1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

absolute path: A string that identifies the location of a file and that begins with a drive identifier and root directory or network share and ends with the complete file name. Examples are C:\Documents\Work\example.txt and \\netshare\Documents\Work\example.txt.

accelerator key: Any combination of keys that are pressed simultaneously to run a command.

ActiveX control: A reusable software control, such as a check box or button, that uses ActiveX technology and provides options to users or runs macros or scripts that automate a task. See also ActiveX object.

adaptive menu: A type of menu that displays the most recently used commands at the top of that menu.

add-in: Supplemental functionality that is provided by an external application or macro to extend the capabilities of an application.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) character set: A character set defined by a code page approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The term "ANSI" as used to signify Windows code pages is a historical reference and a misnomer that persists in the Windows community. The source of this misnomer stems from the fact that the Windows code page 1252 was originally based on an ANSI draft, which became International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 8859-1 [ISO/IEC-8859-1]. In Windows, the ANSI character set can be any of the following code pages: 1252, 1250, 1251, 1253, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1257, 1258, 874, 932, 936, 949, or 950. For example, "ANSI application" is usually a reference to a non-Unicode or code-page-based application. Therefore, "ANSI character set" is often misused to refer to one of the character sets defined by a Windows code page that can be used as an active system code page; for example, character sets defined by code page 1252 or character sets defined by code page 950. Windows is now based on Unicode, so the use of ANSI character sets is strongly discouraged unless they are used to interoperate with legacy applications or legacy data.

anti-moniker: A Component Object Model (COM) object that is the inverse of a simple moniker and has no internal structure; it is the inverse of a COM implementation of a file, an item, or a pointer moniker. An anti-moniker that is composed to the right of a file moniker, item moniker, or pointer moniker composes to nothing.

assembly: A collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET Framework application. All managed types and resources are contained within an assembly and are marked either as accessible only within the assembly or as accessible from code in other assemblies. Assemblies also play a key role in security. The code access security system uses information about an assembly to determine the set of permissions that is granted to code in the assembly.

base URL: A URL that is specified for a web resource to convert all relative URLs in that resource to absolute URLs. A base URL ends with either a file name, such as http://www.example.com/sample.htm, or a slash, such as http://www.example.com/subdir/. See also absolute URL.

basic toolbar: A toolbar that consists of a row, column, or block of buttons, each of which perform an action when activated. Unlike a menu toolbar, which displays only text labels, a basic toolbar can display both text and icons.

big-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the most significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

ButtonPopup control: A type of Button control that displays a menu of related commands when activated.

cell: A box that is formed by the intersection of a row and a column in a worksheet or a table. A cell can contain numbers, strings, and formulas, and various formats can be applied to that data.

class identifier (CLSID): A GUID that identifies a software component; for instance, a DCOM object class or a COM class.

clipboard format: An unsigned integer that uniquely identifies the format of a data packet that is stored in a binary large object (BLOB) and can be shared between processes through the operating system clipboard or other means.

code page: An ordered set of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing support for character sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.

Component Object Model (COM): An object-oriented programming model that defines how objects interact within a single process or between processes. In COM, clients have access to an object through interfaces implemented on the object. For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

composite moniker: A Component Object Model (COM) object that joins two or more moniker objects and that can determine the relation between the parts. There are two types of composite monikers: generic, which can connect any two monikers regardless of class; and, nongeneric, which can connect monikers only of the same class.

context menu: A menu that is related to the active window, selection, or object. Also referred to as shortcut menu.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

custom toolbar: A type of toolbar that contains a user-defined set of controls and is not included in an application by default. A custom toolbar has a toolbar identifier value of "1".

custom toolbar control: A user-defined control that can be added to a toolbar. A custom toolbar control has a toolbar control identifier (TCID) value of "1" and can be one of the following types of controls: ActiveX, Button, ComboBox, DropDown, Edit, or Popup.

cyclic redundancy check (CRC): An algorithm used to produce a checksum (a small, fixed number of bits) against a block of data, such as a packet of network traffic or a block of a computer file. The CRC is a broad class of functions used to detect errors after transmission or storage. A CRC is designed to catch random errors, as opposed to intentional errors. If errors might be introduced by a motivated and intelligent adversary, a cryptographic hash function should be used instead.

datasheet: A worksheet window that contains the source data for a Microsoft Graph chart object.

digital certificate: See the "digital certificate definition standard," as described in [X509].

digital certificate store: A database that stores a variety of digital certificates and information about those certificates, including attributes and constraints.

digital signature: A value that is generated by using a digital signature algorithm, taking as input a private key and an arbitrary-length string, such that a specific verification algorithm is satisfied by the value, the input string, and the public key corresponding to the input private key.

docked: A condition where a toolbar is attached to the docking area of an application window.

docked location: A specific position of a toolbar within the docking area of an application window.

docking area: An area that is adjacent to the edge of an application window. A toolbar can be moved and attached to a docking area.

document workspace: A document repository that enables users to collaborate on one or more documents.

ExpandingGrid control: A type of ButtonPopup control that displays and sets a value from a continuous range of possible values when the user drags across the menu area.

file moniker: A Component Object Model (COM) object that stores the path name that is assigned to a file by the native file system.

Gauge control: A type of control that displays and sets a value from a continuous range of possible values that the user selects by dragging a slider. An example is the Zoom control in an application window.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

GraphicCombo control: A type of ComboBox control that can display both text and graphics as a list of options.

GraphicDropDown control: A type of DropDown control that can display custom graphics in a list of options.

Grid control: A type of menu control that can be activated by clicking a cell in a grid. An example is the Font Color control.

GUID_NULL: A GUID that has the value "{00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000}".

hash: A fixed-size result that is obtained by applying a one-way mathematical function, which is sometimes referred to as a hash algorithm, to an arbitrary amount of data. If the input data changes, the hash also changes. The hash can be used in many operations, including authentication and digital signing.

hyperlink: A relationship between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].

hyperlink location: A portion of a hyperlink that specifies the location of a specific item, such as a bookmark, within a document, object, or other type of resource; for example "#bookmark" in the hyperlink location C:\Documents\Document.docx#bookmark.

hyperlink target: A portion of a hyperlink that specifies the document, object, or other resource; for example "C:\Documents\Document.docx" in the hyperlink location C:\Documents\Document.docx#bookmark.

item moniker: A Component Object Model (COM) object that identifies an object that is contained in another object, such as an OLE object that is embedded in a document.

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG): A raster graphics file format for displaying high-resolution color graphics. JPEG graphics apply a user-specified compression scheme that can significantly reduce the file sizes of photo-realistic color graphics. A higher level of compression results in lower quality, whereas a lower level of compression results in higher quality. JPEG-format files have a .jpg or .jpeg file name extension.

language code identifier (LCID): A 32-bit number that identifies the user interface human language dialect or variation that is supported by an application or a client computer.

linked object: An object that is inserted into a document and continues to exist in a separate source file. If the object in the source file changes, the object in the document is updated automatically to reflect those changes.

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

locale: A collection of rules and data that are specific to a language and a geographical area. A locale can include information about sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification.

locale settings: A collection of rules and data that are specific to a language and a geographic area. Locale settings include information about sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification.

major version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is ready for a larger group to see, or has changed significantly from the previous major version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version is always "0" (zero) for a major version.

managed code: Code that is executed by the common language runtime (CLR) environment rather than directly by the operating system. Managed code applications gain CLR services, such as automatic garbage collection, runtime type checking, and security support. These services provide uniform behavior that is independent of platform and language.

manifest: A file that stores metadata about an expansion pack, such as the name of the expansion pack, the files and resources that are included in the expansion pack, and the dependencies that it has on other files and components.

menu toolbar: A type of toolbar that is displayed in an application window, typically at the top, and provides a set of menu controls from which the user can select. Activating a control on the toolbar displays a list of commands in that menu, and the menu remains open until the user closes it or chooses a menu command.

minor version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is in progress or has changed only slightly from the previous version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version number is never "0" (zero) and is incremented for each new version of an item, unless a major version is explicitly published. When minor versioning is disabled on a SharePoint site, only major version numbers are incremented, and the minor version is always "0" (zero).

moniker: An object that stores information that uniquely identifies a Component Object Model (COM) object and allows that object to be located and activated.

MS-DOS path compatibility mode: A mode that converts an MS-DOS path into a corresponding path by mapping MS-DOS device names to MS-DOS devices and drive letters.

object: In COM, a software entity that implements the IUnknown interface and zero or more additional interfaces that may be obtained from each other using the IUnknown interface. A COM object can be exposed to remote clients via the DCOM protocol, in which case it is also a DCOM object.

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE): A technology for transferring and sharing information between applications by inserting a file or part of a file into a compound document. The inserted file can be either embedded or linked. See also embedded object and linked object.

OCXDropDown control: A type of DropDown control that displays a list of the ActiveX controls that are available within that application.

Pane control: A type of toolbar control that hosts a window within itself. The hosted window is not constrained by the layout and control type options of a basic toolbar or a menu toolbar.

parent directory indicator: In a hierarchical filing system, two periods followed by a backslash (..\) that specify a working directory, relative to the current working directory.

Popup control: A built-in or custom control on a menu bar or toolbar that displays a menu of related commands when clicked.

range: An addressable region that is in a workbook. A range typically consists of zero or more cells and represents a single, contiguous rectangle of cells on a single sheet.

relative path: A path that is implied by the active working directory or is calculated based on a specified directory. If users enter a command that refers to a file and the full path is not entered, the active working directory is the relative path of the referenced file.

smart document: A file that is programmed to assist the user as the user creates or updates the document. Several types of files, such as forms and templates, can also function as smart documents.

smart tag: A feature that adds the ability to recognize and label specific data types, such as people's names, within a document and displays an action button that enables users to perform common tasks for that data type.

smart tag recognizer: An add-in that can interpret a specific type of smart tag, such as an address or a financial symbol, in a document and display an action button that enables users to perform common tasks for that data type.

SplitButtonMRUPopup control: A type of SplitButtonPopup control whose icon changes to reflect the command that the user most recently selected from the menu that is displayed by that button.

SplitButtonPopup control: A type of Button control that performs an action when clicked, and can also display a menu of related commands when the user clicks a drop-down arrow that appears on the button.

SplitDropDown control: A type of Button control that performs a default action when clicked, and can also expand to display a list of other possible actions when the user clicks a drop-down arrow that appears on the button.

storage: An element of a compound file that is a unit of containment for one or more storages and streams, analogous to directories in a file system, as described in [MS-CFB].

stream: An element of a compound file, as described in [MS-CFB]. A stream contains a sequence of bytes that can be read from or written to by an application, and they can exist only in storages.

target frame: The name of a frame that is in an HTML-based frames page and displays the destination of a hyperlink.

thumbnail: A miniature version of an image that is typically used to browse multiple images quickly.

time stamp authority: A service acknowledging that a datum existed before a specific time. The service is typically a trusted third party.

timestamp: A condition of a digital signature that indicates whether the signature was created with a valid certificate that has expired or was created with a certificate that had expired already. If the certificate expired after the signature was created, the signature can be trusted. If it expired before the signature was created, it cannot be trusted.

toolbar: A row, column, or block of controls that represent tasks or commands within an application. A toolbar can be either a menu toolbar, which provides access to menu commands, or a basic toolbar, which contains buttons that provide shortcuts to tasks that are frequently accessed from menus.

toolbar control: An object that appears on a toolbar and enables user interaction or input, typically to initiate an action, display information, or set values.

toolbar control identifier (TCID): An integer that identifies a specific control on a toolbar.

toolbar control separator: A line that separates groups of controls on a user interface surface, such as controls on a toolbar or commands on a menu.

toolbar control type: A set of pre-defined behaviors and user interface elements for an object that can be implemented on a toolbar. Types include:         ActiveX; Button; ButtonPopup; ComboBox; DropDown; Edit; ExpandingGrid; Gauge; GraphicCombo; GraphicDropDown; Grid; Label; OCXDropDown; Popup; SplitButtonPopup; SplitButtonMRUPopup; and SplitDropDown.

toolbar delta: A file component that stores a modification that a user made to a built-in toolbar. Stored modifications include adding, changing, or removing a control from a built-in toolbar.

tooltip: A window displaying text that is created when the mouse is moved over a window or notification icon.

top-level toolbar: A basic toolbar that is not contained by another toolbar.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

Universal Naming Convention (UNC): A string format that specifies the location of a resource. For more information, see [MS-DTYP] section 2.2.57.

URI fragment: The portion of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that allows indirect identification of a secondary resource by reference to a primary resource and additional identifying information, as described in [RFC3986]. A fragment component is indicated by a number sign (#) and is terminated by the end of the URI.

URI query: The portion of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that, in conjunction with the data in the path component, identifies a resource within the scope of a URI's scheme and naming authority, if any, as described in [RFC3986]. A query component is indicated by the first question mark (?) character and is terminated by a number sign (#) or the end of the URI.

URI scheme: The portion of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that refers to a specification for assigning identifiers within the URI, as described in [RFC3986].

URL moniker: A Component Object Model (COM) object that stores a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) as a string, based on either a full URL or the combination of a base URL and a partial URL string.

Visual Basic for Applications (VBA): A macro-based programming language that derives from Microsoft Visual Basic and can be used to customize and extend an application. Unlike Visual Basic, Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code and macros can be run only from within a host application that supports VBA.

whitespace: A character that can be found between words, including a space (" "), a carriage return in combination with a line feed (newline), and a tab character.

XML expansion pack: A collection of files, managed by a manifest.xml file, that adds functionality to a document by specifying custom displays or actions.

XML namespace: A collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more information, see [XMLNS-2ED].

XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.