为文化复杂性做好准备：协调角色和责任Prepare for cultural complexity: Aligning roles and responsibilities
了解操作现有数据中心所需的文化对于任何迁移的成功都非常重要。An understanding of the culture required to operate the existing datacenters is important to the success of any migration. 在某些组织中，集中式 IT 运营团队负责数据中心管理。In some organizations, datacenter management is contained within centralized IT operations teams. 在这些集中式团队中，角色和职责往往在整个团队中得到了明确定义和充分理解。In these centralized teams, roles and responsibilities tend to be well defined and well understood throughout the team. 对于较大的企业，尤其是那些由第三方遵从性要求所限制的企业，文化往往更微妙且更复杂。For larger enterprises, especially those bound by third-party compliance requirements, the culture tends to be more nuanced and complex. 文化复杂性可能会导致需要克服难以理解且耗时的障碍。Cultural complexity can lead to roadblocks that are difficult to understand and time consuming to overcome.
无论在哪种情况下，都可以投资完成迁移所需的角色和职责的文档。In either scenario, it's wise to invest in the documentation of roles and responsibilities required to complete a migration. 本文概述了数据中心迁移中所涉及的一些角色和职责，作为可以进一步阐明执行过程的文档的模板。This article outlines some of the roles and responsibilities seen in a datacenter migration, to serve as a template for documentation that can drive clarity throughout execution.
在任何迁移中，都有一些在可能的情况下由业务执行最佳的关键功能。In any migration, there are a few key functions that are best executed by the business, whenever possible. 通常 IT 可以完成以下任务。Often, IT is capable of completing the following tasks. 但是，业务参与人员可以帮助减少稍后在采用过程中遇到的障碍。However, engaging members of the business could aid in reducing barriers later in the adoption process. 它还可确保整个迁移过程中关键利益干系人相互投资。It also ensures mutual investment from key stakeholders throughout the migration process.
|评估Assess||业务目标Business goals||定义迁移工作所需的业务结果。Define the desired business outcomes of the migration effort.|
|评估Assess||优先级Priorities||确保匹配不断变化的业务优先级和市场条件。Ensure alignment with changing business priorities and market conditions.|
|评估Assess||理由Justification||验证驱动不断变化的业务理由的假设。Validate assumptions that drive changing business justifications.|
|评估Assess||风险Risk||帮助云采用团队了解有形业务风险的影响。Help the cloud adoption team understand the impact of tangible business risks.|
|评估Assess||审批Approve||查看并审批建议的体系结构更改的业务影响。Review and approve the business impact of proposed architecture changes.|
|优化Optimize||更改计划Change plan||定义业务期间（包括低活动量和更改冻结期间）更改使用量的计划。Define a plan for consumption of change within the business, including periods of low activities and change freezes.|
|优化Optimize||测试Testing||匹配能够验证性能和功能的高级用户。Align power users capable of validating performance and functionality.|
|保护和管理Secure and manage||中断影响Interruption impact||帮助云采用团队量化业务流程中断的影响。Aid the cloud adoption team in quantifying the impact of a business process interruption.|
|保护和管理Secure and manage||服务级别协议 (SLA) 验证Service-level agreement (SLA) validation||帮助云采用团队为业务中断定义服务级别协议和可接受的容差。Aid the cloud adoption team in defining service-level agreements and acceptable tolerances for business outages.|
最终，云采用团队负责其中的每个活动。Ultimately, the cloud adoption team is accountable for each of these activities. 但是，建立职责和定期业务活动以使这些活动基于已建立的节奏完成，可以改善利益干系人与业务的匹配度和凝聚力。However, establishing responsibilities and a regular cadence with the business for the completion of these activities on an established rhythm can improve stakeholder alignment and cohesiveness with the business.
常见角色和职责Common roles and responsibilities
讨论云采用框架迁移原则时每个流程都包括一个流程文章，其中概述了用于匹配角色和职责的特定活动。Each process within the discussion of the Cloud Adoption Framework migration principles includes a process article outlining specific activities to align roles and responsibilities. 在执行过程中，为了清楚起见，应为每个活动分配一个负责方，以及支持这些活动所需的任何负责方。For clarity during execution, a single accountable party should be assigned for each activity, along with any responsible parties required to support those activities. 但以下列表包含一系列对迁移执行的影响更大的常见角色和职责。However, the following list contains a series of common roles and responsibilities that have a higher degree of impact on migration execution. 应在迁移工作中尽早标识这些角色。These roles should be identified early in the migration effort.
在下表中，负责方应开始匹配角色。In the following table, an accountable party should start the alignment of roles. 应自定义该列以适合现有流程，从而实现高效执行。That column should be customized to fit existing processes for efficient execution. 理想情况下，应将单个人员指定为负责方。Ideally, a single person should be assigned as the accountable party.
|先决条件Prerequisite||数字资产Digital estate||根据业务结果，使现有清单符合基本假设。Align the existing inventory to basic assumptions, based on business outcomes.||云策略团队Cloud strategy team|
|先决条件Prerequisite||迁移积压工作Migration backlog||确定要迁移的工作负荷序列的优先级。Prioritize the sequence of workloads to be migrated.||云策略团队Cloud strategy team|
|评估Assess||体系结构Architecture||质询初始假设以基于使用情况指标定义目标体系结构。Challenge initial assumptions to define the target architecture based on usage metrics.||云采用团队Cloud adoption team|
|评估Assess||审批Approval||批准建议的体系结构。Approve the proposed architecture.||云策略团队Cloud strategy team|
|迁移Migrate||复制访问Replication access||访问现有本地主机和资产以建立复制过程。Access to existing on-premises hosts and assets to establish replication processes.||云采用团队Cloud adoption team|
|优化Optimize||就绪Ready||验证系统在升级之前是否满足性能和成本要求。Validate that the system meets performance and cost requirements prior to promotion.||云采用团队Cloud adoption team|
|优化Optimize||升级Promote||用于将工作负荷升级到生产和重定向生产流量的权限。Permissions to promote a workload to production and redirect production traffic.||云采用团队Cloud adoption team|
|保护和管理Secure and manage||Ops 过渡Ops transition||在生产操作之前记录生产系统。Document production systems prior to production operations.||云采用团队Cloud adoption team|
对于这些活动，权限和授权会严重影响负责方，其必须能够直接访问现有环境中的生产系统，或必须有办法通过其他负责的参与者保护访问权限。For these activities, permissions and authorization heavily influence the accountable party, who must have direct access to production systems in the existing environment or must have means of securing access through other responsible actors. 确定此负责方会在迁移和优化过程中直接影响升级策略。Determining this accountable party directly affects the promotion strategy during the migrate and optimize processes.
当团队对角色和责任有大致的了解时，可以开始准备迁移的技术详细信息。When the team has a general understanding of roles and responsibilities, it's time to begin preparing the technical details of the migration. 了解技术复杂性和变更管理可以帮助云采用团队通过调整来符合增量变更管理流程，准备好应对迁移的技术复杂性。Understanding technical complexity and change management can help prepare the cloud adoption team for the technical complexity of migration by aligning to an incremental change management process.