Partitioner<TSource> Classe

Definição

Representa uma maneira particular de dividir uma fonte de dados em várias partições.Represents a particular manner of splitting a data source into multiple partitions.

generic <typename TSource>
public ref class Partitioner abstract
public abstract class Partitioner<TSource>
type Partitioner<'Source> = class
Public MustInherit Class Partitioner(Of TSource)

Parâmetros de tipo

TSource

O tipo dos elementos na coleção.Type of the elements in the collection.

Herança
Partitioner<TSource>
Derivado

Exemplos

O exemplo a seguir mostra como implementar um particionador que retorna um único elemento por vez:The following example shows how to implement a partitioner that returns a single element at a time:

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Collections.Concurrent;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace PartitionerDemo
{
    // Simple partitioner that will extract one item at a time, in a thread-safe fashion,
    // from the underlying collection.
    class SingleElementPartitioner<T> : Partitioner<T>
    {
        // The collection being wrapped by this Partitioner
        IEnumerable<T> m_referenceEnumerable;

        // Internal class that serves as a shared enumerable for the
        // underlying collection.
        private class InternalEnumerable : IEnumerable<T>, IDisposable
        {
            IEnumerator<T> m_reader;
            bool m_disposed = false;

            // These two are used to implement Dispose() when static partitioning is being performed
            int m_activeEnumerators;
            bool m_downcountEnumerators;

            // "downcountEnumerators" will be true for static partitioning, false for
            // dynamic partitioning.  
            public InternalEnumerable(IEnumerator<T> reader, bool downcountEnumerators)
            {
                m_reader = reader;
                m_activeEnumerators = 0;
                m_downcountEnumerators = downcountEnumerators;
            }

            public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator()
            {
                if (m_disposed)
                    throw new ObjectDisposedException("InternalEnumerable: Can't call GetEnumerator() after disposing");

                // For static partitioning, keep track of the number of active enumerators.
                if (m_downcountEnumerators) Interlocked.Increment(ref m_activeEnumerators);

                return new InternalEnumerator(m_reader, this);
            }

            IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator()
            {
                return ((IEnumerable<T>)this).GetEnumerator();
            }

            public void Dispose()
            {
                if (!m_disposed)
                {
                    // Only dispose the source enumerator if you are doing dynamic partitioning
                    if (!m_downcountEnumerators)
                    {
                        m_reader.Dispose();
                    }
                    m_disposed = true;
                }
            }

            // Called from Dispose() method of spawned InternalEnumerator.  During
            // static partitioning, the source enumerator will be automatically
            // disposed once all requested InternalEnumerators have been disposed.
            public void DisposeEnumerator()
            {
                if (m_downcountEnumerators)
                {
                    if (Interlocked.Decrement(ref m_activeEnumerators) == 0)
                    {
                        m_reader.Dispose();
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // Internal class that serves as a shared enumerator for 
        // the underlying collection.
        private class InternalEnumerator : IEnumerator<T>
        {
            T m_current;
            IEnumerator<T> m_source;
            InternalEnumerable m_controllingEnumerable;
            bool m_disposed = false;

            public InternalEnumerator(IEnumerator<T> source, InternalEnumerable controllingEnumerable)
            {
                m_source = source;
                m_current = default(T);
                m_controllingEnumerable = controllingEnumerable;
            }

            object IEnumerator.Current
            {
                get { return m_current; }
            }

            T IEnumerator<T>.Current
            {
                get { return m_current; }
            }

            void IEnumerator.Reset()
            {
                throw new NotSupportedException("Reset() not supported");
            }

            // This method is the crux of this class.  Under lock, it calls
            // MoveNext() on the underlying enumerator and grabs Current.
            bool IEnumerator.MoveNext()
            {
                bool rval = false;
                lock (m_source)
                {
                    rval = m_source.MoveNext();
                    m_current = rval ? m_source.Current : default(T);
                }
                return rval;
            }

            void IDisposable.Dispose()
            {
                if (!m_disposed)
                {
                    // Delegate to parent enumerable's DisposeEnumerator() method
                    m_controllingEnumerable.DisposeEnumerator();
                    m_disposed = true;
                }
            }

        }

        // Constructor just grabs the collection to wrap
        public SingleElementPartitioner(IEnumerable<T> enumerable)
        {
            // Verify that the source IEnumerable is not null
            if (enumerable == null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("enumerable");

            m_referenceEnumerable = enumerable;
        }

        // Produces a list of "numPartitions" IEnumerators that can each be
        // used to traverse the underlying collection in a thread-safe manner.
        // This will return a static number of enumerators, as opposed to
        // GetDynamicPartitions(), the result of which can be used to produce
        // any number of enumerators.
        public override IList<IEnumerator<T>> GetPartitions(int numPartitions)
        {
            if (numPartitions < 1)
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("NumPartitions");

            List<IEnumerator<T>> list = new List<IEnumerator<T>>(numPartitions);

            // Since we are doing static partitioning, create an InternalEnumerable with reference
            // counting of spawned InternalEnumerators turned on.  Once all of the spawned enumerators
            // are disposed, dynamicPartitions will be disposed.
            var dynamicPartitions = new InternalEnumerable(m_referenceEnumerable.GetEnumerator(), true);
            for (int i = 0; i < numPartitions; i++)
                list.Add(dynamicPartitions.GetEnumerator());

            return list;
        }

        // Returns an instance of our internal Enumerable class.  GetEnumerator()
        // can then be called on that (multiple times) to produce shared enumerators.
        public override IEnumerable<T> GetDynamicPartitions()
        {
            // Since we are doing dynamic partitioning, create an InternalEnumerable with reference
            // counting of spawned InternalEnumerators turned off.  This returned InternalEnumerable
            // will need to be explicitly disposed.
            return new InternalEnumerable(m_referenceEnumerable.GetEnumerator(), false);
        }

        // Must be set to true if GetDynamicPartitions() is supported.
        public override bool SupportsDynamicPartitions
        {
            get { return true; }
        }
    }

    class Program
    {
        // Test our SingleElementPartitioner(T) class
        static void Main()
        {
            // Our sample collection
            string[] collection = new string[] {"red", "orange", "yellow", "green", "blue", "indigo", 
                "violet", "black", "white", "grey"};

            // Instantiate a partitioner for our collection
            SingleElementPartitioner<string> myPart = new SingleElementPartitioner<string>(collection);

            //
            // Simple test with ForEach
            //
            Console.WriteLine("Testing with Parallel.ForEach");
            Parallel.ForEach(myPart, item =>
            {
                Console.WriteLine("  item = {0}, thread id = {1}", item, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
            });

            //
            //
            // Demonstrate the use of static partitioning, which really means
            // "using a static number of partitioners".  The partitioners themselves
            // may still be "dynamic" in the sense that their outputs may not be
            // deterministic.
            //
            //

            // Perform static partitioning of collection
            var staticPartitions = myPart.GetPartitions(2);
            int index = 0;

            Console.WriteLine("Static Partitioning, 2 partitions, 2 tasks:");

            // Action will consume from static partitions
            Action staticAction = () =>
            {
                int myIndex = Interlocked.Increment(ref index) - 1; // compute your index
                var myItems = staticPartitions[myIndex]; // grab your static partition
                int id = Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId; // cache your thread id

                // Enumerate through your static partition
                while (myItems.MoveNext())
                {
                    Thread.Sleep(50); // guarantees that multiple threads have a chance to run
                    Console.WriteLine("  item = {0}, thread id = {1}", myItems.Current, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId);
                }

                myItems.Dispose();
            };

            // Spawn off 2 actions to consume 2 static partitions
            Parallel.Invoke(staticAction, staticAction);

            //
            //
            // Demonstrate the use of dynamic partitioning
            //
            //

            // Grab an IEnumerable which can then be used to generate multiple
            // shared IEnumerables.
            var dynamicPartitions = myPart.GetDynamicPartitions();

            Console.WriteLine("Dynamic Partitioning, 3 tasks:");

            // Action will consume from dynamic partitions
            Action dynamicAction = () =>
            {
                // Grab an enumerator from the dynamic partitions
                var enumerator = dynamicPartitions.GetEnumerator();
                int id = Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId; // cache our thread id

                // Enumerate through your dynamic enumerator
                while (enumerator.MoveNext())
                {
                    Thread.Sleep(50); // guarantees that multiple threads will have a chance to run
                    Console.WriteLine("  item = {0}, thread id = {1}", enumerator.Current, id);
                }

                enumerator.Dispose();
            };

            // Spawn 3 concurrent actions to consume the dynamic partitions
            Parallel.Invoke(dynamicAction, dynamicAction, dynamicAction);

            // Clean up
            if (dynamicPartitions is IDisposable)
                ((IDisposable)dynamicPartitions).Dispose();
        }
    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Concurrent
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Threading.Tasks

Module PartitionerDemo
    ' Simple partitioner that will extract one item at a time, in a thread-safe fashion,
    ' from the underlying collection.
    Class SingleElementPartitioner(Of T)
        Inherits Partitioner(Of T)
        ' The collection being wrapped by this Partitioner
        Private m_referenceEnumerable As IEnumerable(Of T)

        ' Internal class that serves as a shared enumerable for the
        ' underlying collection.
        Private Class InternalEnumerable
            Implements IEnumerable(Of T)
            Implements IDisposable

            Private m_reader As IEnumerator(Of T)
            Private m_disposed As Boolean = False

            ' These two are used to implement Dispose() when static partitioning is being performed
            Private m_activeEnumerators As Integer
            Private m_downcountEnumerators As Boolean

            ' "downcountEnumerators" will be true for static partitioning, false for
            ' dynamic partitioning. 
            Public Sub New(ByVal reader As IEnumerator(Of T), ByVal downcountEnumerators As Boolean)
                m_reader = reader
                m_activeEnumerators = 0
                m_downcountEnumerators = downcountEnumerators
            End Sub

            Public Function GetEnumerator() As IEnumerator(Of T) Implements IEnumerable(Of T).GetEnumerator
                If m_disposed Then
                    Throw New ObjectDisposedException("InternalEnumerable: Can't call GetEnumerator() after disposing")
                End If

                ' For static partitioning, keep track of the number of active enumerators.
                If m_downcountEnumerators Then
                    Interlocked.Increment(m_activeEnumerators)
                End If

                Return New InternalEnumerator(m_reader, Me)
            End Function

            Private Function GetEnumerator2() As IEnumerator Implements IEnumerable.GetEnumerator
                Return DirectCast(Me, IEnumerable(Of T)).GetEnumerator()
            End Function

            Public Sub Dispose() Implements IDisposable.Dispose
                If Not m_disposed Then
                    ' Only dispose the source enumerator if you are doing dynamic partitioning
                    If Not m_downcountEnumerators Then
                        m_reader.Dispose()
                    End If
                    m_disposed = True
                End If
            End Sub

            ' Called from Dispose() method of spawned InternalEnumerator. During
            ' static partitioning, the source enumerator will be automatically
            ' disposed once all requested InternalEnumerators have been disposed.
            Public Sub DisposeEnumerator()
                If m_downcountEnumerators Then
                    If Interlocked.Decrement(m_activeEnumerators) = 0 Then
                        m_reader.Dispose()
                    End If
                End If
            End Sub
        End Class

        ' Internal class that serves as a shared enumerator for 
        ' the underlying collection.
        Private Class InternalEnumerator
            Implements IEnumerator(Of T)

            Private m_current As T
            Private m_source As IEnumerator(Of T)
            Private m_controllingEnumerable As InternalEnumerable
            Private m_disposed As Boolean = False

            Public Sub New(ByVal source As IEnumerator(Of T), ByVal controllingEnumerable As InternalEnumerable)
                m_source = source
                m_current = Nothing
                m_controllingEnumerable = controllingEnumerable
            End Sub

            Private ReadOnly Property Current2() As Object Implements IEnumerator.Current
                Get
                    Return m_current
                End Get
            End Property

            Private ReadOnly Property Current() As T Implements IEnumerator(Of T).Current
                Get
                    Return m_current
                End Get
            End Property

            Private Sub Reset() Implements IEnumerator.Reset
                Throw New NotSupportedException("Reset() not supported")
            End Sub

            ' This method is the crux of this class. Under lock, it calls
            ' MoveNext() on the underlying enumerator and grabs Current.
            Private Function MoveNext() As Boolean Implements IEnumerator.MoveNext
                Dim rval As Boolean = False
                SyncLock m_source
                    rval = m_source.MoveNext()
                    m_current = If(rval, m_source.Current, Nothing)
                End SyncLock
                Return rval
            End Function

            Private Sub Dispose() Implements IDisposable.Dispose
                If Not m_disposed Then
                    ' Delegate to parent enumerable's DisposeEnumerator() method
                    m_controllingEnumerable.DisposeEnumerator()
                    m_disposed = True
                End If
            End Sub

        End Class

        ' Constructor just grabs the collection to wrap
        Public Sub New(ByVal enumerable As IEnumerable(Of T))

            ' Verify that the source IEnumerable is not null
            If enumerable Is Nothing Then
                Throw New ArgumentNullException("enumerable")
            End If

            m_referenceEnumerable = enumerable
        End Sub

        ' Produces a list of "numPartitions" IEnumerators that can each be
        ' used to traverse the underlying collection in a thread-safe manner.
        ' This will return a static number of enumerators, as opposed to
        ' GetDynamicPartitions(), the result of which can be used to produce
        ' any number of enumerators.
        Public Overloads Overrides Function GetPartitions(ByVal numPartitions As Integer) As IList(Of IEnumerator(Of T))
            If numPartitions < 1 Then
                Throw New ArgumentOutOfRangeException("NumPartitions")
            End If

            Dim list As New List(Of IEnumerator(Of T))(numPartitions)

            ' Since we are doing static partitioning, create an InternalEnumerable with reference
            ' counting of spawned InternalEnumerators turned on. Once all of the spawned enumerators
            ' are disposed, dynamicPartitions will be disposed.
            Dim dynamicPartitions = New InternalEnumerable(m_referenceEnumerable.GetEnumerator(), True)
            For i As Integer = 0 To numPartitions - 1
                list.Add(dynamicPartitions.GetEnumerator())
            Next

            Return list
        End Function

        ' Returns an instance of our internal Enumerable class. GetEnumerator()
        ' can then be called on that (multiple times) to produce shared enumerators.
        Public Overloads Overrides Function GetDynamicPartitions() As IEnumerable(Of T)
            ' Since we are doing dynamic partitioning, create an InternalEnumerable with reference
            ' counting of spawned InternalEnumerators turned off. This returned InternalEnumerable
            ' will need to be explicitly disposed.
            Return New InternalEnumerable(m_referenceEnumerable.GetEnumerator(), False)
        End Function

        ' Must be set to true if GetDynamicPartitions() is supported.
        Public Overloads Overrides ReadOnly Property SupportsDynamicPartitions() As Boolean
            Get
                Return True
            End Get
        End Property
    End Class

    Class Program
        ' Test our SingleElementPartitioner(T) class
        Shared Sub Main()
            ' Our sample collection
            Dim collection As String() = New String() {"red", "orange", "yellow", "green", "blue", "indigo", _
            "violet", "black", "white", "grey"}

            ' Instantiate a partitioner for our collection
            Dim myPart As New SingleElementPartitioner(Of String)(Collection)

            '
            ' Simple test with ForEach
            '
            Console.WriteLine("Testing with Parallel.ForEach")
            Parallel.ForEach(myPart,
                             Sub(item)
                                 Console.WriteLine(" item = {0}, thread id = {1}", item, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId)
                             End Sub)

            '
            '
            ' Demonstrate the use of static partitioning, which really means
            ' "using a static number of partitioners". The partitioners themselves
            ' may still be "dynamic" in the sense that their outputs may not be
            ' deterministic.
            '
            '

            ' Perform static partitioning of collection
            Dim staticPartitions = myPart.GetPartitions(2)
            Dim index As Integer = 0

            Console.WriteLine("Static Partitioning, 2 partitions, 2 tasks:")

            ' Action will consume from static partitions
            Dim staticAction As Action =
                Sub()
                    Dim myIndex As Integer = Interlocked.Increment(index) - 1
                    ' compute your index
                    Dim myItems = staticPartitions(myIndex)
                    ' grab your static partition
                    Dim id As Integer = Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId
                    ' cache your thread id
                    ' Enumerate through your static partition
                    While myItems.MoveNext()
                        Thread.Sleep(50)
                        ' guarantees that multiple threads have a chance to run
                        Console.WriteLine(" item = {0}, thread id = {1}", myItems.Current, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId)
                    End While

                    myItems.Dispose()
                End Sub

            ' Spawn off 2 actions to consume 2 static partitions
            Parallel.Invoke(staticAction, staticAction)

            '
            '
            ' Demonstrate the use of dynamic partitioning
            '
            '

            ' Grab an IEnumerable which can then be used to generate multiple
            ' shared IEnumerables.
            Dim dynamicPartitions = myPart.GetDynamicPartitions()

            Console.WriteLine("Dynamic Partitioning, 3 tasks:")

            ' Action will consume from dynamic partitions
            Dim dynamicAction As Action =
                Sub()
                    ' Grab an enumerator from the dynamic partitioner
                    Dim enumerator = dynamicPartitions.GetEnumerator()
                    Dim id As Integer = Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId
                    ' cache our thread id
                    ' Enumerate through your dynamic enumerator
                    While enumerator.MoveNext()
                        Thread.Sleep(50)
                        ' guarantees that multiple threads will have a chance to run
                        Console.WriteLine(" item = {0}, thread id = {1}", enumerator.Current, id)
                    End While

                    enumerator.Dispose()
                End Sub

            ' Spawn 3 concurrent actions to consume the dynamic partitions
            Parallel.Invoke(dynamicAction, dynamicAction, dynamicAction)

            ' Clean up
            If TypeOf dynamicPartitions Is IDisposable Then
                DirectCast(dynamicPartitions, IDisposable).Dispose()
            End If
        End Sub
    End Class

End Module

Comentários

Para saber mais, veja Particionadores personalizados para PLINQ e TPL.For more information, see Custom Partitioners for PLINQ and TPL.

Construtores

Partitioner<TSource>()

Cria uma nova instância de particionador.Creates a new partitioner instance.

Propriedades

SupportsDynamicPartitions

Especifica se as partições adicionais podem ser criadas dinamicamente.Gets whether additional partitions can be created dynamically.

Métodos

Equals(Object)

Determina se o objeto especificado é igual ao objeto atual.Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object.

(Herdado de Object)
GetDynamicPartitions()

Cria um objeto que pode particionar a coleção subjacente em um número variável de partições.Creates an object that can partition the underlying collection into a variable number of partitions.

GetHashCode()

Serve como a função de hash padrão.Serves as the default hash function.

(Herdado de Object)
GetPartitions(Int32)

Particiona a coleção subjacente no número de partições determinado.Partitions the underlying collection into the given number of partitions.

GetType()

Obtém o Type da instância atual.Gets the Type of the current instance.

(Herdado de Object)
MemberwiseClone()

Cria uma cópia superficial do Object atual.Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(Herdado de Object)
ToString()

Retorna uma cadeia de caracteres que representa o objeto atual.Returns a string that represents the current object.

(Herdado de Object)

Métodos de Extensão

AsParallel<TSource>(Partitioner<TSource>)

Possibilita a paralelização de uma consulta, conforme originada por um particionador personalizado que é responsável pela divisão da sequência de entrada em partições.Enables parallelization of a query, as sourced by a custom partitioner that is responsible for splitting the input sequence into partitions.

Aplica-se a

Acesso thread-safe

Os métodos estáticos Partitioner<TSource> no são todos thread-safe e podem ser usados simultaneamente de vários threads.The static methods on Partitioner<TSource> are all thread-safe and may be used concurrently from multiple threads. No entanto, embora um particionador criado esteja em uso, a fonte de dados subjacente não deve ser modificada, seja do mesmo thread que está usando um particionador ou de um thread separado.However, while a created partitioner is in use, the underlying data source should not be modified, whether from the same thread that is using a partitioner or from a separate thread.

Veja também