1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

big-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the most significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

bulk insert: A method for efficiently populating the rows of a table from the client to the server.

data stream: A stream of data that corresponds to specific Tabular Data Stream (TDS) semantics. A single data stream can represent an entire TDS message or only a specific, well-defined portion of a TDS message. A TDS data stream can span multiple network data packets.

Distributed Transaction Coordinator (DTC): A Windows service that coordinates transactions across multiple resource managers, including databases. For more information, see [MSDN-DTC].

final state: The application layer has finished the communication, and the lower-layer connection should be disconnected.

initial state: A prerequisite for application-layer communication. A lower-layer channel that can provide reliable communication must be established.

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

out-of-band: A type of event that happens outside of the standard sequence of events. For example, an out-of-band signal or message can be sent during an unexpected time and will not cause any protocol parsing issues.

remote procedure call (RPC): A communication protocol used primarily between client and server. The term has three definitions that are often used interchangeably: a runtime environment providing for communication facilities between computers (the RPC runtime); a set of request-and-response message exchanges between computers (the RPC exchange); and the single message from an RPC exchange (the RPC message).  For more information, see [C706].

Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI): An API that allows connected applications to call one of several security providers to establish authenticated connections and to exchange data securely over those connections. It is equivalent to Generic Security Services (GSS)-API, and the two are on-the-wire compatible.

SQL batch: A set of SQL statements.

SQL Server User Authentication (SQLAUTH): An authentication mechanism that is used to support user accounts on a database server that supports SQL. The username and password of the user account are transmitted as part of the login message that the client sends to the server.

SQL statement: A character string expression in a language that the server understands.

stored procedure: A precompiled collection of SQL statements and, optionally, control-of-flow statements that are stored under a name and processed as a unit. They are stored in a SQL database and can be run with one call from an application. Stored procedures return an integer return code and can additionally return one or more result sets. Also referred to as sproc.

table response: A collection of data, all formatted in a specific manner, that is sent by the server to the client for the purpose of communicating the result of a client request. The server returns the result in a table response format for LOGIN7, SQL, and remote procedure call (RPC) requests.

TDS 4.2 session: A successfully established communication over a period of time between a client and a server on which the Tabular Data Stream (TDS) protocol version 4.2 is used for message exchange.

transaction manager: The party that is responsible for managing and distributing the outcome of atomic transactions. A transaction manager is either a root transaction manager or a subordinate transaction manager for a specified transaction.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.