Explore Azure Storage security features

Contoso relies heavily on massive amounts of data in Azure Storage. Their many applications rely on blobs, unstructured table storage, Azure Data Lake, and Server Message Block (SMB)-based file shares.

After Contoso's competitor has a data breach, Contoso tasks the network administrator to check the organization's data security. As Contoso's data consultant, you assure the network administrator that Azure Storage accounts provide several high-level security benefits for the data in the cloud:

  • Protect the data at rest
  • Protect the data in transit
  • Support browser cross-domain access
  • Control who can access data
  • Audit storage access

Encryption at rest

All data written to Azure Storage is automatically encrypted by Storage Service Encryption (SSE) with a 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher. SSE automatically encrypts data when writing it to Azure Storage. When you read data from Azure Storage, Azure Storage decrypts the data before returning it. This process incurs no additional charges and doesn't degrade performance. It can't be disabled.

For virtual machines (VMs), Azure lets you encrypt virtual hard disks (VHDs) by using Azure Disk Encryption. This encryption uses BitLocker for Windows images, and it uses dm-crypt for Linux.

Azure Key Vault stores the keys automatically to help you control and manage the disk-encryption keys and secrets. So even if someone gets access to the VHD image and downloads it, they can't access the data on the VHD.

Encryption in transit

Keep your data secure by enabling transport-level security between Azure and the client. Always use HTTPS to secure communication over the public internet. When you call the REST APIs to access objects in storage accounts, you can enforce the use of HTTPS by requiring secure transfer for the storage account. After you enable secure transfer, connections that use HTTP will be refused. This flag will also enforce secure transfer over SMB by requiring SMB 3.0 for all file share mounts.

CORS support

Contoso stores several website asset types in Azure Storage. These types include images and videos. To secure browser apps, Contoso locks GET requests down to specific domains.

Azure Storage supports cross-domain access through cross-origin resource sharing (CORS). CORS uses HTTP headers so that a web application at one domain can access resources from a server at a different domain. By using CORS, web apps ensure that they load only authorized content from authorized sources.

CORS support is an optional flag you can enable on Storage accounts. The flag adds the appropriate headers when you use HTTP GET requests to retrieve resources from the Storage account.

Role-based access control

To access data in a storage account, the client makes a request over HTTP or HTTPS. Every request to a secure resource must be authorized. The service ensures that the client has the permissions required to access the data. You can choose from several access options. Arguably, the most flexible option is role-based access.

Azure Storage supports Azure Active Directory and role-based access control (RBAC) for both resource management and data operations. To security principals, you can assign RBAC roles that are scoped to the storage account. Use Active Directory to authorize resource management operations, such as configuration. Active Directory is supported for data operations on Blob and Queue storage.

To a security principal or a managed identity for Azure resources, you can assign RBAC roles that are scoped to a subscription, a resource group, a storage account, or an individual container or queue.

Auditing access

Auditing is another part of controlling access. You can audit Azure Storage access by using the built-in Storage Analytics service.

Storage Analytics logs every operation in real time, and you can search the Storage Analytics logs for specific requests. Filter based on the authentication mechanism, the success of the operation, or the resource that was accessed.