1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

Active Directory: The Windows implementation of a general-purpose directory service, which uses LDAP as its primary access protocol. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network such as user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by Kerberos [MS-KILE]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), which are both described in [MS-ADOD]: Active Directory Protocols Overview.

Authentication Service (AS) exchange: The Kerberos subprotocol in which the Authentication Service (AS) component of the key distribution center (KDC) accepts an initial logon or authentication request from a client and provides the client with a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) and necessary cryptographic keys to make use of the ticket. This is specified in [RFC4120] section 3.1. The AS exchange is always initiated by the client, usually in response to the initial logon of a principal such as a user.

authorization data: An extensible field within a Kerberos ticket, used to pass authorization data about the principal on whose behalf the ticket was issued to the application service.

certification authority (CA): A third party that issues public key certificates. Certificates serve to bind public keys to a user identity. Each user and certification authority (CA) can decide whether to trust another user or CA for a specific purpose, and whether this trust should be transitive. For more information, see [RFC3280].

elliptic curve cryptography (ECC): A public-key cryptosystem that is based on high-order elliptic curves over finite fields.  For more information, see [IEEE1363].

key: In cryptography, a generic term used to refer to cryptographic data that is used to initialize a cryptographic algorithm. Keys are also sometimes referred to as keying material.

Key Distribution Center (KDC): The Kerberos service that implements the authentication and ticket granting services specified in the Kerberos protocol. The service runs on computers selected by the administrator of the realm or domain; it is not present on every machine on the network. It must have access to an account database for the realm that it serves. KDCs are integrated into the domain controller role. It is a network service that supplies tickets to clients for use in authenticating to services.

object identifier (OID): In the context of a directory service, a number identifying an object class or attribute. Object identifiers are issued by the ITU and form a hierarchy. An OID is represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, "1.2.3.4"). For more information on OIDs, see [X660] and [RFC3280] Appendix A. OIDs are used to uniquely identify certificate templates available to the certification authority (CA). Within a certificate, OIDs are used to identify standard extensions, as described in [RFC3280] section 4.2.1.x, as well as non-standard extensions.

one-way function (OWF): The calculation of a hash of the password using the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) MD4 function. OWF is used to refer to the resulting value of the hash operation.

pre-authentication: In Kerberos, a state in which a key distribution center (KDC) demands that the requestor in the Authentication Service (AS) exchange demonstrate knowledge of the key associated with the account. If the requestor cannot demonstrate this knowledge, the KDC will not issue a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) ([RFC4120] sections 5.2.7 and 7.5.2).

privilege attribute certificate (PAC): A Microsoft-specific authorization data present in the authorization data field of a ticket. The PAC contains several logical components, including group membership data for authorization, alternate credentials for non-Kerberos authentication protocols, and policy control information for supporting interactive logon.

public key infrastructure (PKI): The laws, policies, standards, and software that regulate or manipulate certificates and public and private keys. In practice, it is a system of digital certificates, certificate authorities (CAs), and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in an electronic transaction. For more information, see [X509] section 6.

realm: A collection of key distribution centers (KDCs) with a common set of principals, as described in [RFC4120] section 1.2.

service: A process or agent that is available on the network, offering resources or services for clients. Examples of services include file servers, web servers, and so on.

ticket: A record generated by the key distribution center (KDC) that helps a client authenticate to a service. It contains the client's identity, a unique cryptographic key for use with this ticket (the session key), a time stamp, and other information, all sealed using the service's secret key. It only serves to authenticate a client when presented along with a valid authenticator.

ticket-granting service (TGS): A service that issues tickets for admission to other services in its own domain or for admission to the ticket-granting service in another domain.

ticket-granting ticket (TGT): A special type of ticket that can be used to obtain other tickets. The TGT is obtained after the initial authentication in the Authentication Service (AS) exchange; thereafter, users do not need to present their credentials, but can use the TGT to obtain subsequent tickets.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.