sum += (item > 0) ? item : 0;
            case int n when n > 0:
                sum += n;
            case null:
                throw new NullReferenceException("Null found in sequence");
                throw new InvalidOperationException("Unrecognized type");
    return sum;
  • case 0: is the familiar constant pattern.
  • case IEnumerable<int> childSequence: is a type pattern.
  • case int n when n > 0: is a type pattern with an additional when condition.
  • case null: is the null pattern.
  • default: is the familiar default case.

Beginning with C# 7.1, the pattern expression for is and the switch type pattern may have the type of a generic type parameter. This can be most useful when checking types that may be either struct or class types, and you want to avoid boxing.

You can learn more about pattern matching in Pattern Matching in C#.

Async main

An async main method enables you to use await in your Main method. Previously you would need to write:

static int Main()
    return DoAsyncWork().GetAwaiter().GetResult();

You can now write:

static async Task<int> Main()
    // This could also be replaced with the body
    // DoAsyncWork, including its await expressions:
    return await DoAsyncWork();

If your program doesn't return an exit code, you can declare a Main method that returns a Task:

static async Task Main()
    await SomeAsyncMethod();

You can read more about the details in the async main article in the programming guide.

Local functions

Many designs for classes include methods that are called from only one location. These additional private methods keep each method small and focused. Local functions enable you to declare methods inside the context of another method. Local functions make it easier for readers of the class to see that the local method is only called from the context in which it is declared.

There are two common use cases for local functions: public iterator methods and public async methods. Both types of methods generate code that reports errors later than programmers might expect. In iterator methods, any exceptions are observed only when calling code that enumerates the returned sequence. In async methods, any exceptions are only observed when the returned Task is awaited. The following example demonstrates separating parameter validation from the iterator implementation using a local function:

public static IEnumerable<char> AlphabetSubset3(char start, char end)
    if (start < 'a' || start > 'z')
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(paramName: nameof(start), message: "start must be a letter");
    if (end < 'a' || end > 'z')
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(paramName: nameof(end), message: "end must be a letter");

    if (end <= start)
        throw new ArgumentException($"{nameof(end)} must be greater than {nameof(start)}");

    return alphabetSubsetImplementation();

    IEnumerable<char> alphabetSubsetImplementation()
        for (var c = start; c < end; c++)
            yield return c;

The same technique can be employed with async methods to ensure that exceptions arising from argument validation are thrown before the asynchronous work begins:

public Task<string> PerformLongRunningWork(string address, int index, string name)
    if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(address))
        throw new ArgumentException(message: "An address is required", paramName: nameof(address));
    if (index < 0)
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(paramName: nameof(index), message: "The index must be non-negative");
    if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(name))
        throw new ArgumentException(message: "You must supply a name", paramName: nameof(name));

    return longRunningWorkImplementation();

    async Task<string> longRunningWorkImplementation()
        var interimResult = await FirstWork(address);
        var secondResult = await SecondStep(index, name);
        return $"The results are {interimResult} and {secondResult}. Enjoy.";

This syntax is now supported:

[field: SomeThingAboutFieldAttribute]
public int SomeProperty { get; set; }

The attribute SomeThingAboutFieldAttribute is applied to the compiler generated backing field for SomeProperty. For more information, see attributes in the C# programming guide.


Some of the designs that are supported by local functions can also be accomplished using lambda expressions. For more information, see Local functions vs. lambda expressions.

More expression-bodied members

C# 6 introduced expression-bodied members for member functions, and read-only properties. C# 7.0 expands the allowed members that can be implemented as expressions. In C# 7.0, you can implement constructors, finalizers, and get and set accessors on properties and indexers. The following code shows examples of each:

// Expression-bodied constructor
public ExpressionMembersExample(string label) => this.Label = label;

// Expression-bodied finalizer
~ExpressionMembersExample() => Console.Error.WriteLine("Finalized!");

private string label;

// Expression-bodied get / set accessors.
public string Label
    get => label;
    set => this.label = value ?? "Default label";


This example does not need a finalizer, but it is shown to demonstrate the syntax. You should not implement a finalizer in your class unless it is necessary to release unmanaged resources. You should also consider using the SafeHandle class instead of managing unmanaged resources directly.

These new locations for expression-bodied members represent an important milestone for the C# language: These features were implemented by community members working on the open-source Roslyn project.

Changing a method to an expression bodied member is a binary compatible change.

Throw expressions

In C#, throw has always been a statement. Because throw is a statement, not an expression, there were C# constructs where you couldn't use it. These included conditional expressions, null coalescing expressions, and some lambda expressions. The addition of expression-bodied members adds more locations where throw expressions would be useful. So that you can write any of these constructs, C# 7.0 introduces throw expressions.

This addition makes it easier to write more expression-based code. You don't need additional statements for error checking.

Default literal expressions

Default literal expressions are an enhancement to default value expressions. These expressions initialize a variable to the default value. Where you previously would write:

Func<string, bool> whereClause = default(Func<string, bool>);

You can now omit the type on the right-hand side of the initialization:

Func<string, bool> whereClause = default;

For more information, see the default literal section of the default operator article.

Numeric literal syntax improvements

Misreading numeric constants can make it harder to understand code when reading it for the first time. Bit masks or other symbolic values are prone to misunderstanding. C# 7.0 includes two new features to write numbers in the most readable fashion for the intended use: binary literals, and digit separators.

For those times when you're creating bit masks, or whenever a binary representation of a number makes the most readable code, write that number in binary:

public const int Sixteen =   0b0001_0000;
public const int ThirtyTwo = 0b0010_0000;
public const int SixtyFour = 0b0100_0000;
public const int OneHundredTwentyEight = 0b1000_0000;

The 0b at the beginning of the constant indicates that the number is written as a binary number. Binary numbers can get long, so it's often easier to see the bit patterns by introducing the _ as a digit separator, as shown in the binary constant in the preceding example. The digit separator can appear anywhere in the constant. For base 10 numbers, it is common to use it as a thousands separator. Hex and binary numeric literals may begin with an _:

public const long BillionsAndBillions = 100_000_000_000;

The digit separator can be used with decimal, float, and double types as well:

public const double AvogadroConstant = 6.022_140_857_747_474e23;
public const decimal GoldenRatio = 1.618_033_988_749_894_848_204_586_834_365_638_117_720_309_179M;

Taken together, you can declare numeric constants with much more readability.

out variables

The existing syntax that supports out parameters has been improved in C# 7. You can now declare out variables in the argument list of a method call, rather than writing a separate declaration statement:

if (int.TryParse(input, out int result))
    Console.WriteLine("Could not parse input");

You may want to specify the type of the out variable for clarity, as shown in the preceding example. However, the language does support using an implicitly typed local variable:

if (int.TryParse(input, out var answer))
    Console.WriteLine("Could not parse input");
  • The code is easier to read.
    • You declare the out variable where you use it, not on a preceding line of code.
  • No need to assign an initial value.
    • By declaring the out variable where it's used in a method call, you can't accidentally use it before it is assigned.

The syntax added in C# 7.0 to allow out variable declarations has been extended to include field initializers, property initializers, constructor initializers, and query clauses. It enables code such as the following example:

public class B
   public B(int i, out int j)
      j = i;

public class D : B
   public D(int i) : base(i, out var j)
      Console.WriteLine($"The value of 'j' is {j}");

Non-trailing named arguments

Method calls may now use named arguments that precede positional arguments when those named arguments are in the correct positions. For more information, see Named and optional arguments.

private protected access modifier

A new compound access modifier: private protected indicates that a member may be accessed by containing class or derived classes that are declared in the same assembly. While protected internal allows access by derived classes or classes that are in the same assembly, private protected limits access to derived types declared in the same assembly.

For more information, see access modifiers in the language reference.

Improved overload candidates

In every release, the overload resolution rules get updated to address situations where ambiguous method invocations have an "obvious" choice. This release adds three new rules to help the compiler pick the obvious choice:

  1. When a method group contains both instance and static members, the compiler discards the instance members if the method was invoked without an instance receiver or context. The compiler discards the static members if the method was invoked with an instance receiver. When there is no receiver, the compiler includes only static members in a static context, otherwise both static and instance members. When the receiver is ambiguously an instance or type, the compiler includes both. A static context, where an implicit this instance receiver cannot be used, includes the body of members where no this is defined, such as static members, as well as places where this cannot be used, such as field initializers and constructor-initializers.
  2. When a method group contains some generic methods whose type arguments do not satisfy their constraints, these members are removed from the candidate set.
  3. For a method group conversion, candidate methods whose return type doesn't match up with the delegate's return type are removed from the set.

You'll only notice this change because you'll find fewer compiler errors for ambiguous method overloads when you are sure which method is better.

Enabling more efficient safe code

You should be able to write C# code safely that performs as well as unsafe code. Safe code avoids classes of errors, such as buffer overruns, stray pointers, and other memory access errors. These new features expand the capabilities of verifiable safe code. Strive to write more of your code using safe constructs. These features make that easier.

The following new features support the theme of better performance for safe code:

  • You can access fixed fields without pinning.
  • You can reassign ref local variables.
  • You can use initializers on stackalloc arrays.
  • You can use fixed statements with any type that supports a pattern.
  • You can use additional generic constraints.
  • The in modifier on parameters, to specify that an argument is passed by reference but not modified by the called method. Adding the in modifier to an argument is a source compatible change.
  • The ref readonly modifier on method returns, to indicate that a method returns its value by reference but doesn't allow writes to that object. Adding the ref readonly modifier is a source compatible change, if the return is assigned to a value. Adding the readonly modifier to an existing ref return statement is an incompatible change. It requires callers to update the declaration of ref local variables to include the readonly modifier.
  • The readonly struct declaration, to indicate that a struct is immutable and should be passed as an in parameter to its member methods. Adding the readonly modifier to an existing struct declaration is a binary compatible change.
  • The ref struct declaration, to indicate that a struct type accesses managed memory directly and must always be stack allocated. Adding the ref modifier to an existing struct declaration is an incompatible change. A ref struct cannot be a member of a class or used in other locations where it may be allocated on the heap.

You can read more about all these changes in Write safe efficient code.

Ref locals and returns

This feature enables algorithms that use and return references to variables defined elsewhere. One example is working with large matrices, and finding a single location with certain characteristics. The following method returns a reference to that storage in the matrix:

public static ref int Find(int[,] matrix, Func<int, bool> predicate)
    for (int i = 0; i < matrix.GetLength(0); i++)
        for (int j = 0; j < matrix.GetLength(1); j++)
            if (predicate(matrix[i, j]))
                return ref matrix[i, j];
    throw new InvalidOperationException("Not found");

You can declare the return value as a ref and modify that value in the matrix, as shown in the following code:

ref var item = ref MatrixSearch.Find(matrix, (val) => val == 42);
item = 24;
Console.WriteLine(matrix[4, 2]);

The C# language has several rules that protect you from misusing the ref locals and returns:

  • You must add the ref keyword to the method signature and to all return statements in a method.
    • That makes it clear the method returns by reference throughout the method.
  • A ref return may be assigned to a value variable, or a ref variable.
    • The caller controls whether the return value is copied or not. Omitting the ref modifier when assigning the return value indicates that the caller wants a copy of the value, not a reference to the storage.
  • You can't assign a standard method return value to a ref local variable.
    • That disallows statements like ref int i = sequence.Count();
  • You can't return a ref to a variable whose lifetime doesn't extend beyond the execution of the method.
    • That means you can't return a reference to a local variable or a variable with a similar scope.
  • ref locals and returns can't be used with async methods.
    • The compiler can't know if the referenced variable has been set to its final value when the async method returns.

The addition of ref locals and ref returns enables algorithms that are more efficient by avoiding copying values, or performing dereferencing operations multiple times.

Adding ref to the return value is a source compatible change. Existing code compiles, but the ref return value is copied when assigned. Callers must update the storage for the return value to a ref local variable to store the return as a reference.

Now, ref locals may be reassigned to refer to different instances after being initialized. The following code now compiles:

ref VeryLargeStruct refLocal = ref veryLargeStruct; // initialization
refLocal = ref anotherVeryLargeStruct; // reassigned, refLocal refers to different storage.

For more information, see the article on ref returns and ref locals, and the article on foreach.

For more information, see the ref keyword article.

Conditional ref expressions

Finally, the conditional expression may produce a ref result instead of a value result. For example, you would write the following to retrieve a reference to the first element in one of two arrays:

ref var r = ref (arr != null ? ref arr[0] : ref otherArr[0]);

The variable r is a reference to the first value in either arr or otherArr.

For more information, see conditional operator (?:) in the language reference.

in parameter modifier

The in keyword complements the existing ref and out keywords to pass arguments by reference. The in keyword specifies passing the argument by reference, but the called method doesn't modify the value.

You may declare overloads that pass by value or by readonly reference, as shown in the following code:

static void M(S arg);
static void M(in S arg);

The by value (first in the preceding example) overload is better than the by readonly reference version. To call the version with the readonly reference argument, you must include the in modifier when calling the method.

For more information, see the article on the in parameter modifier.

More types support the fixed statement

The fixed statement supported a limited set of types. Starting with C# 7.3, any type that contains a GetPinnableReference() method that returns a ref T or ref readonly T may be fixed. Adding this feature means that fixed can be used with System.Span<T> and related types.

For more information, see the fixed statement article in the language reference.

Indexing fixed fields does not require pinning

Consider this struct:

unsafe struct S
    public fixed int myFixedField[10];

In earlier versions of C#, you needed to pin a variable to access one of the integers that are part of myFixedField. Now, the following code compiles without pinning the variable p inside a separate fixed statement:

class C
    static S s = new S();

    unsafe public void M()
        int p = s.myFixedField[5];

The variable p accesses one element in myFixedField. You don't need to declare a separate int* variable. You still need an unsafe context. In earlier versions of C#, you need to declare a second fixed pointer:

class C
    static S s = new S();

    unsafe public void M()
        fixed (int* ptr = s.myFixedField)
            int p = ptr[5];

For more information, see the article on the fixed statement.

stackalloc arrays support initializers

You've been able to specify the values for elements in an array when you initialize it:

var arr = new int[3] {1, 2, 3};
var arr2 = new int[] {1, 2, 3};

Now, that same syntax can be applied to arrays that are declared with stackalloc:

int* pArr = stackalloc int[3] {1, 2, 3};
int* pArr2 = stackalloc int[] {1, 2, 3};
Span<int> arr = stackalloc [] {1, 2, 3};

For more information, see the stackalloc operator article.

Enhanced generic constraints

You can now specify the type System.Enum or System.Delegate as base class constraints for a type parameter.

You can also use the new unmanaged constraint, to specify that a type parameter must be a non-nullable unmanaged type.

For more information, see the articles on where generic constraints and constraints on type parameters.

Adding these constraints to existing types is an incompatible change. Closed generic types may no longer meet these new constraints.

Generalized async return types

Returning a Task object from async methods can introduce performance bottlenecks in certain paths. Task is a reference type, so using it means allocating an object. In cases where a method declared with the async modifier returns a cached result, or completes synchronously, the extra allocations can become a significant time cost in performance critical sections of code. It can become costly if those allocations occur in tight loops.

The new language feature means that async method return types aren't limited to Task, Task<T>, and void. The returned type must still satisfy the async pattern, meaning a GetAwaiter method must be accessible. As one concrete example, the ValueTask type has been added to .NET to make use of this new language feature:

public async ValueTask<int> Func()
    await Task.Delay(100);
    return 5;


You need to add the NuGet package System.Threading.Tasks.Extensions > in order to use the ValueTask<TResult> type.

This enhancement is most useful for library authors to avoid allocating a Task in performance critical code.

New compiler options

New compiler options support new build and DevOps scenarios for C# programs.

Reference assembly generation

There are two new compiler options that generate reference-only assemblies: -refout and -refonly. The linked articles explain these options and reference assemblies in more detail.

Public or Open Source signing

The -publicsign compiler option instructs the compiler to sign the assembly using a public key. The assembly is marked as signed, but the signature is taken from the public key. This option enables you to build signed assemblies from open-source projects using a public key.

For more information, see the -publicsign compiler option article.


The -pathmap compiler option instructs the compiler to replace source paths from the build environment with mapped source paths. The -pathmap option controls the source path written by the compiler to PDB files or for the CallerFilePathAttribute.

For more information, see the -pathmap compiler option article.