1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

Active Directory: The Windows implementation of a general-purpose directory service, which uses LDAP as its primary access protocol. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network such as user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by Kerberos [MS-KILE]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), which are both described in [MS-ADOD]: Active Directory Protocols Overview.

advertised: An installation state of an application on a client computer. An advertised application is one that does not have all of the binaries and files necessary for executing the application present on the computer, but does have metadata on the client that allows it to present the application to the user as if all the files were present and also allows the client to install all of the missing files at a later time.

application advertise script: A file that contains a sequence of installation operations and configuration data for installing an application on a client machine. The installer follows the installation operations in the file and configures the metadata of the application to match the state information specified in the script.

assigned application: An application that is to be installed at computer startup or user logon.

Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF): A modified version of Backus-Naur Form (BNF), commonly used by Internet specifications. ABNF notation balances compactness and simplicity with reasonable representational power. ABNF differs from standard BNF in its definitions and uses of naming rules, repetition, alternatives, order-independence, and value ranges. For more information, see [RFC5234].

class store container distinguished name (class store container DN): A distinguished name (DN) of the form "CN=Class Store,<scoped gpo dn>" where <scoped gpo dn> is a Scoped Group Policy Object (GPO) DN. The class store container DN refers to an object of objectClass "classStore" in the Active Directory schema.

client-side extension GUID (CSE GUID): A GUID  that enables a specific client-side extension on the Group Policy client to be associated with policy data that is stored in the logical and physical components of a Group Policy Object (GPO) on the Group Policy server, for that particular extension.

COM class: An object class.

computer policy mode: A mode of policy application intended to retrieve settings for the computer account of the client.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

curly braced GUID string: The string representation of a 128-bit globally unique identifier (GUID) using the form {XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX}, where X denotes a hexadecimal digit. The string representation between the enclosing braces is the standard representation of a GUID as described in [RFC4122] section 3. Unlike a GUIDString, a curly braced GUID string includes enclosing braces.

directory service (DS): A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.

directory string: A string encoded in UTF-8 as defined in [RFC2252] section 6.10.

distinguished name (DN): A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, and the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The distinguished name (DN) identifies the object and its location in a tree.

domain: A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section and [MS-ADTS].

domain name: A domain name used by the Domain Name System (DNS).

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

Group Policy Object (GPO): A collection of administrator-defined specifications of the policy settings that can be applied to groups of computers in a domain. Each GPO includes two elements: an object that resides in the Active Directory for the domain, and a corresponding file system subdirectory that resides on the sysvol DFS share of the Group Policy server for the domain.

Group Policy Object (GPO) distinguished name (DN): An LDAP distinguished name (DN) for an Active Directory object of object class groupPolicyContainer. All such object paths will be paths of the form "LDAP://<gpo guid>,CN=policies,CN=system,<rootdse>", where <rootdse> is the root DN path of the Active Directory domain and <gpo guid> is a GPO GUID.

Group Policy server: A server holding a database of Group Policy Objects (GPOs) that can be retrieved by other machines. The Group Policy server must be a domain controller (DC).

Kerberos: An authentication system that enables two parties to exchange private information across an otherwise open network by assigning a unique key (called a ticket) to each user that logs on to the network and then embedding these tickets into messages sent by the users. For more information, see [MS-KILE].

language code identifier (LCID): A 32-bit number that identifies the user interface human language dialect or variation that is supported by an application or a client computer.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): The primary access protocol for Active Directory. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which allows users to query and update information in a directory service (DS), as described in [MS-ADTS]. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol can be either version 2 [RFC1777] or version 3 [RFC3377].

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

naming context (NC): An NC is a set of objects organized as a tree. It is referenced by a DSName. The DN of the DSName is the distinguishedName attribute of the tree root. The GUID of the DSName is the objectGUID attribute of the tree root. The security identifier (SID) of the DSName, if present, is the objectSid attribute of the tree root; for Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the SID is present if and only if the NC is a domain naming context (domain NC). Active Directory supports organizing several NCs into a tree structure.

NULL GUID: A GUID of all zeros.

PackageRegistration object: An Active Directory directory service container that represents a software installation extension setting. The container is an object of class groupPolicyContainer, as specified in [MS-ADSC] section 2.56).

policy application: The protocol exchange by which a client obtains all of the Group Policy Object (GPO) and thus all applicable Group Policy settings for a particular policy target from the server, as specified in [MS-GPOL]. Policy application can operate in two modes, user policy and computer policy.

policy target: A user or computer account for which policy settings can be obtained from a server in the same domain, as specified in [MS-GPOL]. For user policy mode, the policy target is a user account. For computer policy mode, the policy target is a computer account.

primary language identifier: The lower 10 bits of a language identifier. It identifies the user interface human language supported by an application or client computer without regard to variations such as dialect.

product identifier GUID: A globally unique identifier (GUID) assigned to a software application by the vendor of the software. Each application has a unique GUID. An updated version of the application maintains the same GUID as the previous versions of the application. This GUID is referenced by the software installation package to identify the application that is installed by the software installation package.

published application: An application that should not automatically be installed at computer startup or user logon unless it is a required upgrade of an application that is installed on the computer. However, software maintenance applications on the computer can display information about this software and install or uninstall it, often at the direction of a user.

redeploy action: An action that an administrator can take for an application deployed through the software installation extension protocol that will cause all clients that receive the application through the protocol to perform an installation of the application on the client if the application is already installed. This is used by administrators as a mechanism to update the application.

relative distinguished name (RDN): An attribute-value pair used in the distinguished name of an object. For more information, see [RFC2251].

scoped Group Policy Object (GPO) distinguished name (DN): A Group Policy Object (GPO) distinguished name (DN) where the set of "CN=<cn>" elements is prepended with "CN=User" for the user policy mode of policy application and with "CN=Machine" for computer policy mode.

Simple and Protected GSS-API Negotiation Mechanism (SPNEGO): An authentication mechanism that allows Generic Security Services (GSS) peers to determine whether their credentials support a common set of GSS-API security mechanisms, to negotiate different options within a given security mechanism or different options from several security mechanisms, to select a service, and to establish a security context among themselves using that service. SPNEGO is specified in [RFC4178].

software installation package: A file that describes other files and metadata necessary to describe an application's executable files and state and to install that application. Also referred to as a "package".

software installation package modification: A file that allows an administrator to specify configuration for an application that is installed on the client through a software installation package.

software maintenance utility: An application that allows users to perform software management activities such as installation, uninstallation, or inventory of applications available through the software installation extension.

software package distinguished name (DN): A distinguished name (DN) of the form "CN=<SoftwarePackageId>,CN=Packages,<ClassStore>", where <ClassStore> is a class store container DN and <SoftwarePackageId> is a curly braced GUID string.

software scripts path: A file system path to a directory with a path of the form "<ScopedGPOPath>\Applications", where <ScopedGPOPath> is a scoped GPO path.

UncPath: The location of a file in a network of computers, as specified in Universal Naming Convention (UNC) syntax.

Unicode string: A Unicode 8-bit string is an ordered sequence of 8-bit units, a Unicode 16-bit string is an ordered sequence of 16-bit code units, and a Unicode 32-bit string is an ordered sequence of 32-bit code units. In some cases, it could be acceptable not to terminate with a terminating null character. Unless otherwise specified, all Unicode strings follow the UTF-16LE encoding scheme with no Byte Order Mark (BOM).

update sequence number (USN): A monotonically increasing sequence number used in assigning a stamp to an originating update. For more information, see [MS-ADTS].

upgrade: A relationship between software packages in which the upgrading application will replace a particular software installation package (the upgraded application) if it exists on a client and was installed through the software installation protocol extension. Logically, this means that the client application will be uninstalled and the upgrading application will be installed.

user assistance resource: A Unicode string containing a URL pointing to information that might be helpful to users of the application when viewing information on the application by using a software maintenance utility. This is defined by the administrator who deploys the application. The Unicode string's Unicode Byte Order Mark (BOM) encoding is little-endian only; and big-endian Unicode BOM encoding is not supported.

UTC (Coordinated Universal Time): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC–0 (or GMT).

Windows Event log: An audit trail created by Windows instrumentation manifest to monitor the health of the operating system and to help troubleshoot issues when they arise. The event logs can be browsed and managed by Windows Event Viewer.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.