1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

802.11 Access Point (AP): Any entity that has IEEE 802.11 functionality and provides access to the distribution services, via the wireless medium for associated stations (STAs).

Active Directory: The Windows implementation of a general-purpose directory service, which uses LDAP as its primary access protocol. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network such as user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by Kerberos [MS-KILE]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), which are both described in [MS-ADOD]: Active Directory Protocols Overview.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): A block cipher that supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm can be used to encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form, called plaintext. AES is used in symmetric-key cryptography, meaning that the same key is used for the encryption and decryption operations. It is also a block cipher, meaning that it operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext and ciphertext, and requires the size of the plaintext as well as the ciphertext to be an exact multiple of this block size. AES is also known as the Rijndael symmetric encryption algorithm [FIPS197].

binary large object (BLOB): A collection of binary data stored as a single entity in a database.

certification authority (CA): A third party that issues public key certificates. Certificates serve to bind public keys to a user identity. Each user and certification authority (CA) can decide whether to trust another user or CA for a specific purpose, and whether this trust should be transitive. For more information, see [RFC3280].

class identifier (CLSID): A GUID that identifies a software component; for instance, a DCOM object class or a COM class.

directory service (DS): A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.

directory string: A string encoded in UTF-8 as defined in [RFC2252] section 6.10.

distinguished name (DN): A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, and the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The distinguished name (DN) identifies the object and its location in a tree.

domain controller (DC): The service, running on a server, that implements Active Directory, or the server hosting this service. The service hosts the data store for objects and interoperates with other DCs to ensure that a local change to an object replicates correctly across all DCs. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the DC contains full NC replicas of the configuration naming context (config NC), schema naming context (schema NC), and one of the domain NCs in its forest. If the AD DS DC is a global catalog server (GC server), it contains partial NC replicas of the remaining domain NCs in its forest. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section and [MS-ADTS]. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), several AD LDS DCs can run on one server. When Active Directory is operating as AD DS, only one AD DS DC can run on one server. However, several AD LDS DCs can coexist with one AD DS DC on one server. The AD LDS DC contains full NC replicas of the config NC and the schema NC in its forest. The domain controller is the server side of Authentication Protocol Domain Support [MS-APDS].

EAP: See Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP).

EAP identity: The identity of the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) peer as specified in [RFC3748].

enhanced key usage (EKU): An extension that is a collection of object identifiers (OIDs) that indicate the applications that use the key.

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP): A framework for authentication that is used to provide a pluggable model for adding authentication protocols for use in network access authentication, as specified in [RFC3748].

Group Policy: A mechanism that allows the implementer to specify managed configurations for users and computers in an Active Directory service environment.

Group Policy Object (GPO): A collection of administrator-defined specifications of the policy settings that can be applied to groups of computers in a domain. Each GPO includes two elements: an object that resides in the Active Directory for the domain, and a corresponding file system subdirectory that resides on the sysvol DFS share of the Group Policy server for the domain.

Group Policy Object (GPO) distinguished name (DN): An LDAP distinguished name (DN) for an Active Directory object of object class groupPolicyContainer. All such object paths will be paths of the form "LDAP://<gpo guid>,CN=policies,CN=system,<rootdse>", where <rootdse> is the root DN path of the Active Directory domain and <gpo guid> is a GPO GUID.

Group Policy server: A server holding a database of Group Policy Objects (GPOs) that can be retrieved by other machines. The Group Policy server must be a domain controller (DC).

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): The primary access protocol for Active Directory. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which allows users to query and update information in a directory service (DS), as described in [MS-ADTS]. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol can be either version 2 [RFC1777] or version 3 [RFC3377].

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

local area network (LAN): A group of computers and other devices dispersed over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other device on the network.

object identifier (OID): In the context of a directory service, a number identifying an object class or attribute. Object identifiers are issued by the ITU and form a hierarchy. An OID is represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, ""). For more information on OIDs, see [X660] and [RFC3280] Appendix A. OIDs are used to uniquely identify certificate templates available to the certification authority (CA). Within a certificate, OIDs are used to identify standard extensions, as described in [RFC3280] section 4.2.1.x, as well as non-standard extensions.

realm: An administrative boundary that uses one set of authentication servers to manage and deploy a single set of unique identifiers. A realm is a unique logon space.

scoped Group Policy Object (GPO) distinguished name (DN): A Group Policy Object (GPO) distinguished name (DN) where the set of "CN=<cn>" elements is prepended with "CN=User" for the user policy mode of policy application and with "CN=Machine" for computer policy mode.

scoped Group Policy Object (GPO) path: A Group Policy Object (GPO) path appended with "\User" for the user policy mode of policy application, and "\Machine" for the computer policy mode.

service set identifier (SSID): A sequence of characters that names a wireless local area network (WLAN).

SHA-1 hash: A hashing algorithm as specified in [FIPS180-2] that was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Security Agency (NSA).

station (STA): Any device that contains an IEEE 802.11 conformant medium access control and physical layer (PHY) interface to the wireless medium (WM).

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): A local area network (LAN) to which mobile users (clients) can connect and communicate by means of high-frequency radio waves rather than wires. WLANs are specified in the IEEE 802.11 standard [IEEE802.11-2007].

XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].

XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.

XML Schema (XSD): A language that defines the elements, attributes, namespaces, and data types for XML documents as defined by [XMLSCHEMA1/2] and [XMLSCHEMA2/2] standards. An XML schema uses XML syntax for its language.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.