1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

absolute URL: The full Internet address of a page or other World Wide Web resource. The absolute URL includes a protocol, such as "http," a network location, and an optional path and file name — for example, http://www.treyresearch.net/.

Analysis Services: The abbreviated name for Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, which is used to create and maintain multidimensional data that is sent to client applications in response to queries. Also referred to as Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) server.

application server: A computer that provides infrastructure and services for applications that are hosted on a server farm.

assembly: A collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET Framework application. All managed types and resources are contained within an assembly and are marked either as accessible only within the assembly or as accessible from code in other assemblies. Assemblies also play a key role in security. The code access security system uses information about an assembly to determine the set of permissions that is granted to code in the assembly.

assembly name: The name of a collection of one or more files that is versioned and deployed as a unit. See also assembly.

Boolean: An operation or expression that can be evaluated only as either true or false.

cascading style sheet (CSS): An extension to HTML that enables authors and users of HTML documents to attach style sheets to those documents, as described in [CSS-LEVEL1] and [CSS-LEVEL2]. A style sheet includes typographical information about the appearance of a page, including the font for text on the page.

context site: A site that corresponds to the context of the current request.

cube: A set of data that is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure that is defined by a set of dimensions and measures.

dashboard: A visual interface that displays a related group of interactive scorecard and report views. It provides views into key measures that are relevant to a business practice or process. Dashboard elements provide capabilities, such as shared filters, that enable users to perform tasks such as highlighting trends, comparing data, and controlling the data that is displayed.

dimension: A structural attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories (levels) that describe data in a fact table. These categories typically describe a similar set of members upon which the user bases an analysis.

document library: A type of list that is a container for documents and folders.

drilldown: A technique that is used to navigate hierarchical data, starting from general data and moving to increasingly finer levels of detail.

endpoint: A communication port that is exposed by an application server for a specific shared service and to which messages can be addressed.

feature: A package of SharePoint elements that can be activated or deactivated for a specific feature scope.

filter: A mechanism by which a set of data is scoped to display only those entries that meet specified logical criteria.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

HTML fragment: Lines of text that adhere to HTML tag rules, as described in [HTML], but do not have processing instructions or any other type of header information.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): An extension of HTTP that securely encrypts and decrypts web page requests. In some older protocols, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer" is still used (Secure Sockets Layer has been deprecated). For more information, see [SSL3] and [RFC5246].

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON): A text-based, data interchange format that is used to transmit structured data, typically in Asynchronous JavaScript + XML (AJAX) web applications, as described in [RFC7159]. The JSON format is based on the structure of ECMAScript (Jscript, JavaScript) objects.

level: A relative position in a hierarchy of data. A level is frequently used when describing how to navigate a hierarchy in an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) database or a PivotTable report.

list: A container within a SharePoint site that stores list items. A list has a customizable schema that is composed of one or more fields.

list item: An individual entry within a SharePoint list. Each list item has a schema that maps to fields in the list that contains the item, depending on the content type of the item.

measure: In a cube, a set of values that are typically numeric and are based on a column in the fact table of the cube. Measures are the central values that are aggregated and analyzed.

member: See OLAP member.

MIME type: A method that is used by protocol clients to associate files of a certain type with applications that can open or access files of that type.

Multidimensional Expressions (MDX): A syntax that is used for defining multidimensional objects, and for querying and manipulating multidimensional data.

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP): A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide access to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is stored in data warehouses in a relational database. See also cube.

relative path: A path that is implied by the active working directory or is calculated based on a specified directory. If users enter a command that refers to a file and the full path is not entered, the active working directory is the relative path of the referenced file.

report view: An object that is used to display data in a dashboard. It can be coordinated with other report views by using filters. Examples of report views include analytic grids and charts, PivotTable reports, strategy maps, trend charts, and webpages.

scorecard: A report that depicts organizational and business performance by displaying a collection of key performance indicators (KPIs) with performance targets for those KPIs. Each KPI compares actual performance to goals for an area. A scorecard can be organized hierarchically and typically contains visualization tools such as trend charts and conditional formatting.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A security protocol that supports confidentiality and integrity of messages in client and server applications that communicate over open networks. SSL supports server and, optionally, client authentication using X.509 certificates [X509] and [RFC5280]. SSL is superseded by Transport Layer Security (TLS). TLS version 1.0 is based on SSL version 3.0 [SSL3].

security zone: A setting that determines whether a resource, such as a website, can access data on other domains, or access files and settings on a user's computer. There are four security zones: Internet, Local intranet, Trusted sites, and Restricted sites. The zone to which a resource is assigned specifies the security settings that are used for that resource. See also form security level.

server: A computer on which the remote procedure call (RPC) server is executing.

site: A group of related pages and data within a SharePoint site collection. The structure and content of a site is based on a site definition. Also referred to as SharePoint site and web site.

site collection: A set of websites that are in the same content database, have the same owner, and share administration settings. A site collection can be identified by a GUID or the URL of the top-level site for the site collection. Each site collection contains a top-level site, can contain one or more subsites, and can have a shared navigational structure.

SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].

SOAP action: The HTTP request header field used to indicate the intent of the SOAP request, using a URI value. See [SOAP1.1] section 6.1.1 for more information.

SOAP body: A container for the payload data being delivered by a SOAP message to its recipient. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.3 for more information.

SOAP fault: A container for error and status information within a SOAP message. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4 for more information.

SOAP fault detail: A string containing a human-readable explanation of a SOAP fault, which is not intended for algorithmic processing. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4.5 for more information.

subsite: A complete website that is stored in a named subdirectory of another website. The parent website can be the top-level site of a site collection or another subsite. Also referred to as subweb.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A protocol used with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. TCP handles keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

web control: A server-side component that encapsulates user interface and related functionality.

Web Part: A reusable component that contains or generates web-based content such as XML, HTML, and scripting code. It has a standard property schema and displays that content in a cohesive unit on a webpage. See also Web Parts Page.

web server: A server computer that hosts websites and responds to requests from applications.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL): An XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints that operate on messages that contain either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly and are bound to a concrete network protocol and message format in order to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints, which describe a network service. WSDL is extensible, which allows the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of the message formats or network protocols that are used.

WSDL message: An abstract, typed definition of the data that is communicated during a WSDL operation [WSDL]. Also, an element that describes the data being exchanged between web service providers and clients.

WSDL operation: A single action or function of a web service. The execution of a WSDL operation typically requires the exchange of messages between the service requestor and the service provider.

XML namespace: A collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more information, see [XMLNS-2ED].

XML namespace prefix: An abbreviated form of an XML namespace, as described in [XML].

XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.