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什么是 Azure 预留项?What are Azure Reservations?

通过承诺预订一年或三年的虚拟机、SQL 数据库计算容量、Azure Cosmos DB 吞吐量或其他 Azure 资源的费用,Azure 预留项可为你节省资金。Azure Reservations help you save money by committing to one-year or three-years of virtual machines, SQL Database compute capacity, Azure Cosmos DB throughput, or other Azure resources. 通过承诺预付,能够以折扣价购买所用资源。Committing allows you to get a discount on the resources you use. 预订可将虚拟机、SQL 数据库计算、Azure Cosmos DB 或其他资源的成本大幅减少至即用即付价格的 72%。Reservations can significantly reduce your virtual machine, SQL database compute, Azure Cosmos DB, or other resource costs up to 72% on pay-as-you-go prices. 预订提供计费折扣,并且不会影响资源的运行时状态。Reservations provide a billing discount and don't affect the runtime state of your resources.

可以提前或每月为预留项付费。You can pay for a reservation up front or monthly. 预付和每月预订的总费用相同,选择每月支付不会产生额外的费用。The total cost of up-front and monthly reservations is the same and you don't pay any extra fees when you choose to pay monthly. 每月付款适用于 Azure 预留项,而不适用于第三方产品。Monthly payment is available for Azure reservations, not third party products.

可在 Azure 门户中购买预留。You can buy a reservation in the Azure portal.

为何购买预留项?Why buy a reservation?

如果你有长时间运行的虚拟机、Azure Cosmos DB 或 SQL 数据库,那么购买预留项不失为一项获得最实惠价格的选择。If you have virtual machines, Azure Cosmos DB, or SQL databases that run for long periods of time, buying a reservation gives you the most cost-effective option. 例如,如果持续运行四个服务实例,在不购买预留项的情况下,需按即用即付价格付费。For example, when you continuously run four instances of a service without a reservation, you're charged at pay-as-you-go rates. 如果购买这些资源的预留项,则将立即获得预留折扣。When you buy a reservation for those resources, you immediately get the reservation discount. 这些资源不再按即用即付费率收费。The resources are no longer charged at the pay-as-you-go rates.

预留项涵盖的费用Charges covered by reservation

服务计划:Service plans:

  • 虚拟机预留实例 - 预留项仅涵盖虚拟机计算成本。Reserved Virtual Machine Instance - A reservation only covers the virtual machine compute costs. 而不涵盖软件、网络或存储等其他费用。It doesn't cover additional software, networking, or storage charges.
  • Azure Cosmos DB 预留容量 - 预留项涵盖为资源预配的吞吐量的费用。Azure Cosmos DB reserved capacity - A reservation covers throughput provisioned for your resources. 但它不涵盖存储和网络费用。It doesn't cover the storage and networking charges.
  • SQL 数据库预留 vCore - 预留项仅包含计算成本。SQL Database reserved vCore - Only the compute costs are included with a reservation. 许可证单独计费。The license is billed separately.
  • SQL 数据仓库 - 预留项涵盖 cDWU 用量。SQL Data Warehouse - A reservation covers cDWU usage. 它不涵盖与 SQL 数据仓库用量相关的存储或网络费用。It doesn't cover storage or networking charges associated with the SQL Data Warehouse usage.
  • 应用服务印花费 - 预留项涵盖印花使用费。App Service stamp fee - A reservation covers stamp usage. 它不适用于辅助角色,因此与印花相关的任何其他资源将单独收费。It doesn't apply to workers, so any other resources associated with the stamp are charged separately.

对于 Windows 虚拟机和 SQL 数据库,可以利用 Azure 混合权益来涵盖许可费用。For Windows virtual machines and SQL Database, you can cover the licensing costs with Azure Hybrid Benefit.

谁有资格购买预留?Who's eligible to purchase a reservation?

若要购买某个计划,必须在企业订阅(MS-AZR-0017P 或 MS-AZR-0148P)或即用即付订阅(MS-AZR-0003P 或 MS-AZR-0023P)中有一个订阅所有者角色。To buy a plan, you must have a subscription owner role in an Enterprise (MS-AZR-0017P or MS-AZR-0148P) or Pay-As-You-Go subscription (MS-AZR-0003P or MS-AZR-0023P). 云解决方案提供商可使用 Azure 门户或 合作伙伴中心购买 Azure 预留项。Cloud solution providers can use the Azure portal or Partner Center to purchase Azure Reservations.

企业协议 (EA) 客户可以通过在 EA 门户中禁用“添加预留实例”选项,将购买权限制为 EA 管理员。 Enterprise Agreement (EA) customers can limit purchases to EA admins by disabling the Add Reserved Instances option in the EA Portal. EA 管理员必须是至少一个 EA 订阅的订阅所有者才能购买预留项。EA admins must be a subscription owner for at least one EA subscription to purchase a reservation. 对于希望通过一个核心团队为不同的成本中心购买预留项的企业而言,该选项非常有用。The option is useful for enterprises that want a centralized team to purchase reservations for different cost centers. 购买后,核心团队可将成本中心所有者添加到预留项。After the purchase, centralized teams can add cost center owners to the reservations. 然后,所有者可将预留范围限定为其订阅。Owners can then scope the reservation to their subscriptions. 购买预留项时,核心团队无需拥有订阅所有者访问权限。The central team doesn't need to have subscription owner access where the reservation is purchased.

预留折扣仅适用于与通过企业、云解决方案提供商 (CSP)、采用即用即付费率的单个计划购买的订阅关联的资源。A reservation discount only applies to resources associated with subscriptions purchased through Enterprise, Cloud Solution Provider (CSP), and individual plans with pay-as-you-go rates.

限定预留范围Scope reservations

可将预留范围限定为订阅或资源组。You can scope a reservation to a subscription or resource groups. 设置预留范围可以选择要在哪些方面应用预留节省。Setting the scope for a reservation selects where the reservation savings apply. 将预留范围限定为某个资源组时,预留折扣仅应用到该资源组,而不会应用到整个订阅。When you scope the reservation to a resource group, reservation discounts apply only to the resource group — not the entire subscription.

预留范围选项Reservation scoping options

使用资源组范围时,可以根据需要使用三个选项来限定预留范围:With resource group scoping you have three options to scope a reservation, depending on your needs:

  • 单个资源组范围 - 仅将预留折扣应用到所选资源组中匹配的资源。Single resource group scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected resource group only.
  • 单个订阅范围 - 将预留折扣应用到所选订阅中匹配的资源。Single subscription scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected subscription.
  • 共享范围 - 将预留折扣应用到计费上下文中符合条件的订阅中的匹配资源。Shared scope — Applies the reservation discount to matching resources in eligible subscriptions that are in the billing context. 对于企业协议客户,计费上下文为注册。For Enterprise Agreement customers, the billing context is the enrollment. 对于采用即用即付费率的单个订阅,计费范围是由帐户管理员创建的所有符合条件的订阅。For individual subscriptions with pay-as-you-go rates, the billing scope is all eligible subscriptions created by the account administrator.

对用途应用预留折扣时,Azure 将按以下顺序处理预留:While applying reservation discounts on your usage, Azure processes the reservation in the following order:

  1. 范围限定为资源组的预留项Reservations that are scoped to a resource group
  2. 单一范围的预留项Single scope reservations
  3. 共享范围的预留项Shared scope reservations

根据预留项的限定范围,单个资源组可从多个预留项获得预留折扣。A single resource group can get reservation discounts from multiple reservations, depending on how you scope your reservations.

将预留范围限定为资源组Scope a reservation to a resource group

可以在购买预留时将预留范围限定为资源组,也可以在购买后设置范围。You can scope the reservation to a resource group when you buy the reservation, or you set the scope after purchase. 只能订阅所有者才能将预留范围限定为资源组。You must be a subscription owner to scope the reservation to a resource group.

若要设置范围,请转到 Azure 门户中的购买预留项页。To set the scope, go to the Purchase reservation page in the Azure portal. 选择要购买的预留项类型。Select the reservation type that you want to buy. 在“选择要购买的产品”选项表单中,将“范围”值更改为“单个资源组”。 On the Select the product that you want to purchase selection form, change the Scope value to Single resource group. 然后选择一个资源组。Then, select a resource group.

显示 VM 预留项购买选项的示例

此时会显示虚拟机预留项中资源组的购买建议。Purchase recommendations for the resource group in the virtual machine reservation are shown. 建议值是通过分析过去 30 天的使用情况计算得出的。Recommendations are calculated by analyzing your usage over the last 30 days. 如果运行包含预留实例的资源的成本,比运行采用即用即付费率的资源的成本更低,则会给出购买建议。A purchase recommendation is made if the cost of running resources with reserved instances is cheaper than the cost of running resources with pay-as-you-go rates. 有关预留项购买建议的详细信息,请参阅根据使用模式获取预留实例购买建议For more information about reservation purchase recommendations, see Get Reserved Instance purchase recommendations based on usage pattern.

始终可在购买预留项后更新范围。You can always update the scope after you buy a reservation. 为此,请转到该预留项,单击“配置”,然后重新设置预留范围。 To do so, go to the reservation, click Configuration, and rescope the reservation. 重新设置预留范围不属于商业交易。Rescoping a reservation isn't a commercial transaction. 预留条款不会有变化。Your reservation term isn't changed. 有关更新范围的详细信息,请参阅在购买预留项后更新范围For more information about updating the scope, see Update the scope after you purchase a reservation.


监视和优化预留项的用量Monitor and optimize reservation usage

可通过多种方式监视预留项的用量 - 通过 Azure 门户、API 或使用情况数据。You can monitor your reservation usage in multiple ways – through Azure portal, through APIs, or through usage data. 若要查看你有权访问的所有预留项,请在 Azure 门户中转到“预留项”。 To see all the reservations that you have access to, go to Reservations in the Azure portal. 预留项网格显示预留的最新记录的利用率百分比。The reservations grid shows the last recorded utilization percentage for the reservation. 单击该预留可查看其长期利用率。Click the reservation to see long-term utilization of the reservation.

如果你是企业协议客户,则还可以通过 API使用情况数据来获取预留项利用率。You can also get reservation utilization using APIs and from your usage data if you are an enterprise agreement customer.

如果你发现范围限定为资源组的预留项的利用率偏低,可将预留范围更新为单个订阅,或者在计费上下文中共享该预留项。If you notice that the utilization of your resource group scoped reservation is low, then you can update the reservation scope to single subscription or share it across the billing context. 还可以拆分预留项,并将最终的预留项应用到不同的资源组。You can also split the reservation and apply the resulting reservations to different resource groups.

其他注意事项Other considerations

如果资源组中没有匹配的资源,则预留项会出现利用不足的情况。If you don't have matching resources in a resource group, then the reservation will be underutilized. 存在利用率不足的情况时,预留项不会自动应用到其他资源组或订阅。The reservation doesn't automatically apply to a different resource group or subscription where there's low utilization.

如果将资源组从一个订阅移到另一个订阅,预留范围不会自动更新。A reservation scope doesn't automatically update if you move the resource group from one subscription to another. 如果删除资源组,范围不会更新。The scope doesn't update if you delete the resource group. 必须重新设置预留范围You will have to rescope the reservation. 否则,预留项将出现利用不足的情况。Otherwise, the reservation will be underutilized.

打折的订阅和套餐类型Discounted subscription and offer types

预留折扣适用于以下符合条件的订阅和套餐类型。Reservation discounts apply to the following eligible subscriptions and offer types.

  • 企业协议(套餐编号:MS-AZR-0017P 或 MS-AZR-0148P)Enterprise agreement (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0017P or MS-AZR-0148P)
  • 采用即用即付费率的单个计划(套餐编号:MS-AZR-0003P 或 MS-AZR-0023P)Individual plans with pay-as-you-go rates (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0003P or MS-AZR-0023P)
  • CSP 订阅CSP subscriptions

订阅中运行的其他产品/服务类型的资源无法获得预订折扣。Resources that run in a subscription with other offer types don't receive the reservation discount.

预留如何计费?How is a reservation billed?

预留通过与订阅绑定的付款方式付款。The reservation is charged to the payment method tied to the subscription. 如果订阅为“企业”订阅,则虚拟机预留实例费用会从货币承诺余额中扣除。If you have an Enterprise subscription, the reservation cost is deducted from your monetary commitment balance. 如果货币承诺余额不足以支付虚拟机预留实例的费用,则还会向你收取所欠费用。When your monetary commitment balance doesn't cover the cost of the reservation, you're billed the overage. 如果你的订阅来自采用即用即付费率的单个计划,将立即从你帐户中的信用卡提前扣取购买费。If you have a subscription from an individual plan with pay-as-you-go rates, the credit card you have on your account is billed immediately for up-front purchases. 每月付款额将显示在发票上,并且每月将从你的信用卡扣费。Monthly payments appear on your invoice and your credit card is charged monthly. 如果采用按发票计费的方式,则费用将显示在下一份发票上。When you're billed by invoice, you see the charges on your next invoice.

如何应用预留折扣How reservation discount is applied

预留折扣适用于与购买预留时选择的属性相匹配的资源使用情况。The reservation discount applies to the resource usage matching the attributes you select when you buy the reservation. 属性包括匹配的 VM、SQL 数据库、Azure Cosmos DB 或其他资源的运行范围。Attributes include the scope where the matching VMs, SQL databases, Azure Cosmos DB, or other resources run. 例如,如果需要“美国西部”区域四个标准 D2 虚拟机的预留折扣,请选择正在运行的 VM 所在的订阅。For example, if you want a reservation discount for four Standard D2 virtual machines in the West US region, then select the subscription where the VMs are running.

预留折扣的性质是“不用就会失效” 。A reservation discount is "use-it-or-lose-it". 如果你在任何小时内没有匹配资源,那么你将丢失该小时的预留数量。If you don't have matching resources for any hour, then you lose a reservation quantity for that hour. 不能结转未使用的预留小时数。You can't carry forward unused reserved hours.

关闭资源时,预留折扣将自动应用于指定范围内的另一个匹配资源。When you shut down a resource, the reservation discount automatically applies to another matching resource in the specified scope. 如果在指定的范围内找不到匹配的资源,则预留小时数将丢失 。If no matching resources are found in the specified scope, then the reserved hours are lost.

例如,你可能会在以后创建一个资源,并包含一个利用不足的匹配预留项。For example, you might later create a resource and have a matching reservation that is underutilized. 预留折扣将自动应用到新的匹配资源。The reservation discount automatically applies to the new matching resource.

如果虚拟机是在注册/帐户的不同订阅中运行,则请选择作为共享的范围。If the virtual machines are running in different subscriptions within your enrollment/account, then select the scope as shared. 共享范围允许跨订阅应用预留折扣。Shared scope allows the reservation discount to be applied across subscriptions. 可在购买预留后更改范围。You can change the scope after you buy a reservation. 有关详细信息,请参阅管理 Azure 预订For more information, see Manage Azure Reservations.

预留折扣仅适用于与企业、CSP 或采用即用即付费率的订阅相关联的资源。A reservation discount only applies to resources associated with Enterprise, CSP, or subscriptions with pay-as-you go rates. 订阅中运行的其他产品/服务类型的资源无法获得预订折扣。Resources that run in a subscription with other offer types don't receive the reservation discount.

当预留期限过期时When the reservation term expires

在预留期限结束时,计费折扣将会失效。At the end of the reservation term, the billing discount expires. 虚拟机、SQL 数据库、Azure Cosmos DB 或其他资源将按即用即付价格计费。The virtual machine, SQL database, Azure Cosmos DB, or other resource is billed at the pay-as-you go price. Azure 预留项不会自动续订。Azure Reservations don't automatically renew. 若要继续获得计费折扣,必须为符合条件的服务和软件购买新的预订。To continue getting the billing discount, you must buy a new reservation for eligible services and software.

折扣适用于不同的大小Discount applies to different sizes

购买预订时,折扣可以应用于具有同一大小组中属性的其他实例。When you buy a reservation, the discount can apply to other instances with attributes that are within the same size group. 此功能称为“实例大小灵活性”。This feature is known as instance size flexibility. 折扣覆盖范围的灵活性取决于预订的类型以及购买预订时选择的特性。The flexibility of the discount coverage depends on the type of reservation and the attributes you pick when you buy the reservation.

服务计划:Service plans:

预留通知Reservation notifications

根据 Azure 订阅的付款方式,我们将向组织中的以下用户发送预留电子邮件通知。Depending on how you pay for your Azure subscription, we email reservation notifications to the following users in your organization. 我们会针对各种事件发送通知,包括:Notifications are sent for various events including:

  • 购买Purchase
  • 预留即将过期Upcoming reservation expiration
  • ExpiryExpiry
  • 续订Renewal
  • 取消Cancellation
  • 范围更改Scope change

对于使用 EA 订阅的客户:For customers with EA subscriptions:

  • 购买通知将发送到购买者和 EA 通知联系人。A purchase notification is sent to the purchaser and the EA notification contacts.
  • 其他预留生命周期通知只会发送到 EA 通知联系人。Other reservation lifecycle notifications are sent only to the EA notification contacts.
  • 使用 RBAC (IAM) 权限添加到预留项的用户不会收到任何电子邮件通知。Users added to a reservation using RBAC (IAM) permission don't receive any email notifications.

对于使用单个订阅的客户:For customers with individual subscriptions:

  • 购买者会收到购买通知。The purchaser receives a purchase notification.
  • 在购买时,订阅计费帐户所有者将收到购买通知。At the time of purchase, the subscription billing account owner receives a purchase notification.
  • 帐户所有者将收到所有其他通知。The account owner receives all other notifications.

需要帮助?Need help? 请联系我们。Contact us.

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后续步骤Next steps