1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

access control entry (ACE): An entry in an access control list (ACL) that contains a set of user rights and a security identifier (SID) that identifies a principal for whom the rights are allowed, denied, or audited.

account domain: A domain, identified by a security identifier (SID), that is the SID namespace for which a given machine is authoritative. The account domain is the same as the primary domain for a domain controller (DC) and is its default domain. For a machine that is joined to a domain, the account domain is the SID namespace defined by the local Security Accounts Manager [MS-SAMR].

Active Directory: The Windows implementation of a general-purpose directory service, which uses LDAP as its primary access protocol. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network such as user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by Kerberos [MS-KILE]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), which are both described in [MS-ADOD]: Active Directory Protocols Overview.

active user: A user that is currently authenticated on a computer.

administrator: A user who has complete and unrestricted access to the computer or domain.

anonymous session: A session created for an anonymous user.

ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.

authentication: The act of proving an identity to a server while providing key material that binds the identity to subsequent communications.

browser server: An entity that maintains or could be elected to maintain information about other servers and domains.

built-in domain: The security identifier (SID) namespace defined by the fixed SID S-1-5-32. Contains groups that define roles on a local machine such as Backup Operators.

cleartext: In cryptography, cleartext is the form of a message (or data) that is transferred or stored without cryptographic protection.

client: A computer on which the remote procedure call (RPC) client is executing.

client side: The initiating end of the protocol.

computer name: The DNS or NetBIOS name.

directory service (DS): A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.

distinguished name (DN): In the Active Directory directory service, the unique identifier of an object in Active Directory, as described in [MS-ADTS] and [RFC2251].

domain: A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5 and [MS-ADTS].

domain client: A client computer that is joined to a domain. The domain client can be a client or a server that offers other services to its clients. When the domain client acts as a supplicant to another domain client, the supplicant is referred to as a domain client in a workstation role and the latter as a domain client in a server role.

domain controller (DC): The service, running on a server, that implements Active Directory, or the server hosting this service. The service hosts the data store for objects and interoperates with other DCs to ensure that a local change to an object replicates correctly across all DCs. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the DC contains full NC replicas of the configuration naming context (config NC), schema naming context (schema NC), and one of the domain NCs in its forest. If the AD DS DC is a global catalog server (GC server), it contains partial NC replicas of the remaining domain NCs in its forest. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5.2 and [MS-ADTS]. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), several AD LDS DCs can run on one server. When Active Directory is operating as AD DS, only one AD DS DC can run on one server. However, several AD LDS DCs can coexist with one AD DS DC on one server. The AD LDS DC contains full NC replicas of the config NC and the schema NC in its forest. The domain controller is the server side of Authentication Protocol Domain Support [MS-APDS].

domain join: A process to configure a machine to join an Active Directory domain and assume the identity assigned to it by the domain controller.

domain name: A domain name or a NetBIOS name that identifies a domain.

Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

domain object: A unit of data storage in a domain that is maintained and made available to domain members by a domain controller (DC).

domain prefix: A security identifier (SID) of a domain without the relative identifier (RID) portion. The domain prefix refers to the issuing authority SID. For example, the domain prefix of S-1-5-21-397955417-626881126-188441444-1010 is S-1-5-21-397955417-626881126-188441444.

endpoint: A network-specific address of a remote procedure call (RPC) server process for remote procedure calls. The actual name and type of the endpoint depends on the RPC protocol sequence that is being used. For example, for RPC over TCP (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_ip_tcp), an endpoint might be TCP port 1025. For RPC over Server Message Block (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_np), an endpoint might be the name of a named pipe. For more information, see [C706].

fully qualified domain name (FQDN): In Active Directory, a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that identifies a domain.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

Group Policy: A mechanism that allows the implementer to specify managed configurations for users and computers in an Active Directory service environment.

handle: Any token that can be used to identify and access an object such as a device, file, or a window.

Interface Definition Language (IDL): The International Standards Organization (ISO) standard language for specifying the interface for remote procedure calls. For more information, see [C706] section 4.

Internet host name: The name of a host as defined in [RFC1123] section 2.1, with the extensions described in [MS-HNDS].

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): The primary access protocol for Active Directory. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which allows users to query and update information in a directory service (DS), as described in [MS-ADTS]. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol can be either version 2 [RFC1777] or version 3 [RFC3377].

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

Local Security Authority (LSA): A protected subsystem that authenticates and logs users onto the local system. LSA also maintains information about all aspects of local security on a system, collectively known as the local security policy of the system.

machine account: An account that is associated with individual client or server machines in an Active Directory domain.

Microsoft Interface Definition Language (MIDL): The Microsoft implementation and extension of the OSF-DCE Interface Definition Language (IDL). MIDL can also mean the Interface Definition Language (IDL) compiler provided by Microsoft. For more information, see [MS-RPCE].

named pipe: A named, one-way, or duplex pipe for communication between a pipe server and one or more pipe clients.

naming context (NC): An NC is a set of objects organized as a tree. It is referenced by a DSName. The DN of the DSName is the distinguishedName attribute of the tree root. The GUID of the DSName is the objectGUID attribute of the tree root. The security identifier (SID) of the DSName, if present, is the objectSid attribute of the tree root; for Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the SID is present if and only if the NC is a domain naming context (domain NC). Active Directory supports organizing several NCs into a tree structure.

NetBIOS: A particular network transport that is part of the LAN Manager protocol suite. NetBIOS uses a broadcast communication style that was applicable to early segmented local area networks. A protocol family including name resolution, datagram, and connection services. For more information, see [RFC1001] and [RFC1002].

NetBIOS name: A 16-byte address that is used to identify a NetBIOS resource on the network. For more information, see [RFC1001] and [RFC1002].

Netlogon: The Netlogon Remote Protocol, as specified in [MS-NRPC].

Network Data Representation (NDR): A specification that defines a mapping from Interface Definition Language (IDL) data types onto octet streams. NDR also refers to the runtime environment that implements the mapping facilities (for example, data provided to NDR). For more information, see [MS-RPCE] and [C706] section 14.

network redirector: A software component on a connected computer that handles requests for remote files and printer operations.

NT hash: An MD4- or MD5-based cryptographic hash of a clear text password. For more information, see [MS-NLMP] section 3.3.1 (NTOWFv1, NTLM v1 Authentication), for a normative definition.

opnum: An operation number or numeric identifier that is used to identify a specific remote procedure call (RPC) method or a method in an interface. For more information, see [C706] section 12.5.2.12 or [MS-RPCE].

organizational unit (OU): An Active Directory object contained within a domain, into which users, groups, computers, and other organizational units can be placed. An organizational unit provides a facility to classify and differentiate objects in a directory structure such as LDAP.

original equipment manufacturer (OEM) character: An 8-bit encoding used in MS-DOS and Windows operating systems to associate a sequence of bits with specific characters. The ASCII character set maps the letters, numerals, and specified punctuation and control characters to the numbers from 0 to 127. The term "code page" is used to refer to extensions of the ASCII character set that map specified characters and symbols to the numbers from 128 to 255. These code pages are referred to as OEM character sets. For more information, see [MSCHARSET].

original equipment manufacturer (OEM) character set: A character encoding used where the mappings between characters is dependent upon the code page configured on the machine, typically by the manufacturer.

plaintext: In cryptography, ordinary readable text before it is encrypted into ciphertext, or after it has been decrypted.

pseudo-random number generator (PRNG): An algorithm that generates values (numbers, bits, and so on) that give the appearance of being random from the point of view of any known test. If initialized with a true random value (called its "seed"), the output of a cryptographically strong PRNG will have the same resistance to guessing as a true random source.

read-only domain controller (RODC): A domain controller (DC) that does not accept originating updates. Additionally, an RODC does not perform outbound replication. An RODC cannot be the primary domain controller (PDC) for its domain.

registry: A local system-defined database in which applications and system components store and retrieve configuration data. It is a hierarchical data store with lightly typed elements that are logically stored in tree format. Applications use the registry API to retrieve, modify, or delete registry data. The data stored in the registry varies according to the version of the operating system.

remote procedure call (RPC): A communication protocol used primarily between client and server. The term has three definitions that are often used interchangeably: a runtime environment providing for communication facilities between computers (the RPC runtime); a set of request-and-response message exchanges between computers (the RPC exchange); and the single message from an RPC exchange (the RPC message).  For more information, see [C706].

routable protocol: A communications protocol that allows packets to be forwarded from one network to another.

RPC protocol sequence: A character string that represents a valid combination of a remote procedure call (RPC) protocol, a network layer protocol, and a transport layer protocol, as described in [C706] and [MS-RPCE].

RPC transport: The underlying network services used by the remote procedure call (RPC) runtime for communications between network nodes. For more information, see [C706] section 2.

salt: An additional random quantity, specified as input to an encryption function that is used to increase the strength of the encryption.

schema: The set of attributes and object classes that govern the creation and update of objects.

security context: An abstract data structure that contains authorization information for a particular security principal in the form of a Token/Authorization Context (see [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.2). A server uses the authorization information in a security context to check access to requested resources. A security context also contains a key identifier that associates mutually established cryptographic keys, along with other information needed to perform secure communication with another security principal.

security descriptor: A data structure containing the security information associated with a securable object. A security descriptor identifies an object's owner by its security identifier (SID). If access control is configured for the object, its security descriptor contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the security principals who are allowed or denied access. Applications use this structure to set and query an object's security status. The security descriptor is used to guard access to an object as well as to control which type of auditing takes place when the object is accessed. The security descriptor format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.6; a string representation of security descriptors, called SDDL, is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.

Security Descriptor Definition Language (SDDL): The format used to specify a security descriptor as a text string, specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.

security identifier (SID): An identifier for security principals that is used to identify an account or a group. Conceptually, the SID is composed of an account authority portion (typically a domain) and a smaller integer representing an identity relative to the account authority, termed the relative identifier (RID). The SID format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2; a string representation of SIDs is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2 and [MS-AZOD] section 1.1.1.2.

security principal: An identity that can be used to regulate access to resources, as specified in [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.1. A security principal can be a user, a computer, or a group that represents a set of users.

server: A replicating machine that sends replicated files to a partner (client). The term "server" refers to the machine acting in response to requests from partners that want to receive replicated files.

Server Message Block (SMB): A protocol that is used to request file and print services from server systems over a network. The SMB protocol extends the CIFS protocol with additional security, file, and disk management support. For more information, see [CIFS] and [MS-SMB].

server side: The receiving end of the protocol.

service principal name (SPN): The name a client uses to identify a service for mutual authentication. (For more information, see [RFC1964] section 2.1.1.) An SPN consists of either two parts or three parts, each separated by a forward slash ('/'). The first part is the service class, the second part is the host name, and the third part (if present) is the service name. For example, "ldap/dc-01.fabrikam.com/fabrikam.com" is a three-part SPN where "ldap" is the service class name, "dc-01.fabrikam.com" is the host name, and "fabrikam.com" is the service name. See [SPNNAMES] for more information about SPN format and composing a unique SPN.

shared secret: A piece of data that is known only to the security principal and an authenticating authority; for example, a user and a domain controller. It is used to prove the principal's identity. A password is a common example of a shared secret. Also called a "secret key".

SMB connection: A transport connection between a Server Message Block (SMB) client and an SMB server. The SMB connection is assumed to provide reliable in-order message delivery semantics. An SMB connection can be established over any available SMB transport that is supported by both the SMB client and the SMB server, as specified in [MS-CIFS].

SMB session: An authenticated user connection established between an SMB client and an SMB server over an SMB connection. There can be multiple active SMB sessions over a single SMB connection. The Uid field in the SMB packet header distinguishes the various sessions.

standard user: A user that does not have administrative rights defined in its token and is a member of the users group. Users are prevented from making accidental or intentional system-wide changes but can perform normal daily computer tasks.

Stock Keeping Unit (SKU): A unique identifier for a distinct product or service that is used as a source of revenue. For example, a SKU can represent a retail product such as software that is sold through a channel, a subscription program, or an online service such as MSDN.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A protocol used with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. TCP handles keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

universally unique identifier (UUID): A 128-bit value. UUIDs can be used for multiple purposes, from tagging objects with an extremely short lifetime, to reliably identifying very persistent objects in cross-process communication such as client and server interfaces, manager entry-point vectors, and RPC objects. UUIDs are highly likely to be unique. UUIDs are also known as globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) and these terms are used interchangeably in the Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the UUID. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the UUID.

user name: A unique name that identifies a specific user account. The user name of an account is unique among the other group names and user names within its own domain or workgroup.

UTF-16: A standard for encoding Unicode characters, defined in the Unicode standard, in which the most commonly used characters are defined as double-byte characters. Unless specified otherwise, this term refers to the UTF-16 encoding form specified in [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] section 3.9.

UTF-8: A byte-oriented standard for encoding Unicode characters, defined in the Unicode standard. Unless specified otherwise, this term refers to the UTF-8 encoding form specified in [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] section 3.9.

well-known endpoint: A preassigned, network-specific, stable address for a particular client/server instance. For more information, see [C706].

Windows Time Service (W32Time): A service that supports time synchronization against network and hardware time sources. For more information, see [WTSREF] and [MS-SNTP].

writable domain controller (writable DC): Synonymous with domain controller (DC), as distinct from an RODC.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.