ID3D12Device::CreatePlacedResource method (d3d12.h)

Creates a resource that is placed in a specific heap. Placed resources are the lightest weight resource objects available, and are the fastest to create and destroy.

Your application can re-use video memory by overlapping multiple Direct3D placed and reserved resources on heap regions. The simple memory re-use model (described in Remarks) exists to clarify which overlapping resource is valid at any given time. To maximize graphics tool support, with the simple model data-inheritance isn't supported; and finer-grained tile and sub-resource invalidation isn't supported. Only full overlapping resource invalidation occurs.


HRESULT CreatePlacedResource(
  ID3D12Heap                *pHeap,
  UINT64                    HeapOffset,
  const D3D12_RESOURCE_DESC *pDesc,
  D3D12_RESOURCE_STATES     InitialState,
  const D3D12_CLEAR_VALUE   *pOptimizedClearValue,
  REFIID                    riid,
  void                      **ppvResource



Type: [in] ID3D12Heap*

A pointer to the ID3D12Heap interface that represents the heap in which the resource is placed.


Type: UINT64

The offset, in bytes, to the resource. The HeapOffset must be a multiple of the resource's alignment, and HeapOffset plus the resource size must be smaller than or equal to the heap size. GetResourceAllocationInfo must be used to understand the sizes of texture resources.


Type: [in] const D3D12_RESOURCE_DESC*

A pointer to a D3D12_RESOURCE_DESC structure that describes the resource.



The initial state of the resource, as a bitwise-OR'd combination of D3D12_RESOURCE_STATES enumeration constants.

When a resource is created together with a D3D12_HEAP_TYPE_UPLOAD heap, InitialState must be D3D12_RESOURCE_STATE_GENERIC_READ. When a resource is created together with a D3D12_HEAP_TYPE_READBACK heap, InitialState must be D3D12_RESOURCE_STATE_COPY_DEST.


Type: [in, optional] const D3D12_CLEAR_VALUE*

Specifies a D3D12_CLEAR_VALUE that describes the default value for a clear color.

pOptimizedClearValue specifies a value for which clear operations are most optimal. When the created resource is a texture with either the D3D12_RESOURCE_FLAG_ALLOW_RENDER_TARGET or D3D12_RESOURCE_FLAG_ALLOW_DEPTH_STENCIL flags, your application should choose the value that the clear operation will most commonly be called with.

Clear operations can be called with other values, but those operations will not be as efficient as when the value matches the one passed into resource creation.

pOptimizedClearValue must be NULL when used with D3D12_RESOURCE_DIMENSION_BUFFER.



The globally unique identifier (GUID) for the resource interface. This is an input parameter.

The REFIID, or GUID, of the interface to the resource can be obtained by using the __uuidof macro. For example, __uuidof(ID3D12Resource) gets the GUID of the interface to a resource. Although riid is, most commonly, the GUID for ID3D12Resource, it may be any GUID for any interface. If the resource object doesn't support the interface for this GUID, then creation fails with E_NOINTERFACE.


Type: [out, optional] void**

A pointer to a memory block that receives a pointer to the resource. ppvResource can be NULL, to enable capability testing. When ppvResource is NULL, no object will be created and S_FALSE will be returned when pResourceDesc and other parameters are valid.

Return value


This method returns E_OUTOFMEMORY if there is insufficient memory to create the resource. See Direct3D 12 Return Codes for other possible return values.


CreatePlacedResource is similar to fully mapping a reserved resource to an offset within a heap; but the virtual address space associated with a heap may be reused as well.

Placed resources are lighter weight to create and destroy than committed resources are. This is because no heap is created nor destroyed during those operations. In addition, placed resources enable an even lighter weight technique to reuse memory than resource creation and destruction—that is, reuse through aliasing, and aliasing barriers. Multiple placed resources may simultaneously overlap each other on the same heap, but only a single overlapping resource can be used at a time.

There are two placed resource usage semantics—a simple model, and an advanced model. We recommend that you choose the simple model (it maximizes graphics tool support across the diverse ecosystem of GPUs), unless and until you find that you need the advanced model for your app.

Simple model

In this model, you can consider a placed resource to be in one of two states: active, or inactive. It's invalid for the GPU to either read or write from an inactive resource. Placed resources are created in the inactive state.

To activate a resource with an aliasing barrier on a command list, your application must pass the resource in D3D12_RESOURCE_ALIASING_BARRIER::pResourceAfter. pResourceBefore can be left NULL during an activation. All resources that share physical memory with the activated resource now become inactive, which includes overlapping placed and reserved resources.

Aliasing barriers should be grouped up and submitted together, in order to maximize efficiency.

After activation, resources with either the render target or depth stencil flags must be further initialized. See the notes on the required resource initialization below.

Notes on the required resource initialization

Certain resource types still require initialization. Resources with either the render target or depth stencil flags must be initialized with either a clear operation or a collection of full subresource copies. If an aliasing barrier was used to denote the transition between two aliased resources, the initialization must occur after the aliasing barrier. This initialization is still required whenever a resource would've been activated in the simple model.

Placed and reserved resources with either the render target or depth stencil flags must be initialized with one of the following operations before other operations are supported.

Applications should prefer the most explicit operation that results in the least amount of texels modified. Consider the following examples.

  • Using a depth buffer to solve pixel visibility typically requires each depth texel start out at 1.0 or 0. Therefore, a Clear operation should be the most efficient option for aliased depth buffer initialization.
  • An application may use an aliased render target as a destination for tone mapping. Since the application will render over every pixel during the tone mapping, DiscardResource should be the most efficient option for initialization.

Advanced model

In this model, you can ignore the active/inactive state abstraction. Instead, you must honor these lower-level rules.

  • An aliasing barrier must be between two different GPU resource accesses of the same physical memory, as long as those accesses are within the same ExecuteCommandLists call.
  • The first rendering operation to certain types of aliased resource must still be an initialization, just like the simple model.

Initialization operations must occur either on an entire subresource, or on a 64KB granularity. An entire subresource initialization is supported for all resource types. A 64KB initialization granularity, aligned at a 64KB offset, is supported for buffers and textures with either the 64KB_UNDEFINED_SWIZZLE or 64KB_STANDARD_SWIZZLE texture layout (refer to D3D12_TEXTURE_LAYOUT).

Notes on the aliasing barrier

The aliasing barrier may set NULL for both pResourceAfter and pResourceBefore. The memory coherence definition of ExecuteCommandLists and an aliasing barrier are the same, such that two aliased accesses to the same physical memory need no aliasing barrier when the accesses are in two different ExecuteCommandLists invocations.

For D3D12 advanced usage models, the synchronization definition of ExecuteCommandLists is equivalent to an aliasing barrier. Therefore, applications may either insert an aliasing barrier between reusing physical memory, or ensure the two aliased usages of physical memory occurs in two separate calls to ExecuteCommandLists.

The amount of inactivation varies based on resource properties. Textures with undefined memory layouts are the worst case, as the entire texture must be inactivated atomically. For two overlapping resources with defined layouts, inactivation can result in only the overlapping aligned regions of a resource. Data inheritance can even be well-defined. For more details, see Memory aliasing and data inheritance.


Target Platform Windows
Header d3d12.h
Library D3D12.lib
DLL D3D12.dll

See also




Shared Heaps