access model: A protocol
that specifies how communication is handled between different features in a
server system with respect to how user requests for resources are authorized.
active cell: The cell
that is currently selected in a worksheet.
active sheet: The sheet
that is currently selected.
alert: A message that is
passed to a protocol client to notify it when specific criteria are met.
ancestor: A PivotTable
member that is above the current PivotTable member in a hierarchy.
anonymous user: A user
who presents no credentials when identifying himself or herself. The process
for determining an anonymous user can differ based on the authentication
protocol, and the documentation for the relevant authentication protocol should
ascending order: A sort
order in which text strings are arranged in alphabetical order, numerical
values are arranged from smallest to largest, and dates and times are arranged
from oldest to newest.
AutoFilter: A mechanism
that can be used to filter tabular data based on user-defined criteria such as
values, strings, and formatting.
AutoFilter item: A value
that is used to populate an AutoFilter.
border: A line that can
be applied to the outer edge of a cell, shape, object, or chart element. A border
can be variously formatted for style, color, and thickness.
border formatting: A set
of properties that, as a whole, specify the appearance of a border, such as
color, line style, and thickness.
border thickness: A
property of a border that specifies how thick a border line is drawn.
bottom N filter: A filter
that matches the smallest numerical values or oldest time and date values in a
bottom N filter by count:
A type of bottom N
filter that matches the N smallest numerical values or the N oldest time
and date values.
bottom N filter by percent:
A type of bottom N
filter that matches the N percent smallest numerical values or the N
percent oldest time and date values.
bottom N filter by sum: A
type of bottom N filter
that matches the smallest numerical values or the oldest time and date values
whose sum is equal to or greater than N.
calculate: The process by
which computations in a workbook are performed.
caption: One or more
characters that can be used as a label for display purposes or as an
CDATA section: A section
in an XML document
that is bracketed by [!CDATA[ and ]] characters. All data in this section,
including markup tags, is treated as normal characters by an XML parser.
cell contents: The data
inside a cell, such as text, values, formulas, and cell error values.
cell error value: Any of
a number of special values that are returned as a result of an unsuccessful
cell formatting: The set
of properties that, as a whole, specify the appearance of a cell, such as font
characteristics and fill color.
child: An object that is
immediately below the current object in a hierarchy.
child PivotTable member:
A PivotTable member that is one level lower in a dimension hierarchy, relative
to another PivotTable member, which is referred to as its parent member. For
example, a child of a Year member might be Quarter.
clear all state: A
condition in which no filter is applied to a worksheet, list, or PivotTable
collapsed outline state:
A state in which the content that is nested within an outline is not displayed.
color stop: A color at a
specific position in a color gradient.
column: (1) See field.
(2) A single set of data that is
displayed vertically in a worksheet or a table.
column field: A field that
is contained in the PivotTable area where the column (2) values are
compact axis: A state in
which PivotTable members from different levels in a hierarchy are displayed in
a single column (2).
confirmation: A message
that asks a user to verify an action before the user performs it.
connected data: Data that
is stored in the same workbook from which it is being referenced, or data that
is stored in a database repository.
connection: A link that
two physical machines or applications share to pass data back and forth.
control button: A button
in the user interface.
established, authentication data that is used by a security principal to
establish its own identity. When used in reference to the Netlogon Protocol, it
is the data that is stored in the NETLOGON_CREDENTIAL structure.
cube: A set of data that
is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure that is defined
by a set of dimensions
custom filter: A filter
that contains preconfigured expressions in which users can optionally enter a
string to filter data.
custom label filter: A
custom filter that is applied to string labels for data.
custom value filter: A
custom filter that is applied to the numerical values of data.
data bar: A graphical
representation of cell content as a bar graph.
data connection: A
collection of information, such as the type and location, that defines how to
connect to an external data source, such as a database, web service, SharePoint
list, or XML file.
data culture: The
language that is used to specify number formatting for data.
data provider: A known data
source that is specific to a target type and that provides data to a collector
default column: The column (2) that is used if
no column is specified.
default filter value: The
filter value that is used if no filter is specified.
default font face color:
The font face color that is applied to a cell if no font face color is
default row: The row that
is used if no row is specified.
default sheet: The sheet
that is displayed if no sheet is specified.
default sheet tab color:
The color that is used for a worksheet tab if no color is specified.
delegation: A model of
communication between server components in which the caller can make requests
on behalf of a user by passing a service ticket that was retrieved for that
descendant: A member that
is below the current member in a hierarchy.
descending order: A sort
order in which text strings are arranged in reverse alphabetical order,
numerical values are arranged from largest to smallest, and dates and times are
arranged from newest to oldest.
dimension: A structural
attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories (levels)
that describe data in a fact table. These categories typically describe a
similar set of members upon which the user bases an analysis.
drill indicator: A symbol
that indicates whether a PivotTable member can be expanded or collapsed.
expand: The process of
opening a level in a dimension hierarchy on a PivotTable report to view data
from lower levels in the user interface.
expanded outline state: A
state in which nested content within an outline is displayed.
expire: A process in
which an object, such as an external data connection, becomes invalid because
its allotted time period has ended.
external data: Data that
is stored in a repository outside a workbook.
fallback data culture: A
data culture that is selected through an algorithm as a substitute for a data
culture that is not installed or is otherwise unavailable.
fallback UI culture: A
user interface (UI) culture that is selected through an algorithm as a
substitute for a UI culture that is not installed or is otherwise unavailable.
fill color: A color that
is used to fill the background of a cell, shape, or chart element.
filter: A mechanism by
which a set of data is scoped to display only those entries that meet specified
filtering control: A user
interface element that contains the filter functions of a PivotTable report.
filtering state: A
setting that indicates whether a filter value or filter date value is included
as part of the criteria that is used to define the filter for an AutoFilter.
flow: The direction in
which text in a cell is rendered.
font face color: A
property of a cell that specifies the color that is used to render a font.
font face decoration: Any
of the set of font properties that specify how to render a font, such as
italics and underline.
formula: A logical
equation or function that produces a result in a spreadsheet application.
gradient fill: A type of
fill that applies gradient formatting to the background of a cell or an object.
gridline: A line that is
drawn on a worksheet or table for use as a visual aid to distinguish between
group: A process of
combining similar elements into a set in accordance with logical criteria. It
is frequently used to combine sets of data from Online Analytical Processing
(OLAP) databases or PivotTable reports.
grow: The process of
increasing the number of rows or columns (2) in a PivotTable
Help topic identifier: A
unique identifier for an article that contains Help content.
hidden: A condition of an
object that prevents it from being displayed in rendered output.
hidden row: A row that
does not appear in a worksheet view because its height is set to "0"
(zero). A row can be hidden if the data is filtered or an outline is collapsed.
hierarchy: A logical tree
structure that organizes the members of a dimension such that each member has
one parent member and zero or more child members.
horizontal indent: An
indent that is used in a cell to adjust cell content horizontally.
horizontal text: Text
that is rendered horizontally in a cell.
hyperlink: A relationship
between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative,
hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other
multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Secure (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts
web page requests. In some older protocols, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
over Secure Sockets Layer" is still used (Secure Sockets Layer has been
deprecated). For more information, see [SSL3] and [RFC5246].
item: A unit of content
that can be indexed and searched by a search application.
key performance indicator
(KPI): A predefined measure that is used to track performance against a
strategic goal, objective, plan, initiative, or business process. A visual cue
is frequently used to communicate performance against the measure.
left-to-right: A reading
order in which characters in words are read from left to right, and words are
read from left to right in sentences.
level: A relative
position in a hierarchy of data. A level is frequently used when describing how
to navigate a hierarchy in an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) database or a
list: An organization of
a region of cells into a tabular structure in a workbook.
login name: A string that
is used to identify a user or entity to an operating system, directory service,
or distributed system. For example, in Windows-integrated authentication, a
login name uses the form "DOMAIN\username".
manual filter: A filter
that lets users select a set of individual data items or dimension hierarchies
by using a user interface that displays levels from the hierarchies.
member property: An
attribute on a data item within a specific dimension in an Online Analytical
Processing (OLAP) database.
merged cell: A single
cell that is created by combining two or more adjacent cells.
merged range: A range that contains one or
more merged cells.
named object: A list, PivotTable report,
chart, or range that can be referenced by name. A sheet is not a type of named
named object view: A mode
in which only named objects are rendered.
native PivotTable: A
PivotTable report that is populated with data from a worksheet in the same
navigation operation: An
operation that changes a webpage when users use the navigation controls in a
number format: A property
of a cell or other type of object that determines how numerical data is
displayed or interpreted. For example, a currency number format affixes the
proper currency symbol to the number.
Online Analytical Processing
(OLAP): A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide
access to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is stored in data
warehouses in a relational database. See also cube.
Open Item permission: An
authorization that enables users to retrieve an entire file.
outline: A nested
grouping of rows or columns
(2) that are in a worksheet.
outline collapse: A
process in which rows or columns
(2) of an outline
are made invisible.
outline level: A type of
paragraph formatting that can be used to assign a hierarchical level, Level 1
through Level 9, to paragraphs in a document. After outline levels are
assigned, an outline of a document can be viewed by using Outline view, the
document map, or the navigation pane.
outline state: A setting
that specifies whether an outline is currently outline expanded or outline
permission: A rule that
is associated with an object and that regulates which users can gain access to
the object and in what manner. See also rights.
interactive table that summarizes large amounts of data from various sources by
using format and calculation methods. Row and column headings can be rotated to
view different summaries of the source data, filter the data, or display detail
data for specific areas.
PivotTable data field: A
PivotTable field that is contained in the PivotTable area where data values are
PivotTable filter parameter:
The value that a filter on a PivotTable report is set to, which indicates that
matching values are included in the result set.
PivotTable member: An
individual data item within a specific dimension as it is displayed in a
PivotTable report. For example, a member in the Geography dimension might be
pixel: A discrete unit of
display on a computer display device.
point: A unit of
measurement for fonts and spacing. A point is equal to 1/72 of an inch.
published: A condition of
portions of a workbook that are marked as being available to the user when that
workbook is processed by a protocol server.
published item: A
specific named object that is in a published workbook.
published range: A
specific type of published item that represents a range of cells.
query: A formalized
instruction to a data source to either extract data or perform a specified
action. A query can be in the form of a query expression, a method-based query,
or a combination of the two. The data source can be in different forms, such as
a relational database, XML
document, or in-memory object. See also search query.
range: An addressable
region that is in a workbook. A range typically consists of zero or more cells
and represents a single, contiguous rectangle of cells on a single sheet.
reading order: The
positioning of characters in words and the positioning of words in sentences.
This can be left-to-right or right-to-left.
refresh: A process that
retrieves values from a data source and populates a workbook with those values.
rich text: Text that is
formatted in the Rich Text Format, as described in [MSFT-RTF].
right-to-left: A reading
and display order that is optimized for right-to-left languages.
row: (1) A collection of columns (1) that contains
property values that describe a single item in a set of items that match the
restriction specified in a query.
(2) A single set of data that is
displayed horizontally in a worksheet or a table.
search down: A process of
searching for information by ascending row and column numbers.
search up: A process of
searching for information by descending row and column numbers.
security identifier (SID):
An identifier for security principals that is used to identify an account or a
group. Conceptually, the SID
is composed of an account authority portion (typically a domain) and a smaller
integer representing an identity relative to the account authority, termed the
relative identifier (RID). The SID format is specified in [MS-DTYP]
section 2.4.2; a string representation of SIDs is specified in
[MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2 and [MS-AZOD]
selected: The condition
of a set of items that has focus in a workbook.
session: (1) A
unidirectional communication channel for a stream of messages that are
addressed to one or more destinations. A destination is specified by a resource
URL, an identity URL, and a device URL. More than one session can be
multiplexed over a single connection.
(2) A representation of
application data in system memory. It is used to maintain state for application
data that is being manipulated or monitored on a protocol server by a user.
session identifier: (1) A
unique string that is used to identify a specific instance of session data and
is used by stored procedures as an opaque primary key.
(2) A key that enables an
application to make reference to a session.
session view: The
rendering of the contents of a workbook that is associated with a specific
sheet: (1) A part of an
Excel workbook. There are four types of sheets: worksheet, macro sheet, dialog
sheet, and chart sheet. Multiple sheets are stored together within a workbook.
(2) A worksheet. The term sheet
frequently refers to a worksheet because worksheets are the most common type of
sheet tab: A control that
is used to select a sheet.
shrink to fit: The
process of adjusting the font size of text in a cell to fit the current height
and width of the cell.
single sign-on (SSO) ticket:
A token that contains the encrypted identity of a single sign-on (SSO) user in
the form of a security identifier string and a nonce.
site identifier: A GUID
that is used to identify a site in a site collection.
snapshot: A copy of a
workbook that contains only values and formatting. It does not contain any
formulas or data connections.
SOAP: A lightweight
protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed
uses XML technologies to
define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct
that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has
been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other
implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].
SOAP action: The HTTP
request header field used to indicate the intent of the SOAP request, using a URI value. See [SOAP1.1] section
6.1.1 for more information.
SOAP body: A container
for the payload data being delivered by a SOAP message to its recipient. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007]
section 5.3 for more information.
SOAP fault: A container
for error and status information within a SOAP message. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007]
section 5.4 for more information.
SOAP fault detail: A
string containing a human-readable explanation of a SOAP fault, which is not
intended for algorithmic processing. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4.5 for
sort: A process that
arranges cells in ascending or descending order, based on cell content.
sort order: A specific
arrangement of cells that is based on cell content. The order can be ascending
state changing: A type of
operation that changes the state of a session.
table header: The top row
of a table, where the column names are displayed.
time zone: A geographical
area that observes the same local time. The local time has a positive, zero, or
negative offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The offset can be
different during standard time and daylight saving time.
time zone bias: The
positive, zero, or negative offset in minutes from Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). For example, Middle European Time (MET, GMT+01:00) has a time zone bias
of "-60" because it is one hour ahead of UTC. Pacific Standard Time
(PST, GMT-08:00) has a time zone bias of "+480" because it is eight
hours behind UTC.
time zone daylight bias:
The positive, zero, or negative offset in minutes that is added to the time
zone bias during daylight saving time. For example, daylight saving time
advances the clock by one hour. The time zone daylight bias is set to
time zone daylight date:
The date and time when the change from standard time to daylight saving time
time zone standard bias:
A positive, zero, or negative offset in minutes that is added to the time zone
bias outside daylight saving time.
time zone standard date:
The date and time when the change from daylight saving time to standard time
token: A word in an item
or a search query that translates into a meaningful word or number in written
text. A token is the smallest textual unit that can be matched in a search
query. Examples include "cat", "AB14", or "42".
top N filter: A filter
that matches the top or bottom N items or N% of items in a specified column (2).
top N filter by count: A
type of top N filter that matches the N largest numerical values or the N
newest time and date values.
top N filter by percent:
A type of top N filter that matches the N percent largest numerical values or
the N percent newest time and date values.
top N filter by sum: A
type of top N filter that matches the largest numerical values or the newest
time and date values whose sum is equal to or greater than N.
trusted subsystem: A
method of communication in which two-way trust is established between two
server features. Each server feature communicates with the other feature by
using an account that is authorized to perform privileged actions, such as
retrieving files and settings.
UI culture: The language
that is used to display strings and graphical elements in a user interface.
Uniform Resource Identifier
(URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing
mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource
Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].
Uniform Resource Locator
(URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a
document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].
Universal Naming Convention
(UNC): A string format that specifies the location of a resource. For more
information, see [MS-DTYP] section 2.2.57.
vertical indent: An
indent that is used in a cell to adjust cell content vertically.
vertical text: Text that
is rendered vertically in a cell.
visible: A condition of
an object that allows it to be displayed in rendered output.
web service: A unit of
application logic that provides data and services to other applications and can
be called by using standard Internet transport protocols such as HTTP, Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP), or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Web services can perform
functions that range from simple requests to complicated business processes.
Web Services Description
Language (WSDL): An XML format for describing network services as a set of
endpoints that operate on messages that contain either document-oriented or
procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described
abstractly and are bound to a concrete network protocol and message format in
order to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into
abstract endpoints, which describe a network service. WSDL is extensible, which
allows the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of the
message formats or network protocols that are used.
workbook file: A file
that contains a byte stream representation of a workbook.
workbook parameter: A
single cell that is designated to receive input from users.
worksheet header: The row
and column headings of a worksheet.
worksheet image: A chart
image that is embedded in a worksheet or chart sheet.
WSDL message: An
abstract, typed definition of the data that is communicated during a WSDL
Also, an element that describes the data being exchanged between web service
providers and clients.
XML: The Extensible
Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].
XML document: A document
object that is well formed, as described in [XML10/5], and might
be valid. An XML document has a logical structure that is composed of
declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing
instructions. It also has a physical structure that is composed of entities,
starting with the root, or document, entity.
XML namespace: A
collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in
XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML
namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and
attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more
information, see [XMLNS-2ED].
XML schema: A description
of a type of XML
document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the
structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic
syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema
provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.
zero-based index: An
index in which the first item has an index of "0" (zero).
z-order: The rendering
order of an object on a z axis.
SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as
defined in [RFC2119]. All
statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.