您现在访问的是微软AZURE全球版技术文档网站,若需要访问由世纪互联运营的MICROSOFT AZURE中国区技术文档网站,请访问 https://docs.azure.cn.

什么是 Azure 预留项?What are Azure Reservations?

通过预付一年或三年的虚拟机、SQL 数据库计算容量、Azure Cosmos DB 吞吐量或其他 Azure 资源的费用,Azure 预订可为你节省资金。Azure Reservations help you save money by pre-paying for one-year or three-years of virtual machines, SQL Database compute capacity, Azure Cosmos DB throughput, or other Azure resources. 通过预付,能够以折扣价购买所用资源。Pre-paying allows you to get a discount on the resources you use. 预订可将虚拟机、SQL 数据库计算、Azure Cosmos DB 或其他资源的成本大幅减少至即用即付价格的 72%。Reservations can significantly reduce your virtual machine, SQL database compute, Azure Cosmos DB, or other resource costs up to 72% on pay-as-you-go prices. 预订提供计费折扣,并且不会影响资源的运行时状态。Reservations provide a billing discount and don't affect the runtime state of your resources.

可在 Azure 门户中购买预留。You can buy a reservation in the Azure portal.

为什么购买预订吗?Why buy a reservation?

如果有虚拟机、 Azure Cosmos DB 或长时间运行的 SQL 数据库,购买预订提供最经济实惠的选项。If you have virtual machines, Azure Cosmos DB, or SQL databases that run for long periods of time, buying a reservation gives you the most cost-effective option. 例如,在持续运行四个没有预留容量的服务实例时,我们即用即付费率收费。For example, when you continuously run four instances of a service without a reservation, you're charged at pay-as-you-go rates. 如果你购买保留这些资源,你立即获得预订折扣。If you buy a reservation for those resources, you immediately get the reservation discount. 这些资源不再按即用即付费率收费。The resources are no longer charged at the pay-as-you-go rates.

预订涵盖的费用Charges covered by reservation

服务计划:Service plans:

  • 保留虚拟机实例-预订仅涵盖虚拟机计算成本。Reserved Virtual Machine Instance - A reservation only covers the virtual machine compute costs. 而不涵盖软件、网络或存储等其他费用。It doesn't cover additional software, networking, or storage charges.
  • Azure Cosmos DB 保留容量-预订涵盖资源的预配的吞吐量。Azure Cosmos DB reserved capacity - A reservation covers throughput provisioned for your resources. 但它不涵盖存储和网络费用。It doesn't cover the storage and networking charges.
  • SQL 数据库保留 vCore -仅计算成本包括在内的预订。SQL Database reserved vCore - Only the compute costs are included with a reservation. 许可证单独计费。The license is billed separately.

对于 Windows 虚拟机和 SQL 数据库,可以利用 Azure 混合权益来涵盖许可费用。For Windows virtual machines and SQL Database, you can cover the licensing costs with Azure Hybrid Benefit.

谁有资格购买预留?Who's eligible to purchase a reservation?

若要购买计划,必须具有 (MS-条-0017 P 或 MS-条-0148 P) 的企业或即用即付订阅 (MS-条-003 P 或 MS-条-0023 P) 中的订阅所有者角色。To buy a plan, you must have a subscription owner role in an Enterprise (MS-AZR-0017P or MS-AZR-0148P) or Pay-As-You-Go subscription (MS-AZR-003P or MS-AZR-0023P). 云解决方案提供商可以使用 Azure 门户或 合作伙伴中心 购买 Azure 保留项。Cloud solution providers can use the Azure portal or Partner Center to purchase Azure Reservations.

EA 客户可以通过禁用限制到 EA 管理员购买添加保留实例EA 门户中的选项。EA customers can limit purchases to EA admins by disabling the Add Reserved Instances option in the EA Portal. EA 管理员必须至少一个 EA 订阅是订阅所有者才能购买预订。EA admins must be a subscription owner for at least one EA subscription to purchase a reservation. 选项为适用于想要购买的不同的成本中心保留一个集中式的团队企业非常有用。The option is useful for enterprises that want a centralized team to purchase reservations for different cost centers. 在购买集中式的团队可以将成本中心所有者添加到保留项。After the purchase, centralized teams can add cost center owners to the reservations. 所有者可以然后范围限定到自己的订阅保留。Owners can then scope the reservation to their subscriptions. 中心团队不需要购买预订时具有订阅所有者的访问。The central team doesn't need to have subscription owner access where the reservation is purchased.

预订折扣仅适用于与通过企业、 CSP 和即用即付费率与各个计划购买的订阅关联的资源。A reservation discount only applies to resources associated with subscriptions purchased through Enterprise, CSP, and individual plans with pay-as-you-go rates.

作用域保留Scope reservations

可以将预订与订阅或资源组。You can scope a reservation to a subscription or resource groups. 设置为预订范围选择保留节省在何处应用。Setting the scope for a reservation selects where the reservation savings apply. 当作用域将预订与资源组时,请保留折扣仅适用于资源组,不是整个订阅。When you scope the reservation to a resource group, reservation discounts apply only to the resource group — not the entire subscription.

保留范围选项Reservation scoping options

与资源组范围您具有三种方法,作用域保留项,具体取决于你的需求:With resource group scoping you have three options to scope a reservation, depending on your needs:

  • 单一资源组范围— 将预订折扣应用于在所选的资源组中匹配的资源。Single resource group scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected resource group only.
  • 单一订阅范围内— 将预订折扣应用于所选订阅中匹配的资源。Single subscription scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected subscription.
  • 共享范围-预订折扣适用于匹配符合条件的订阅中计费上下文中的资源。Shared scope — Applies the reservation discount to matching resources in eligible subscriptions that are in the billing context. 对于企业协议客户,计费上下文是注册。For Enterprise Agreement customers, the billing context is the enrollment. 对于现用现付费率使用单独的订阅,计费范围是由帐户管理员创建的所有符合条件的订阅。For individual subscriptions with pay-as-you-go rates, the billing scope is all eligible subscriptions created by the account administrator.

同时将预订折扣应用使用情况,Azure 处理按以下顺序保留:While applying reservation discounts on your usage, Azure processes the reservation in the following order:

  1. 保留已划归到资源组Reservations that are scoped to a resource group
  2. 单个作用域保留项Single scope reservations
  3. 共享作用域保留Shared scope reservations

单个资源组可以从多个保留项,具体取决于你的预订的范围获取预订折扣。A single resource group can get reservation discounts from multiple reservations, depending on how you scope your reservations.

作用域保留到资源组Scope a reservation to a resource group

购买预订,或在购买之后设置的作用域时,可以限制范围将预订与资源组。You can scope the reservation to a resource group when you buy the reservation, or you set the scope after purchase. 您必须是订阅所有者才能作用域将预订与资源组。You must be a subscription owner to scope the reservation to a resource group.

若要设置的作用域,请转到购买预订在 Azure 门户中的页。To set the scope, go to the Purchase reservation page in the Azure portal. 然后,选择你想要购买的保留项类型。Then, select the reservation type that you want to buy. 选择你想要购买的产品选择窗体中,更改作用域值设为单个资源组并选择资源组。On the Select the product that you want to purchase selection form, change the Scope value to Single resource group and select a resource group.

显示 VM 预订购买选择内容的示例

显示在虚拟机保留的资源组的购买建议。Purchase recommendations for the resource group in the virtual machine reservation are shown. 建议将通过你的使用情况分析过去 30 天计算。Recommendations are calculated by analyzing your usage over the last 30 days. 如果使用保留的实例中运行资源的成本是使用即用即付费率运行资源的成本比更便宜,进行购买建议。A purchase recommendation is made if the cost of running resources with reserved instances is cheaper than the cost of running resources with pay-as-you-go rates. 有关预订购买建议的详细信息,请参阅获得保留实例购买建议基于使用情况模式博客文章。For more information about reservation purchase recommendations, see the Get Reserved Instance purchase recommendations based on usage pattern blog post.

购买预订后,您始终可以更新作用域。You can always update the scope after you buy a reservation. 若要执行此操作,请转到预订,单击配置和会重新确定预订。To do so, go to the reservation, click Configuration and rescope the reservation. Rescoping 保留不是商业事务。Rescoping a reservation is not a commercial transaction. 预订期不会更改。Your reservation term isn't changed. 有关更新作用域的详细信息,请参阅购买预订后更新范围For more information about updating the scope, see Update the scope after you purchase a reservation.

示例显示预订范围更改

监视和优化预订使用情况Monitor and optimize reservation usage

你可以监视多个方法 — 通过 Azure 门户、 Api,或使用情况数据在预订使用情况。You can monitor your reservation usage in multiple ways – through Azure portal, through APIs, or through usage data. 若要查看所有必须的保留访问权限,请转到预订在 Azure 门户中。To see all the reservations that you have access to, go to Reservations in the Azure portal. 保留项网格将显示预订的最后一个记录的使用率百分比。The reservations grid shows the last recorded utilization percentage for the reservation. 单击要查看长期保留的利用率的保留。Click the reservation to see long term utilization of the reservation.

此外可以获取预订利用率使用Api并从你使用情况数据如果你是企业协议客户。You can also get reservation utilization using APIs and from your usage data if you are an enterprise agreement customer.

如果您注意到你的资源组的使用率作用域保留不足,则可以更新预订范围单一订阅或计费上下文中共享。If you notice that the utilization of your resource group scoped reservation is low, then you can update the reservation scope to single subscription or share it across the billing context. 此外可以将该预订拆分,并将生成的保留项应用于不同的资源组。You can also split the reservation and apply the resulting reservations to different resource groups.

其他注意事项Other considerations

如果没有匹配的资源组中的资源,然后预订将没有得到充分利用。If you don't have matching resources in a resource group, then the reservation will be underutilized. 不会自动将预订应用于不同的资源组或订阅的利用率较低。The reservation doesn't automatically apply to a different resource group or subscription where there's low utilization.

如果从一个订阅的资源组移动到另一个,不会自动更新预订范围。A reservation scope doesn't automatically update if you move the resource group from one subscription to another. 必须将会重新确定预订。You will have to rescope the reservation. 否则,将充分利用预订。Otherwise, the reservation will be underutilized.

折扣的订阅和产品/服务类型Discounted subscription and offer types

预订折扣应用于以下符合条件的订阅和产品/服务类型。Reservation discounts apply to the following eligible subscriptions and offer types.

  • 企业协议 (产品/服务编号:MS-AZR-0017P 或 MS-条-0148 P)Enterprise agreement (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0017P or MS-AZR-0148P)
  • 与现用现付费率的各个计划 (产品/服务编号:MS-AZR-0003P 或 MS-条-0023 P)Individual plans with pay-as-you-go rates (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0003P or MS-AZR-0023P)
  • CSP 订阅CSP subscriptions

订阅中运行的其他产品/服务类型的资源无法获得预订折扣。Resources that run in a subscription with other offer types don't receive the reservation discount.

预留如何计费?How is a reservation billed?

预留通过与订阅绑定的付款方式付款。The reservation is charged to the payment method tied to the subscription. 如果订阅为“企业”订阅,则虚拟机预留实例费用会从货币承诺余额中扣除。If you have an Enterprise subscription, the reservation cost is deducted from your monetary commitment balance. 如果货币承诺余额不足以支付虚拟机预留实例的费用,则还会向你收取所欠费用。If your monetary commitment balance doesn't cover the cost of the reservation, you're billed the overage. 如果必须使用现用现付费率的单个计划的订阅,将立即计费信用卡对你的帐户。If you have a subscription from an individual plan with pay-as-you-go rates, the credit card you have on your account is billed immediately. 如果采用账单付费的方式,则费用显示在下次的账单上。If you're billed by invoice, you see the charges on your next invoice.

如何应用预订折扣How reservation discount is applied

预订折扣适用于匹配您在购买预订时选择的属性的资源使用情况。The reservation discount applies to the resource usage matching the attributes you select when you buy the reservation. 这些特性包括匹配的 VM、SQL 数据库、Azure Cosmos DB 或其他资源的运行范围。The attributes include the scope where the matching VMs, SQL databases, Azure Cosmos DB, or other resources run. 例如,如果希望将预订折扣为美国西部区域中的四个标准 D2 虚拟机,然后选择在其中运行 Vm 的订阅。For example, if you want a reservation discount for four Standard D2 virtual machines in the West US region, then select the subscription where the VMs are running.

预订折扣是"使用-it-或-丢失-it"。A reservation discount is "use-it-or-lose-it". 如果没有匹配的任何小时内的资源,然后将该小时的丢失预订数量。If you don't have matching resources for any hour, then you lose a reservation quantity for that hour. 不能执行将转发未使用保留的小时数。You can't carry forward unused reserved hours.

在关闭资源时,将预订折扣将自动应用于指定范围内的另一个匹配的资源。When you shut down a resource, the reservation discount automatically applies to another matching resource in the specified scope. 如果没有匹配找到资源在指定范围内,则保留的时间为丢失If no matching resources are found in the specified scope, then the reserved hours are lost.

例如,可能更高版本创建资源,并具有使用不足的匹配保留。For example, you might later create a resource and have a matching reservation that is underutilized. 在此示例中,预订折扣会自动适用于新匹配的资源。In this example, the reservation discount automatically applies to the new matching resource.

如果虚拟机是在注册/帐户的不同订阅中运行,则请选择作为共享的范围。If the virtual machines are running in different subscriptions within your enrollment/account, then select the scope as shared. 共享范围允许跨订阅应用预留折扣。Shared scope allows the reservation discount to be applied across subscriptions. 可在购买预留后更改范围。You can change the scope after you buy a reservation. 有关详细信息,请参阅管理 Azure 预订For more information, see Manage Azure Reservations.

预订折扣仅适用于企业,CSP,与关联的资源,或使用付款现订阅转费率。A reservation discount only applies to resources associated with Enterprise, CSP, or subscriptions with pay-as-you go rates. 订阅中运行的其他产品/服务类型的资源无法获得预订折扣。Resources that run in a subscription with other offer types don't receive the reservation discount.

预订期到期时When the reservation term expires

预订期限结束时,计费折扣随即过期,并且虚拟机、SQL 数据库、Azure Cosmos DB 或其他资源将按即用即付的价格计费。At the end of the reservation term, the billing discount expires, and the virtual machine, SQL database, Azure Cosmos DB, or other resource is billed at the pay-as-you go price. Azure 预订不会自动续订。Azure Reservations don't auto-renew. 若要继续获得计费折扣,必须为符合条件的服务和软件购买新的预订。To continue getting the billing discount, you must buy a new reservation for eligible services and software.

折扣适用于不同的大小Discount applies to different sizes

购买预订时,折扣可以应用于具有同一大小组中属性的其他实例。When you buy a reservation, the discount can apply to other instances with attributes that are within the same size group. 此功能被称为实例大小灵活性。This feature is known as instance size flexibility. 折扣覆盖范围的灵活性取决于预订的类型以及购买预订时选择的特性。The flexibility of the discount coverage depends on the type of reservation and the attributes you pick when you buy the reservation.

服务计划:Service plans:

需要帮助?Need help? 请联系我们。Contact us.

如果有疑问或需要帮助,请创建支持请求If you have questions or need help, create a support request.

后续步骤Next steps