BufferedGraphics Classe

Definição

Fornece um buffer de gráficos para buffer duplo.Provides a graphics buffer for double buffering.

public ref class BufferedGraphics sealed : IDisposable
public sealed class BufferedGraphics : IDisposable
type BufferedGraphics = class
    interface IDisposable
Public NotInheritable Class BufferedGraphics
Implements IDisposable
Herança
BufferedGraphics
Implementações

Exemplos

O exemplo de código a seguir demonstra como usar um objeto BufferedGraphics para desenhar gráficos usando vários tipos de implementações de buffer.The following code example demonstrates using a BufferedGraphics object to draw graphics using several types of buffering implementations. Clicar no formulário é iniciado de forma alternativa e interrompe um temporizador que causa atualizações de desenho.Clicking the form alternately starts and stops a timer that causes draw updates. As atualizações do draw permitem que você observe o efeito do buffer duplo.The draw updates allow you to observe the effect of double buffering. Clicar com o botão direito do mouse no formulário percorre os seguintes modos de desenho:Right-clicking the form cycles through the following drawing modes:

Em cada modo, é desenhado o texto que identifica o modo atual e descreve o comportamento que ocorre quando cada botão do mouse é pressionado.In each mode, text is drawn that identifies the current mode and describes the behavior that occurs when each mouse button is pressed.

#using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>
#using <System.Drawing.dll>
#using <System.dll>

using namespace System;
using namespace System::ComponentModel;
using namespace System::Drawing;
using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

namespace BufferingExample
{
   public ref class BufferingExample: public Form
   {
   private:
      BufferedGraphicsContext^ context;
      BufferedGraphics^ grafx;
      Byte bufferingMode;
      array<String^>^bufferingModeStrings;
      System::Windows::Forms::Timer^ timer1;
      Byte count;

   public:
      BufferingExample()
         : Form()
      {
         array<String^>^tempStrings = {"Draw to Form without OptimizedDoubleBufferring control style","Draw to Form using OptimizedDoubleBuffering control style","Draw to HDC for form"};
         bufferingModeStrings = tempStrings;

         // Configure the Form for this example.
         this->Text = "User double buffering";
         this->MouseDown += gcnew MouseEventHandler( this, &BufferingExample::MouseDownHandler );
         this->Resize += gcnew EventHandler( this, &BufferingExample::OnResize );
         this->SetStyle( static_cast<ControlStyles>(ControlStyles::AllPaintingInWmPaint | ControlStyles::UserPaint), true );

         // Configure a timer to draw graphics updates.
         timer1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Timer;
         timer1->Interval = 200;
         timer1->Tick += gcnew EventHandler( this, &BufferingExample::OnTimer );
         bufferingMode = 2;
         count = 0;

         // Retrieves the BufferedGraphicsContext for the 
         // current application domain.
         context = BufferedGraphicsManager::Current;

         // Sets the maximum size for the primary graphics buffer
         // of the buffered graphics context for the application
         // domain.  Any allocation requests for a buffer larger 
         // than this will create a temporary buffered graphics 
         // context to host the graphics buffer.
         context->MaximumBuffer = System::Drawing::Size( this->Width + 1, this->Height + 1 );

         // Allocates a graphics buffer the size of this form
         // using the pixel format of the Graphics created by 
         // the Form.CreateGraphics() method, which returns a 
         // Graphics object that matches the pixel format of the form.
         grafx = context->Allocate( this->CreateGraphics(), Rectangle(0,0,this->Width,this->Height) );

         // Draw the first frame to the buffer.
         DrawToBuffer( grafx->Graphics );
      }

   private:
      void MouseDownHandler( Object^ /*sender*/, MouseEventArgs^ e )
      {
         if ( e->Button == ::MouseButtons::Right )
         {
            // Cycle the buffering mode.
            if ( ++bufferingMode > 2 )
                        bufferingMode = 0;

            // If the previous buffering mode used 
            // the OptimizedDoubleBuffering ControlStyle,
            // disable the control style.
            if ( bufferingMode == 1 )
                        this->SetStyle( ControlStyles::OptimizedDoubleBuffer, true );

            // If the current buffering mode uses
            // the OptimizedDoubleBuffering ControlStyle,
            // enabke the control style.
            if ( bufferingMode == 2 )
                        this->SetStyle( ControlStyles::OptimizedDoubleBuffer, false );

            // Cause the background to be cleared and redraw.
            count = 6;
            DrawToBuffer( grafx->Graphics );
            this->Refresh();
         }
         else
         {
            
            // Toggle whether the redraw timer is active.
            if ( timer1->Enabled )
                        timer1->Stop();
            else
                        timer1->Start();
         }
      }

   private:
      void OnTimer( Object^ /*sender*/, EventArgs^ /*e*/ )
      {
         // Draw randomly positioned ellipses to the buffer.
         DrawToBuffer( grafx->Graphics );

         // If in bufferingMode 2, draw to the form's HDC.
         if ( bufferingMode == 2 )

         // Render the graphics buffer to the form's HDC.
         grafx->Render( Graphics::FromHwnd( this->Handle ) );
         // If in bufferingMode 0 or 1, draw in the paint method.
         else

         // If in bufferingMode 0 or 1, draw in the paint method.
         this->Refresh();
      }

      void OnResize( Object^ /*sender*/, EventArgs^ /*e*/ )
      {
         // Re-create the graphics buffer for a new window size.
         context->MaximumBuffer = System::Drawing::Size( this->Width + 1, this->Height + 1 );
         if ( grafx != nullptr )
         {
            delete grafx;
            grafx = nullptr;
         }

         grafx = context->Allocate( this->CreateGraphics(), Rectangle(0,0,this->Width,this->Height) );

         // Cause the background to be cleared and redraw.
         count = 6;
         DrawToBuffer( grafx->Graphics );
         this->Refresh();
      }

      void DrawToBuffer( Graphics^ g )
      {
         // Clear the graphics buffer every five updates.
         if ( ++count > 5 )
         {
            count = 0;
            grafx->Graphics->FillRectangle( Brushes::Black, 0, 0, this->Width, this->Height );
         }

         // Draw randomly positioned and colored ellipses.
         Random^ rnd = gcnew Random;
         for ( int i = 0; i < 20; i++ )
         {
            int px = rnd->Next( 20, this->Width - 40 );
            int py = rnd->Next( 20, this->Height - 40 );
            g->DrawEllipse( gcnew Pen( Color::FromArgb( rnd->Next( 0, 255 ), rnd->Next( 0, 255 ), rnd->Next( 0, 255 ) ), 1.0f ), px, py, px + rnd->Next( 0, this->Width - px - 20 ), py + rnd->Next( 0, this->Height - py - 20 ) );
         }

         // Draw information strings.
         g->DrawString( String::Format( "Buffering Mode: {0}", bufferingModeStrings[ bufferingMode ] ), gcnew System::Drawing::Font( "Arial",8 ), Brushes::White, 10, 10 );
         g->DrawString( "Right-click to cycle buffering mode", gcnew System::Drawing::Font( "Arial",8 ), Brushes::White, 10, 22 );
         g->DrawString( "Left-click to toggle timed display refresh", gcnew System::Drawing::Font( "Arial",8 ), Brushes::White, 10, 34 );
      }

   protected:
      virtual void OnPaint( PaintEventArgs^ e ) override
      {
         grafx->Render( e->Graphics );
      }
   };
}

[STAThread]
int main()
{
   Application::Run( gcnew BufferingExample::BufferingExample );
}
using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace BufferingExample 
{
    public class BufferingExample : Form
    {
        private BufferedGraphicsContext context;
        private BufferedGraphics grafx;

    private byte bufferingMode;
    private string[] bufferingModeStrings = 
        { "Draw to Form without OptimizedDoubleBufferring control style",
          "Draw to Form using OptimizedDoubleBuffering control style",
          "Draw to HDC for form" };

    private System.Windows.Forms.Timer timer1;
    private byte count;

        public BufferingExample() : base()
        {
            // Configure the Form for this example.
            this.Text = "User double buffering";
            this.MouseDown += new MouseEventHandler(this.MouseDownHandler);
            this.Resize += new EventHandler(this.OnResize);
            this.SetStyle( ControlStyles.AllPaintingInWmPaint | ControlStyles.UserPaint, true );

            // Configure a timer to draw graphics updates.
        timer1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Timer();
        timer1.Interval = 200;
        timer1.Tick += new EventHandler(this.OnTimer);

        bufferingMode = 2;
        count = 0;

            // Retrieves the BufferedGraphicsContext for the 
            // current application domain.
            context = BufferedGraphicsManager.Current;

            // Sets the maximum size for the primary graphics buffer
            // of the buffered graphics context for the application
            // domain.  Any allocation requests for a buffer larger 
            // than this will create a temporary buffered graphics 
            // context to host the graphics buffer.
            context.MaximumBuffer = new Size(this.Width+1, this.Height+1);

            // Allocates a graphics buffer the size of this form
            // using the pixel format of the Graphics created by 
            // the Form.CreateGraphics() method, which returns a 
            // Graphics object that matches the pixel format of the form.
            grafx = context.Allocate(this.CreateGraphics(), 
                 new Rectangle( 0, 0, this.Width, this.Height ));

        // Draw the first frame to the buffer.
        DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics);
        }

    private void MouseDownHandler(object sender, MouseEventArgs e)
        {
        if( e.Button == MouseButtons.Right )
        {
                 // Cycle the buffering mode.
             if( ++bufferingMode > 2 )
                     bufferingMode = 0;

                 // If the previous buffering mode used 
                 // the OptimizedDoubleBuffering ControlStyle,
                 // disable the control style.
                 if( bufferingMode == 1 )
                     this.SetStyle( ControlStyles.OptimizedDoubleBuffer, true );

                 // If the current buffering mode uses
                 // the OptimizedDoubleBuffering ControlStyle,
                 // enabke the control style.
                 if( bufferingMode == 2 )
                     this.SetStyle( ControlStyles.OptimizedDoubleBuffer, false );

                 // Cause the background to be cleared and redraw.
                 count = 6;
                 DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics);                 
         this.Refresh();
        }
        else
        {
                // Toggle whether the redraw timer is active.
        if( timer1.Enabled )
            timer1.Stop();
        else
            timer1.Start(); 
        }
        }

    private void OnTimer(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
            // Draw randomly positioned ellipses to the buffer.
        DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics);

            // If in bufferingMode 2, draw to the form's HDC.
        if( bufferingMode == 2 )            
                    // Render the graphics buffer to the form's HDC.
            grafx.Render(Graphics.FromHwnd(this.Handle));            
            // If in bufferingMode 0 or 1, draw in the paint method.
        else
            this.Refresh();
    }

        private void OnResize(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
           // Re-create the graphics buffer for a new window size.
           context.MaximumBuffer = new Size(this.Width+1, this.Height+1);
           if( grafx != null )
           {
           grafx.Dispose();
               grafx = null;               
           }
           grafx = context.Allocate(this.CreateGraphics(), 
               new Rectangle( 0, 0, this.Width, this.Height ));
           
           // Cause the background to be cleared and redraw.
           count = 6;
           DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics);                 
       this.Refresh();
        }	

    private void DrawToBuffer(Graphics g)
    {
            // Clear the graphics buffer every five updates.
        if( ++count > 5 )
            {
                count = 0;                
                grafx.Graphics.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, 0, 0, this.Width, this.Height);
            }

            // Draw randomly positioned and colored ellipses.
        Random rnd = new Random();
        for( int i=0; i<20; i++ )
        {
        int px = rnd.Next(20,this.Width-40);
        int py = rnd.Next(20,this.Height-40);
        g.DrawEllipse(new Pen(Color.FromArgb(rnd.Next(0, 255), rnd.Next(0,255), rnd.Next(0,255)), 1), 
            px, py, px+rnd.Next(0, this.Width-px-20), py+rnd.Next(0, this.Height-py-20)); 	    			
        }

            // Draw information strings.
        g.DrawString("Buffering Mode: "+bufferingModeStrings[bufferingMode], new Font("Arial", 8), Brushes.White, 10, 10);
            g.DrawString("Right-click to cycle buffering mode", new Font("Arial", 8), Brushes.White, 10, 22);
            g.DrawString("Left-click to toggle timed display refresh", new Font("Arial", 8), Brushes.White, 10, 34);
    }

    protected override void OnPaint(PaintEventArgs e)
        {            
        grafx.Render(e.Graphics);
    }

        [STAThread]
        public static void Main(string[] args)
        {
        Application.Run(new BufferingExample());
        }
    }
}
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class BufferingExample
    Inherits Form
    Private context As BufferedGraphicsContext
    Private grafx As BufferedGraphics
    
    Private bufferingMode As Byte
    Private bufferingModeStrings As String() = _
        {"Draw to Form without OptimizedDoubleBufferring control style", _
         "Draw to Form using OptimizedDoubleBuffering control style", _
         "Draw to HDC for form"}
    
    Private timer1 As System.Windows.Forms.Timer
    Private count As Byte    
    
    Public Sub New()
        ' Configure the Form for this example.
        Me.Text = "User double buffering"
        AddHandler Me.MouseDown, AddressOf Me.MouseDownHandler
        AddHandler Me.Resize, AddressOf Me.ResizeHandler
        Me.SetStyle(ControlStyles.AllPaintingInWmPaint Or ControlStyles.UserPaint, True)
        
        ' Configure a timer to draw graphics updates.
        timer1 = New System.Windows.Forms.Timer()
        timer1.Interval = 200
        AddHandler timer1.Tick, AddressOf Me.OnTimer
        
        bufferingMode = 2
        count = 0
        
        ' Retrieves the BufferedGraphicsContext for the 
        ' current application domain.
        context = BufferedGraphicsManager.Current
        
        ' Sets the maximum size for the primary graphics buffer
        ' of the buffered graphics context for the application
        ' domain.  Any allocation requests for a buffer larger 
        ' than this will create a temporary buffered graphics 
        ' context to host the graphics buffer.
        context.MaximumBuffer = New Size(Me.Width + 1, Me.Height + 1)
        
        ' Allocates a graphics buffer the size of this form
        ' using the pixel format of the Graphics created by 
        ' the Form.CreateGraphics() method, which returns a 
        ' Graphics object that matches the pixel format of the form.
        grafx = context.Allocate(Me.CreateGraphics(), _
            New Rectangle(0, 0, Me.Width, Me.Height))
        
        ' Draw the first frame to the buffer.
        DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics)
    End Sub    
    
    Private Sub MouseDownHandler(sender As Object, e As MouseEventArgs)
        If e.Button = MouseButtons.Right Then
            ' Cycle the buffering mode.
            bufferingMode = bufferingMode+1
            If bufferingMode > 2 Then
                bufferingMode = 0
            End If 
            ' If the previous buffering mode used 
            ' the OptimizedDoubleBuffering ControlStyle,
            ' disable the control style.
            If bufferingMode = 1 Then
                Me.SetStyle(ControlStyles.OptimizedDoubleBuffer, True)
            End If 
            ' If the current buffering mode uses
            ' the OptimizedDoubleBuffering ControlStyle,
            ' enabke the control style.
            If bufferingMode = 2 Then
                Me.SetStyle(ControlStyles.OptimizedDoubleBuffer, False)
            End If 
            ' Cause the background to be cleared and redraw.
            count = 6
            DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics)
            Me.Refresh()
        Else
            ' Toggle whether the redraw timer is active.
            If timer1.Enabled Then
                timer1.Stop()
            Else
                timer1.Start()
            End If
        End If
    End Sub
     
    Private Sub OnTimer(sender As Object, e As EventArgs)
        ' Draw randomly positioned ellipses to the buffer.
        DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics)
        
        ' If in bufferingMode 2, draw to the form's HDC.
        If bufferingMode = 2 Then
            ' Render the graphics buffer to the form's HDC.
            grafx.Render(Graphics.FromHwnd(Me.Handle))
        ' If in bufferingMode 0 or 1, draw in the paint method.
        Else
            Me.Refresh()
        End If
    End Sub
     
    Private Sub ResizeHandler(sender As Object, e As EventArgs)
        ' Re-create the graphics buffer for a new window size.
        context.MaximumBuffer = New Size(Me.Width + 1, Me.Height + 1)
        If (grafx IsNot Nothing) Then
            grafx.Dispose()
            grafx = Nothing
        End If
        grafx = context.Allocate(Me.CreateGraphics(), New Rectangle(0, 0, Me.Width, Me.Height))
        
        ' Cause the background to be cleared and redraw.
        count = 6
        DrawToBuffer(grafx.Graphics)
        Me.Refresh()
    End Sub    
    
    Private Sub DrawToBuffer(g As Graphics)
        ' Clear the graphics buffer every five updates.
        count = count+1
        If count > 5 Then
            count = 0
            grafx.Graphics.FillRectangle(Brushes.Black, 0, 0, Me.Width, Me.Height)
        End If
        
        ' Draw randomly positioned and colored ellipses.
        Dim rnd As New Random()
        Dim i As Integer
        For i = 0 To 21
            Dim px As Integer = rnd.Next(20, Me.Width - 40)
            Dim py As Integer = rnd.Next(20, Me.Height - 40)
            g.DrawEllipse(New Pen(Color.FromArgb(rnd.Next(0, 255), rnd.Next(0, 255), _
                rnd.Next(0, 255)), 1), px, py, px + rnd.Next(0, Me.Width - px - 20), _
                py + rnd.Next(0, Me.Height - py - 20))
        Next i
        
        ' Draw information strings.
        g.DrawString("Buffering Mode: " + bufferingModeStrings(bufferingMode), _
            New Font("Arial", 8), Brushes.White, 10, 10)
        g.DrawString("Right-click to cycle buffering mode", New Font("Arial", 8), _
            Brushes.White, 10, 22)
        g.DrawString("Left-click to toggle timed display refresh", _
            New Font("Arial", 8), Brushes.White, 10, 34)
    End Sub    
    
    Protected Overrides Sub OnPaint(e As PaintEventArgs)
        grafx.Render(e.Graphics)
    End Sub   
    
    <STAThread()>  _
    Public Shared Sub Main(args() As String)
        Application.Run(New BufferingExample())
    End Sub

End Class

Comentários

A classe BufferedGraphics permite que você implemente o buffer duplo personalizado para seus elementos gráficos.The BufferedGraphics class allows you to implement custom double buffering for your graphics. Ele fornece um wrapper para um buffer de gráficos, juntamente com métodos que você pode usar para gravar no buffer e renderizar seu conteúdo para um dispositivo de saída.It provides a wrapper for a graphics buffer, along with methods that you can use to write to the buffer and render its contents to an output device.

Gráficos que usam buffer duplo podem reduzir ou eliminar oscilações causadas pela redesenho de uma superfície de exibição.Graphics that use double buffering can reduce or eliminate flicker that is caused by redrawing a display surface. Quando você usa buffer duplo, os gráficos atualizados são primeiro desenhados para um buffer na memória, e o conteúdo desse buffer é gravado rapidamente em algumas ou toda a superfície exibida.When you use double buffering, updated graphics are first drawn to a buffer in memory, and the contents of this buffer are then quickly written to some or all of the displayed surface. Essa substituição relativamente breve dos gráficos exibidos normalmente reduz ou elimina a cintilação que às vezes ocorre quando os gráficos são atualizados.This relatively brief overwrite of the displayed graphics typically reduces or eliminates the flicker that sometimes occurs when graphics are updated.

Observação

A maneira mais simples de usar o buffer duplo é definir o sinalizador de estilo de controle de OptimizedDoubleBuffer em um controle usando o método SetStyle.The simplest way to use double buffering is to set the OptimizedDoubleBuffer control style flag on a control using the SetStyle method. Definir o sinalizador de OptimizedDoubleBuffer para um controle redireciona toda a pintura para o controle por meio de um buffer gráfico padrão, sem a necessidade de qualquer código adicional.Setting the OptimizedDoubleBuffer flag for a control redirects all painting for the control through a default graphics buffer, without requiring any additional code. Esse sinalizador é definido como true por padrão.This flag is set to true by default.

A classe BufferedGraphics não tem um construtor público e deve ser criada pela BufferedGraphicsContext para um domínio de aplicativo usando seu método Allocate.The BufferedGraphics class has no public constructor and must be created by the BufferedGraphicsContext for an application domain using its Allocate method. Você pode recuperar o BufferedGraphicsContext para o domínio do aplicativo atual da propriedade estática BufferedGraphicsManager.Current.You can retrieve the BufferedGraphicsContext for the current application domain from the static BufferedGraphicsManager.Current property.

A propriedade Graphics pode ser usada para desenhar no buffer de gráficos.The Graphics property can be used for drawing to the graphics buffer. Essa propriedade fornece acesso ao objeto Graphics que desenha para o buffer de gráficos alocado para este objeto BufferedGraphics.This property provides access to the Graphics object that draws to the graphics buffer allocated for this BufferedGraphics object.

O método Render sem argumentos desenha o conteúdo do buffer de gráficos para a superfície especificada quando o buffer foi alocado.The Render method with no arguments draws the contents of the graphics buffer to the surface specified when the buffer was allocated. Outras sobrecargas do método Render permitem que você especifique um objeto Graphics ou um objeto IntPtr que aponta para um contexto de dispositivo para o qual desenhar o conteúdo do buffer de gráficos.Other overloads of the Render method allow you to specify a Graphics object or an IntPtr object that points to a device context to which to draw the contents of the graphics buffer.

Para obter mais informações sobre como desenhar gráficos com buffer duplo, consulte gráficos com buffer duplo.For more information about drawing double-buffered graphics, see Double Buffered Graphics.

Propriedades

Graphics

Obtém um objeto Graphics que gera saídas para o buffer de gráficos.Gets a Graphics object that outputs to the graphics buffer.

Métodos

Dispose()

Libera todos os recursos usados pelo objeto BufferedGraphics.Releases all resources used by the BufferedGraphics object.

Equals(Object)

Determina se o objeto especificado é igual ao objeto atual.Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object.

(Herdado de Object)
Finalize()

Permite que um objeto tente liberar recursos e executar outras operações de limpeza antes de ser recuperado pela coleta de lixo.Allows an object to try to free resources and perform other cleanup operations before it is reclaimed by garbage collection.

GetHashCode()

Serve como a função de hash padrão.Serves as the default hash function.

(Herdado de Object)
GetType()

Obtém o Type da instância atual.Gets the Type of the current instance.

(Herdado de Object)
MemberwiseClone()

Cria uma cópia superficial do Object atual.Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(Herdado de Object)
Render()

Grava o conteúdo do buffer de gráficos no dispositivo padrão.Writes the contents of the graphics buffer to the default device.

Render(Graphics)

Grava o conteúdo do buffer gráfico no objeto Graphics especificado.Writes the contents of the graphics buffer to the specified Graphics object.

Render(IntPtr)

Grava o conteúdo do buffer de gráficos no contexto de dispositivo associado ao identificador IntPtr especificado.Writes the contents of the graphics buffer to the device context associated with the specified IntPtr handle.

ToString()

Retorna uma cadeia de caracteres que representa o objeto atual.Returns a string that represents the current object.

(Herdado de Object)

Aplica-se a

Acesso thread-safe

A classe BufferedGraphics não é thread safe.The BufferedGraphics class is not thread safe. Ao acessar um buffer de gráficos de threads separados, é importante usar um mecanismo de controle de acesso a thread para evitar conflitos.When accessing a graphics buffer from separate threads, it is important to use a thread-access control mechanism to prevent conflicts.

Veja também