This document uses the following terms:
absolute path: A string that identifies the location of a file and that begins with a drive identifier and root directory or network share and ends with the complete file name. Examples are C:\Documents\Work\example.txt and \\netshare\Documents\Work\example.txt.
absolute URL: The full Internet address of a page or other World Wide Web resource. The absolute URL includes a protocol, such as "http," a network location, and an optional path and file name — for example, http://www.treyresearch.net/.
alert: An Internet message that is sent to subscribers automatically to notify them when user-defined criteria are met. Alerts are generated automatically when items such as documents, webpages, list items, sites, or other resources on a server are changed.
anonymous access link: An implementation of tokenized sharing link that can allow users to gain guest access to content, such as a document or folder, without sign-in when using the specific tokenized sharing link.
app: (1) See web application.
(2) See SharePoint Add-in.
app instance: An instantiation of an app on a specific site.
app package: An implementation-specific file that specifies an app.
app product identifier: A unique designation that is shared by all versions of an app.
application: A participant that is responsible for beginning, propagating, and completing an atomic transaction. An application communicates with a transaction manager in order to begin and complete transactions. An application communicates with a transaction manager in order to marshal transactions to and from other applications. An application also communicates in application-specific ways with a resource manager in order to submit requests for work on resources.
base field type: An XML-based schema that defines the type of data, such as formatted text or an integer, that can be entered and stored in a field in a list. Every field in a list is derived from a specific base field type.
base type: An XML-based schema that defines the data and rendering fields that can be used in a list. Every list is derived from a specific base type.
base view identifier: An integer that uniquely identifies a view definition for a list.
Business Connectivity Services (BCS): A set of services that enables interaction and integration with back-end data in a line-of-business (LOB) system, including external data and related services. BCS includes the Business Data Connectivity (BDC) service.
Business Data Connectivity (BDC): A shared service that stores information about business application data that exists outside a server farm. It can be used to display business data in lists, Web Parts, search results, user profiles, and custom applications. Previously referred to as Business Data Catalog.
canonical URL: An absolute URL that identifies a space, tool, or component the same way on any device.
cascading style sheet (CSS): An extension to HTML that enables authors and users of HTML documents to attach style sheets to those documents, as described in [CSS-LEVEL1] and [CSS-LEVEL2]. A style sheet includes typographical information about the appearance of a page, including the font for text on the page.
change log: A log of changes, such as add and delete, that are made to objects that are stored on a back-end database server. Applications can use this information to identify changes that occurred on those objects.
change token: A serialized token that can be used to determine whether changes occurred in the system. It can also be used to deserialize packages in the correct sequence during import or restore operations.
check out: The process of retrieving a writable copy of a file or project from a source repository. This locks the file for editing to prevent other users from overwriting or editing it inadvertently.
checked out: A publishing level that indicates that a document has been created and locked for exclusive editing by a user in a version control system.
Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML): An XML-based language that is used to describe various elements, such as queries and views, in sites that are based on SharePoint Products and Technologies.
configuration database: A database that is stored on a back-end database server and contains both persisted objects and site collection metadata for lookup purposes.
content database: A database that is stored on a back-end database server and contains stored procedures, site collections, and the contents of those site collections.
content type: A named and uniquely identifiable collection of settings and fields that store metadata for individual items in a SharePoint list. One or more content types can be associated with a list, which restricts the contents to items of those types.
content type group: A named category of content types that is used to organize content types of a similar purpose.
content type identifier: A unique identifier that is assigned to a content type.
content type order: The sequence in which content types are displayed.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).
CSOM array: An ordered collection of values that can be used in an XML request or JSON response text. The values are identified by their position and their position is determined by a zero-based integer index.
CSOM DateTime: An Int64 value that represents the number of 100-nanosecond time intervals that have elapsed since 12:00:00, January 1, 0001. It can be used in an XML request or as a string in JSON response text. The value can represent time intervals through 23:59:59.9999999, December 31, 9999. It can also specify whether a local, UTC, or no time zone applies.
CSOM Double: A 64-bit, double-precision, floating-point value, which is the DOUBLE type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Double values is from "-1.79769313486232e308" to "1.79769313486232e308".
CSOM expando field: A field that stores data for an instance of a CSOM Object and is not defined explicitly in the corresponding CSOM Object type.
CSOM Int16: A 16-bit, signed integer value, which is the INT16 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Int16 values is from "-32768" to "32767".
CSOM Int32: A 32-bit, signed integer value, which is the INT32 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Int32 values is from "-2147483648" to "2147483647".
CSOM Int64: A 64-bit, signed integer value, which is the INT64 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Int64 values is from "-9223372036854775808" to "9223372036854775807".
CSOM UInt32: A 32-bit, unsigned integer value, which is the UINT32 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM UInt32 values is from "0" to "4294967295".
CSOM UInt64: A 64-bit, unsigned integer value, which is the UINT64 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM UInt64 values is from "0" to "18446744073709551615".
culture name: A part of a language identification tagging system, as described in [RFC1766]. Culture names adhere to the format "<languagecode2>-<country/regioncode2>." If a two-letter language code is not available, a three-letter code that is derived from [ISO-639] is used.
current user: The user who is authenticated during processing operations on a front-end web server or a back-end database server.
data validation criteria: See data validation.
datetime: A data type that represents the date and time when a document can be normalized and indexed as a numeric value by a search application. The range and degree of granularity varies according to search application and implementation.
dependent lookup field: A lookup field that displays additional data for an item that is returned by a primary lookup field. See also primary lookup field.
dictionary: A collection of key/value pairs. Each pair consists of a unique key and an associated value. Values in the dictionary are retrieved by providing a key for which the dictionary returns the associated value.
(2) A file that contains predefined formatting, layout, text, or graphics and that serves as the basis for new documents with a similar design or purpose.
domain name: The name given by an administrator to a collection of networked computers that share a common directory. Part of the domain naming service naming structure, domain names consist of a sequence of name labels separated by periods.
End User License Agreement (EULA): A textual description of the terms that a user or administrator accepts before an update is installed. Each EULA is identified by a GUID, and each update revision might be associated with a EULA.
EntityInstance: A set of Field (3) values that have a unique identity that represents a specific instance of an Entity, and are stored in a line-of-business (LOB) system.
(2) An action or occurrence to which an application might respond. Examples include state changes, data transfers, key presses, and mouse movements.
event receiver: A structured modular component that enables built-in or user-defined managed code classes to act upon objects, such as list items, lists, or content types, when specific triggering actions occur.
exclusive lock: A condition in which one protocol client or protocol server can read or write data, but no transaction can acquire a shared lock on the data until the exclusive lock is released.
external list: A container that is within a SharePoint site and that references a set of EntityInstances that are sourced from a line-of-business (LOB) system. It has a customizable schema that is composed of one or more Fields (3).
feature scope: The scope at which a feature can be activated.
(2) A container for metadata within a SharePoint list and associated list items.
(3) The data elements that constitute an Entity in a line-of-business (LOB) system.
field definition: The definition of a field in the Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML).
file extension: The sequence of characters in a file's name between the end of the file's name and the last "." character. Vendors of applications choose such sequences for the applications to uniquely identify files that were created by those applications. This allows file management software to determine which application are to be used to open a file.
Finder: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return a collection of zero or more EntityInstances of a specific Entity. Finder input is defined by the FilterDescriptors that are contained in the Method that contains the Finder.
floating-point number: A number that is represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given base. The mantissa is typically a value between "0" and "1". To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result.
folder: A file system construct. File systems organize a volume's data by providing a hierarchy of objects, which are referred to as folders or directories, that contain files and can also contain other folders.
font: An object that defines the graphic design, or formatting, of a collection of numbers, symbols, and letters. A font specifies the style (such as bold and strikeout), size, family (a typeface such as Times New Roman), and other qualities to describe how the collection is drawn.
font scheme: A combination of complementary fonts in a theme.
globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).
historical version: Any version of a document or list item that is not one of the current versions. Depending on configuration settings, historical versions can be retained in a back-end database server, and might not be visible to specific users.
host name: The name of a physical server, as described in [RFC952].
HTTP method: In an HTTP message, a token that specifies the method to be performed on the resource that is identified by the Request-URI, as described in [RFC2616].
hyperlink: A relationship between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
icon: A graphical image used to supplement alphanumeric text in the visual identification of an object on a computer monitor. Icons are typically small, relative to the size of the area on which they are displayed.
Information Rights Management (IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by using encryption, certificates, and authentication. Authorized recipients or users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.
Input Method Editor (IME): An application that is used to enter characters in written Asian languages by using a standard 101-key keyboard. An IME consists of both an engine that converts keystrokes into phonetic and ideographic characters and a dictionary of commonly used ideographic words.
key value pair (KVP): A set of two linked data items: a key that is an identifier for some data item, and a value that is a value associated with the data item for the identifier represented by the key.
list folder: A folder that is contained within a SharePoint list. A list folder can contain documents or list items, and it retains the characteristics of other items in the list, such as a customizable schema.
list identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a list in a site collection.
list item attachment: A file that is contained within a list item and is stored in a folder in the list with the segment "Attachments".
list item identifier: See item identifier.
list schema: The Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML) schema of a list.
list view: A named collection of settings for querying and displaying items in a SharePoint list. There are two types of views: Personal, which can be used only by the user who created the view; and Public, which can be used by all users who have permission to access to the site.
LobSystemInstance: A type of MetadataObject that represents a specific deployed instance of a line-of-business (LOB) system, as represented by a LobSystem. LobSystemInstances are contained by LobSystems. LobSystemInstance Properties describe how to connect to an instance of the LobSystem that contains them by providing information such as the server name, connection string, and authentication mode.
locale: A collection of rules and data that are specific to a language and a geographical area. A locale can include information about sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification.
login name: A string that is used to identify a user or entity to an operating system, directory service, or distributed system. For example, in Windows-integrated authentication, a login name uses the form "DOMAIN\username".
major version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is ready for a larger group to see, or has changed significantly from the previous major version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version is always "0" (zero) for a major version.
master page: An ASP.NET file that has a predefined layout that can include static text, HTML elements, and server controls.
Meeting Workspace site: A SharePoint site that is based on a Meeting Workspace site template and has a template ID value of "2". A Meeting Workspace site is used for planning, posting, and working together on meeting materials.
message body: The main message text of an email message. A few properties of a Message object represent its message body, with one property containing the text itself and others defining its code page and its relationship to alternative body formats.
MethodInstance: A type of MetadataObject that associates a normalized or stereotypical semantic with a Method that represents a native API in a line-of-business (LOB) system. MethodInstances identify which part of the data that is returned by a Method is relevant for the semantic by defining a ReturnTypeDescriptor. MethodInstances are contained by Methods.
minor version: An iteration of a software component, document, or list item that is in progress or has changed only slightly from the previous version. For an item on a SharePoint site, the minor version number is never "0" (zero) and is incremented for each new version of an item, unless a major version is explicitly published. When minor versioning is disabled on a SharePoint site, only major version numbers are incremented, and the minor version is always "0" (zero).
mount point: See mounted folder.
mounted folder: A file system directory that contains a linked path to a second volume. A user can link a path on one volume to another. For example, given two volumes C: and D:, a user can create a directory or folder C:\mountD and link that directory with volume D:. The path C:\MountD can then be used to access the root folder of volume D:.
notification: A process in which a subscribing Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) client is notified of the state of a subscribed resource by sending a NOTIFY message to the subscriber.
OAuth: The OAuth 2.0 authorization framework [RFC6749].
object: (1) A set of attributes, each with its associated values. Two attributes of an object have special significance: an identifying attribute and a parent-identifying attribute. An identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of the identifying attribute are distinct. A parent-identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object's parent. That is, this attribute contains the value of the parent's identifying attribute, or a reserved value identifying no object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of this parent-identifying attribute define a tree with objects as vertices and child-parent references as directed edges with the child as an edge's tail and the parent as an edge's head. Note that an object is a value, not a variable; a replica is a variable. The process of adding, modifying, or deleting an object in a replica replaces the entire value of the replica with a new value. As the word replica suggests, it is often the case that two replicas contain "the same objects". In this usage, objects in two replicas are considered the same if they have the same value of the identifying attribute and if there is a process in place (replication) to converge the values of the remaining attributes. When the members of a set of replicas are considered to be the same, it is common to say "an object" as shorthand referring to the set of corresponding objects in the replicas.
(2) In COM, a software entity that implements the IUnknown interface and zero or more additional interfaces that may be obtained from each other using the IUnknown interface. A COM object can be exposed to remote clients via the DCOM protocol, in which case it is also a DCOM object.
organization access link: An implementation of tokenized sharing link that can grant a signed-in user explicit access to content, such as a document or folder, when using the specific tokenized sharing link, so that they can directly access the content in future requests.
parent list: A list that contains a list item or list folder.
permission: A rule that is associated with an object and that regulates which users can gain access to the object and in what manner. See also rights.
personalization data: Customized data that is stored for a set of Web Parts. The data can be shared by all users or be specific to an individual user.
picture library: A type of document library that is optimized for storing digital pictures or graphics.
primary lookup field: A lookup field that returns all of the information that is needed to support lookup operations from one list to another. See also dependent lookup field.
principal: An authenticated entity that initiates a message or channel in a distributed system.
query: A formalized instruction to a data source to either extract data or perform a specified action. A query can be in the form of a query expression, a method-based query, or a combination of the two. The data source can be in different forms, such as a relational database, XML document, or in-memory object. See also search query.
Recycle Bin item: An item that was deleted and appears in the Recycle Bin. Items in the Recycle Bin can include a document, a version of a document, a list item, a list, a folder, a folder containing lists, an attachment to a list item, or a version of a list item.
relationship delete behavior: An 8-bit integer that specifies how to delete a list item that has related child items. It can be a cascading operation, which deletes all related child items when the parent item is deleted, or a restrict operation, which indicates that a parent item can be deleted only after all related child items are deleted.
resource folder: A folder that contains images, templates, and other resource files for a content type.
rich text: Text that is formatted in the Rich Text Format, as described in [MSFT-RTF].
rights: Tasks that a user is permitted to perform on a computer, site, domain, or other system resource. See also permission.
role definition: A named set of permissions for a SharePoint site. See also permission level.
second-stage Recycle Bin: A container for items that were deleted from a first-stage Recycle Bin. Items in a second-stage Recycle Bin are visible only to site collection administrators.
server-relative URL: A relative URL that does not specify a scheme or host, and assumes a base URI of the root of the host, as described in [RFC3986].
shared lock: A condition in which multiple protocol clients or protocol servers can read or write data concurrently, but no transaction can acquire an exclusive lock on the data until all of the shared locks have been released.
site: (1) A group of related webpages that is hosted by a server on the World Wide Web or an intranet. Each website has its own entry points, metadata, administration settings, and workflows. Also referred to as web site.
(2) A group of related pages and data within a SharePoint site collection. The structure and content of a site is based on a site definition. Also referred to as SharePoint site and web site.
site collection: A set of websites that are in the same content database, have the same owner, and share administration settings. A site collection can be identified by a GUID or the URL of the top-level site for the site collection. Each site collection contains a top-level site, can contain one or more subsites, and can have a shared navigational structure.
site collection group: A named collection of users and domain groups that can be managed for a site collection or site. A group can be used to assign permission levels, send email messages, and indicate site membership for multiple users simultaneously.
site collection quota: An option for a site collection that enables administrators to set levels for maximum storage allowed, maximum number of users allowed, and warnings that are associated with the maximum levels.
site definition configuration: An XML-based definition of lists, features, modules, and other data that collectively define a type of SharePoint site. Site definition configurations are stored in the ONET.xml file.
site identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a site in a site collection.
site subscription: A logical grouping of site collections that share a common set of features and service data.
site template: An XML-based definition of site settings, including formatting, lists, views, and elements such as text, graphics, page layout, and styles. Site templates are stored in .stp files in the content database.
SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].
SpecificFinder: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return a specific EntityInstance of a specific Entity given its EntityInstanceId. SpecificFinder input is defined and ordered by the Identifiers that are associated with the Entity that is associated with the Method that is associated with the SpecificFinder.
stream: An element of a compound file, as described in [MS-CFB]. A stream contains a sequence of bytes that can be read from or written to by an application, and they can exist only in storages.
strong name: A name that consists of the simple text name, version number, and culture information of an assembly, strengthened by a public key and a digital signature that is generated over the assembly.
subscription: The result of a SUBSCRIBE request from a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) element.
subsite: A complete website that is stored in a named subdirectory of another website. The parent website can be the top-level site of a site collection or another subsite. Also referred to as subweb.
task: A component of an action that defines the work that actors need to do within a workflow system. An action can have zero or more tasks that are each assigned to different targets. There is a one-to-one correlation between tasks and targets.
template: A file that contains pre-defined formatting including layout, text and graphics. It serves as the basis for new documents that have a similar look or purpose. See also form template (Microsoft InfoPath) and site template (SharePoint Products and Technologies).
time zone: A geographical area that observes the same local time. The local time has a positive, zero, or negative offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The offset can be different during standard time and daylight saving time.
tokenized sharing link: A specialized URL where a unique server generated opaque string value for a resource is embedded within the path or as a parameter, for the purposes of granting access whenever the URL is used to access the content. Depending on the supported abilities of the server, a tokenized sharing link can potentially behave like an anonymous access link, an organization access link, or with other behaviors as defined by the implementor.
toolbar: A row, column, or block of controls that represent tasks or commands within an application. A toolbar can be either a menu toolbar, which provides access to menu commands, or a basic toolbar, which contains buttons that provide shortcuts to tasks that are frequently accessed from menus.
top-level site: The first site in a site collection. All other sites within a site collection are child sites of the top-level site. The URL of the top-level site is also the URL of the site collection.
TypeDescriptor: A type of MetadataObject that describes a subset of the structure of a Parameter of a Method of the native API of a line-of-business (LOB) system. A TypeDescriptor can contain TypeDescriptors to form hierarchies that describe Parameters representing complex types, where the leaf TypeDescriptors describe simple or primitive types. A root TypeDescriptor, together with DefaultValues for leaf TypeDescriptors can be used to instantiate an instance of a Parameter value to send to a LOB system to execute a Method.
uncustomized: A condition of a document whose content is stored in a location other than the content database. If a document is uncustomized, the front-end web server determines the location of the content by using the SetupPath value for the document. Also referred to as ghosted.
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].
Updater: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to update an EntityInstance identified by a specified EntityInstanceId. The set of Fields (3) that is required to update the EntityInstance is referred to as the Updater View.
upgrade evaluation site collection: A copy of the current site collection, used to evaluate the functionality of a site collection after it is upgraded.
URL encode: The process of encoding characters that have reserved meanings for a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), as described in [RFC1738].
(2) The real person who has a member account. The user is authenticated by being asked to prove knowledge of the secret password associated with the user name.
user custom action: An extension to the user interface, such as a button on a toolbar or a link on a site settings page, that is submitted by a user of a site collection. Unlike a custom action, the definition of a user custom action is stored in a back-end database server.
user display name: A user profile property that contains the preferred name of a user. See also display name.
user information list: A list that contains items, each of which represents a security principal in a site collection. Each site collection has only one such list and it resides in the top-level site of the site collection.
UTC (Coordinated Universal Time): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC–0 (or GMT).
Web Part: A reusable component that contains or generates web-based content such as XML, HTML, and scripting code. It has a standard property schema and displays that content in a cohesive unit on a webpage. See also Web Parts Page.
Web Part Page: An ASP.NET webpage that includes Web Part controls that enable users to customize the page, such as specifying which information to display. Referred to as Web Parts Page in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010.
Web Part zone index: An integer that specifies the relative position of a Web Part in a Web Part zone. Web Parts are positioned from the smallest to the largest zone index. If two or more Web Parts have the same zone index they are positioned adjacent to each other in an undefined order.
Welcome page: A page, such as default.aspx, that can be specified as the default redirect target when users browse to a URL without specifying a leaf name.
workflow: A structured modular component that enables the automated movement of documents or items through a specific sequence of actions or tasks that are related to built-in or user-defined business processes.
workflow initiation form: An implementation-specific file, typically an ASPX page, that is a part of a workflow. It contains fields and other elements that can be used to initiate a process for a list item, based on the rules and settings in a workflow template that is associated with the list that contains the item.
XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].
XML document: A document object that is well formed, as described in [XML10/5], and might be valid. An XML document has a logical structure that is composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions. It also has a physical structure that is composed of entities, starting with the root, or document, entity.
XML element: An XML structure that typically consists of a start tag, an end tag, and the information between those tags. Elements can have attributes and can contain other elements.
XML fragment: Lines of text that adhere to XML tag rules, as described in [XML], but do not have a Document Type Definition (DTD) or schema, processing instructions, or any other header information.
XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.
MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.