Register-ScheduledJob

Creates a scheduled job.

Syntax

Register-ScheduledJob
        [-ScriptBlock] <ScriptBlock>
        [-Name] <String>
        [-Trigger <ScheduledJobTrigger[]>]
        [-InitializationScript <ScriptBlock>]
        [-RunAs32]
        [-Credential <PSCredential>]
        [-Authentication <AuthenticationMechanism>]
        [-ScheduledJobOption <ScheduledJobOptions>]
        [-ArgumentList <Object[]>]
        [-MaxResultCount <Int32>]
        [-RunNow]
        [-RunEvery <TimeSpan>]
        [-WhatIf]
        [-Confirm]
        [<CommonParameters>]
Register-ScheduledJob
        [-FilePath] <String>
        [-Name] <String>
        [-Trigger <ScheduledJobTrigger[]>]
        [-InitializationScript <ScriptBlock>]
        [-RunAs32]
        [-Credential <PSCredential>]
        [-Authentication <AuthenticationMechanism>]
        [-ScheduledJobOption <ScheduledJobOptions>]
        [-ArgumentList <Object[]>]
        [-MaxResultCount <Int32>]
        [-RunNow]
        [-RunEvery <TimeSpan>]
        [-WhatIf]
        [-Confirm]
        [<CommonParameters>]

Description

The Register-ScheduledJob cmdlet creates scheduled jobs on the local computer.

A scheduled job is a Windows PowerShell background job that can be started automatically on a one-time or recurring schedule. Scheduled jobs are stored on disk and registered in Task Scheduler. The jobs can be managed in Task Scheduler or by using the Scheduled Job cmdlets in Windows PowerShell.

When a scheduled job starts, it creates an instance of the scheduled job. Scheduled job instances are identical to Windows PowerShell background jobs, except that the results are saved on disk. Use the Job cmdlets, such as Start-Job, Get-Job, and Receive-Job to start, view, and get the results of the job instances.

Use Register-ScheduledJob to create a new scheduled job. To specify the commands that the scheduled job runs, use the ScriptBlock parameter. To specify a script that the job runs, use the FilePath parameter.

Windows PowerShell-scheduled jobs use the same job triggers and job options that Task Scheduler uses for scheduled tasks.

The Trigger parameter of Register-ScheduledJob adds one or more job triggers that start the job. The Trigger parameter is optional, so you can add triggers when you create the scheduled job, add job triggers later, add the RunNow parameter to start the job immediately, use the Start-Job cmdlet to start the job immediately at any time, or save the untriggered scheduled job as a template for other jobs.

The Options parameter lets you customize the options settings for the scheduled job. The Options parameter is optional, so you can set job options when you create the scheduled job or change them at any time. Because job option settings can prevent the scheduled job from running, review the job options and set them carefully.

Register-ScheduledJob is one of a collection of job scheduling cmdlets in the PSScheduledJob module that is included in Windows PowerShell.

For more information about Scheduled Jobs, see the About articles in the PSScheduledJob module. Import the PSScheduledJob module and then type: Get-Help about_Scheduled* or see about_Scheduled_Jobs.

This cmdlet was introduced in Windows PowerShell 3.0.

Examples

Example 1: Create a scheduled job

This example creates a scheduled job on the local computer.

Register-ScheduledJob -Name "Archive-Scripts" -ScriptBlock {
  Get-ChildItem $home\*.ps1 -Recurse |
    Copy-Item -Destination "\\Server\Share\PSScriptArchive"
}

Register-ScheduledJob uses the Name parameter to create the Archive-Scripts scheduled job. The ScriptBlock parameter runs Get-ChildItem that searches the $home directory recursively for .ps1 files. The Copy-Item cmdlet copies the files to a directory specified by the Destination parameter.

Because the scheduled job doesn't contain a trigger, it's not started automatically. You can add job triggers with Add-JobTrigger, use the Start-Job cmdlet to start the job on demand, or use the scheduled job as a template for other scheduled jobs.

Example 2: Create a scheduled job with triggers and custom options

This example shows how to create a scheduled job that has a job trigger and custom job options.

$O = New-ScheduledJobOption -WakeToRun -StartIfIdle -MultipleInstancePolicy Queue
$T = New-JobTrigger -Weekly -At "9:00 PM" -DaysOfWeek Monday -WeeksInterval 2
$path = "\\Srv01\Scripts\UpdateVersion.ps1"
Register-ScheduledJob -Name "UpdateVersion" -FilePath $path -ScheduledJobOption $O -Trigger $T

The $O variable stores the job option object that the New-ScheduledJobOption cmdlet created. The options start the scheduled job even if the computer isn't idle, wakes the computer to run the job, if necessary, and allows multiple instances of the job to run in a series.

The $T variable stores the result from the New-JobTrigger cmdlet to create job trigger that starts a job every other Monday at 9:00 PM.

The $path variable stores the path to the UpdateVersion.ps1 script file.

Register-ScheduledJob uses the Name paramter to create the UpdateVersion scheduled job. The FilePath parameter uses $path to specify the script that the job runs. The ScheduledJobOption parameter uses the job options stored in $O. The Trigger parameter uses the job triggers stored in $T.

Example 3: Use hash tables to specify a trigger and scheduled job options

This example has the same effect as the command in Example 2. It creates a scheduled job, using hash tables to specify the values of the Trigger and ScheduledJobOption parameters. The $O and $Tvariables defined in Example 2 are replaced with hash tables.

$T = @{
  Frequency="Weekly"
  At="9:00PM"
  DaysOfWeek="Monday"
  Interval=2
}
$O = @{
  WakeToRun=$true
  StartIfNotIdle=$false
  MultipleInstancePolicy="Queue"
}
Register-ScheduledJob -Trigger $T -ScheduledJobOption $O -Name UpdateVersion -FilePath "\\Srv01\Scripts\Update-Version.ps1"

Example 4: Create scheduled jobs on remote computers

In this example, the EnergyData scheduled job is created on multiple remote computers. The scheduled job runs a script that gathers raw data and saves it in a running log on the remote computer.

$Cred = Get-Credential
$O = New-ScheduledJobOption -WakeToRun -StartIfIdle -MultipleInstancePolicy Queue
$T = New-JobTrigger -Weekly -At "9:00 PM" -DaysOfWeek Monday -WeeksInterval 2
Invoke-Command -ComputerName (Get-Content Servers.txt) -Credential $Cred -ScriptBlock {
  $params = @{
      Name = "Get-EnergyData"
      FilePath = "\\Srv01\Scripts\Get-EnergyData.ps1"
      ScheduledJobOption = $using:O
      Trigger = $using:T
  }
  Register-ScheduledJob @params
}

The $Cred variable stores credentials in a PSCredential object for a user with permissions to create scheduled jobs. The $O variable stores the job options created with New-ScheduledJobOption. The $T variable stores the job triggers created with New-JobTrigger.

The Invoke-Command cmdlet uses the ComputerName parameter to get a list of server names from the Servers.txt file. The Credential parameter gets the credential object stored in $Cred. The ScriptBlock parameter runs a Register-ScheduledJob command on the computers in the Servers.txt file.

The parameters for Register-ScheduledJob are defined by $params. The Name parameters specifies the job is named Get-EnergyData on each remote computer. FilePath provides the location of the EnergyData.ps1 script. The script is located on a file server that is available to all participating computers.The job runs on the schedule specified by the job triggers in $T and the job options in $O.

The Register-ScheduledJob @params command creates the scheduled job with the parameters from the script block.

Example 5: Create a scheduled job that runs a script on remote computers

This example creates the CollectEnergyData scheduled job on the local computer. The job runs on multiple remote computers.

$Admin = Get-Credential
$T = New-JobTrigger -Weekly -At "9:00 PM" -DaysOfWeek Monday -WeeksInterval 2
Register-ScheduledJob -Name "CollectEnergyData" -Trigger $T -MaxResultCount 99 -ScriptBlock {
  $params = @{
    AsJob = $true
    ComputerName = (Get-Content Servers.txt)
    FilePath = '\\Srv01\Scripts\Get-EnergyData.ps1'
    Credential = $using:Admin
    Authentication = 'CredSSP'
  }
  Invoke-Command @params
}

The $Admin variable stores credentials for a user with permissions to run the commands in a PSCredential object. The $T variable stores the job triggers created with New-JobTrigger.

The Register-ScheduledJob cmdlet uses the Name parameter to create the CollectEnergyData scheduled job on the local computer. The Trigger parameter specifies the job triggers in $T and the MaxResultCount parameter increases the number of saved results to 99.

The ScriptBlock parameter defines the Invoke-Command parameters with $params. The AsJob parameter creates the background job object on the local computer, even though the Energydata.ps1 script runs on the remote computers. The ComputerName parameter gets a list of server names from the Servers.txt file. The Credential parameter specifies a user account that has permission to run scripts on the remote computers. And, the Authentication parameter specifies a value of CredSSP to allow delegated credentials.

The Invoke-Command @params runs the command with the parameters from the script block.

Parameters

-ArgumentList

Specifies values for the parameters of the script that is specified by the FilePath parameter or for the command that is specified by the ScriptBlock parameter.

Type:Object[]
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-Authentication

Specifies the mechanism that is used to authenticate the user's credentials. The default value is Default.

The acceptable values for this parameter are:

  • Default
  • Basic
  • Credssp
  • Digest
  • Kerberos
  • Negotiate
  • NegotiateWithImplicitCredential

For more information about the values of this parameter, see AuthenticationMechanism.

Caution

Credential Security Service Provider (CredSSP) authentication, in which the user's credentials are passed to a remote computer to be authenticated, is designed for commands that require authentication on more than one resource, such as accessing a remote network share. This mechanism increases the security risk of the remote operation. If the remote computer is compromised, the credentials that are passed to it can be used to control the network session.

Type:AuthenticationMechanism
Accepted values:Default, Basic, Negotiate, NegotiateWithImplicitCredential, Credssp, Digest, Kerberos
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-Confirm

Prompts you for confirmation before running the cmdlet.

Type:SwitchParameter
Aliases:cf
Position:Named
Default value:False
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-Credential

Specifies a user account that has permission to run the scheduled job. The default is the current user.

Type a user name, such as User01 or Domain01\User01, or enter a PSCredential object, such as one from the Get-Credential cmdlet. If you enter only a user name, you're prompted for a password.

Credentials are stored in a PSCredential object and the password is stored as a SecureString.

Note

For more information about SecureString data protection, see How secure is SecureString?.

Type:PSCredential
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-FilePath

Specifies a script that the scheduled job runs. Enter the path to a .ps1 file on the local computer. To specify default values for the script parameters, use the ArgumentList parameter. Every Register-ScheduledJob command must use either the ScriptBlock or FilePath parameters.

Type:String
Position:1
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-InitializationScript

Specifies the fully qualified path to a Windows PowerShell script (.ps1). The initialization script runs in the session that is created for the background job before the commands that are specified by the ScriptBlock parameter or the script that is specified by the FilePath parameter. You can use the initialization script to configure the session, such as adding files, functions, or aliases, creating directories, or checking for prerequisites.

To specify a script that runs the primary job commands, use the FilePath parameter.

If the initialization script generates an error, even a non-terminating error, the current instance of the scheduled job doesn't run and its status is Failed.

Type:ScriptBlock
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-MaxResultCount

Specifies how many job result entries are maintained for the scheduled job. The default value is 32.

Windows PowerShell saves the execution history and results of each triggered instance of the scheduled job on disk. The value of this parameter determines the number of job instance results that are saved for this scheduled job. When the number of job instance results exceeds this value, Windows PowerShell deletes the results of the oldest job instance to make room for the results of the newest job instance.

The job execution history and job results are saved in the $home\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\ScheduledJobs\<JobName>\Output\<Timestamp> directories on the computer on which the job is created. To see the execution history, use the Get-Job cmdlet. To get the job results, use the Receive-Job cmdlet.

The MaxResultCount parameter sets the value of the ExecutionHistoryLength property of the scheduled job.

To delete the current execution history and job results, use the ClearExecutionHistory parameter of the Set-ScheduledJob cmdlet.

Type:Int32
Position:Named
Default value:32
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-Name

Specifies a name for the scheduled job. The name is also used for all started instances of the scheduled job. The name must be unique on the computer. This parameter is required.

Type:String
Position:0
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-RunAs32

Runs the scheduled job in a 32-bit process.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-RunEvery

Used to specify how often to run the job. For example, use this option to run a job every 15 minutes.

Type:TimeSpan
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-RunNow

Starts a job immediately, as soon as the Register-ScheduledJob cmdlet is run. This parameter eliminates the need to trigger Task Scheduler to run a Windows PowerShell script immediately after registration, and doesn't require users to create a trigger that specifies a starting date and time.

Type:SwitchParameter
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-ScheduledJobOption

Sets options for the scheduled job. Enter a ScheduledJobOptions object, such as one that you create by using the New-ScheduledJobOption cmdlet, or a hash table value.

You can set options for a scheduled job when you register the schedule job or use the Set-ScheduledJobOption or Set-ScheduledJob cmdlets to change the options.

Many of the options and their default values determine whether and when a scheduled job runs. Be sure to review these options before scheduling a job. For a description of the scheduled job options, including the default values, see New-ScheduledJobOption.

To submit a hash table, use the following keys. In the following hash table, the keys are shown with their default values.

@{StartIfOnBattery=$False; StopIfGoingOnBattery=$True; WakeToRun=$False; StartIfNotIdle=$False; IdleDuration="00:10:00"; IdleTimeout="01:00:00"; StopIfGoingOffIdle=$True; RestartOnIdleResume=$False; ShowInTaskScheduler=$True; RunElevated=$False; RunWithoutNetwork=$False; DoNotAllowDemandStart=$False; MultipleInstancePolicy="IgnoreNew"}

Type:ScheduledJobOptions
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-ScriptBlock

Specifies the commands that the scheduled job runs. Enclose the commands in curly braces ({}) to create a script block. To specify default values for command parameters, use the ArgumentList parameter.

Every Register-ScheduledJob command must use either the ScriptBlock or FilePath parameters.

Type:ScriptBlock
Position:1
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-Trigger

Specifies the triggers for the scheduled job. Enter one or more ScheduledJobTrigger objects, such as the objects that the New-JobTrigger cmdlet returns, or a hash table of job trigger keys and values.

A job trigger starts the schedule job. The trigger can specify a one-time or recurring scheduled or an event, such as when a user logs on or Windows starts.

The Trigger parameter is optional. You can add a trigger when you create the scheduled job, use the Add-JobTrigger, Set-JobTrigger, or Set-ScheduledJob cmdlets to add or change job triggers later, or use the Start-Job cmdlet to start the scheduled job immediately. You can also create and maintain a scheduled job without a trigger that is used as a template.

To submit a hash table, use the following keys:

  • Frequency: Daily, Weekly, AtStartup, AtLogon
  • At: Any valid time string
  • DaysOfWeek - Any combination of day names
  • Interval - Any valid frequency interval
  • RandomDelay: Any valid timespan string
  • User: Any valid user. Used only with the AtLogon frequency value

For example:

@{Frequency="Once"; At="3am"; DaysOfWeek="Monday", "Wednesday"; Interval=2; RandomDelay="30minutes"; User="Domain1\User01"}

Type:ScheduledJobTrigger[]
Position:Named
Default value:None
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False
-WhatIf

Shows what would happen if the cmdlet runs. The cmdlet isn't run.

Type:SwitchParameter
Aliases:wi
Position:Named
Default value:False
Accept pipeline input:False
Accept wildcard characters:False

Inputs

None

You can't send input down the pipeline to this cmdlet.

Outputs

Microsoft.PowerShell.ScheduledJob.ScheduledJobDefinition

Notes

Each scheduled job is saved in a subdirectory of the $home\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\ScheduledJobs directory on the local computer. The subdirectory is named for the scheduled job and contains an XML file for the scheduled job and records of its execution history. For more information about scheduled jobs on disk, see about_Scheduled_Jobs_Advanced.

Scheduled jobs that you create in Windows PowerShell appear in Task Scheduler in the Task Scheduler Library\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\ScheduledJobs folder. You can use Task Scheduler to view and edit the scheduled job.

You can use Task Scheduler, the schtasks.exe command-line tool, and the Task Scheduler cmdlets to manage scheduled jobs that you create with the Scheduled Job cmdlets. However, you can't use the Scheduled Job cmdlets to manage tasks that you create in Task Scheduler.

If a scheduled job command fails, Windows PowerShell returns an error message. However, if the job fails when Task Scheduler tries to run it, the error isn't available to Windows PowerShell.

If a scheduled job doesn't run, use the following methods to find the reason:

  • Verify that the job trigger is set properly.
    • Verify that the conditions set in the job options are satisfied.
  • Verify that the user account under which the job runs has permission to run the commands or scripts in the job.
  • Check the Task Scheduler history for errors.
  • Check the Task Scheduler event log for errors.

For more information, see about_Scheduled_Jobs_Troubleshooting.