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成熟的团队结构Mature team structures

每个云功能都由每个云采用的过程提供。Every cloud function is provided by someone during every cloud adoption effort. 这些分配和团队结构可以开发有机,也可以特意设计为与定义的团队结构相匹配。These assignments and team structures can develop organically, or they can be intentionally designed to match a defined team structure.

由于采用需求不断增长,因此需要进行平衡和结构。As adoption needs grow, so does the need for balance and structure. 观看此视频,大致了解组织成熟度各个阶段的常见团队结构。Watch this video to get an overview of common team structures at various stages of organizational maturity.

下图和列表根据典型的 maturation 阶段概述了这些结构。The following graphic and list outline those structures based on typical maturation stages. 使用这些示例查找最适合您的操作需要的组织结构。Use these examples to find the organizational structure that best aligns with your operational needs.

组织成熟度周期

组织结构往往会经历如下所述的常见成熟度模型:Organizational structures tend to move through the common maturity model that's outlined here:

  1. 仅限云采用团队Cloud adoption team only
  2. MVP 最佳做法MVP best practice
  3. 中心 IT 团队Central IT team
  4. 战略协调Strategic alignment
  5. 操作对齐方式Operational alignment
  6. 云卓越 (CCoE) Cloud center of excellence (CCoE)

大多数公司都比 云采用团队 开始。Most companies start with little more than a cloud adoption team. 但是,我们建议你建立一个组织结构,此结构与 MVP 最佳实践 结构更加相似。But we recommend that you establish an organizational structure that more closely resembles the MVP best practice structure.

仅限云采用团队Cloud adoption team only

所有云采用工作的核心是云采用团队。The nucleus of all cloud adoption efforts is the cloud adoption team. 此团队推动了支持采用的技术更改。This team drives the technical changes that enable adoption. 根据采用工作量的目标,此团队可能包括处理一系列技术和业务任务的各种团队成员。Depending on the objectives of the adoption effort, this team might include a diverse range of team members who handle a broad set of technical and business tasks.

仅限云采用团队

对于小规模或早期阶段的采用工作,此团队可能与一个人很小。For small-scale or early-stage adoption efforts, this team might be as small as one person. 在大规模或延迟阶段,有几个云采用团队,每个团队都有六个工程师。In larger-scale or late-stage efforts, it's common to have several cloud adoption teams, each with around six engineers. 不管大小或任务如何,任何云采用团队的一致方面都是提供将解决方案载入云中的方式。Regardless of size or tasks, the consistent aspect of any cloud adoption team is that it provides the means to onboarding solutions into the cloud. 对于某些组织而言,这可能是一个足够的组织结构。For some organizations, this might be a sufficient organizational structure. 云采用团队文章提供了有关云采用团队的结构、组合和功能的更多见解。The cloud adoption team article provides more insight into the structure, composition, and function of the cloud adoption team.

警告

使用云采纳团队 (或多个云采用团队) 被视为对立模式,应避免使用。Operating with only a cloud adoption team (or multiple cloud adoption teams) is considered an antipattern and should be avoided. 至少请考虑 MVP 最佳实践At a minimum, consider the MVP best practice.

最佳做法:最小可行的产品 (MVP) Best practice: Minimum viable product (MVP)

最佳做法:采用团队和调控团队在创建余额时的最低可行的产品组织

建议你有两个团队来跨云采用情况创建平衡。We recommend that you have two teams to create balance across cloud adoption efforts. 这两个团队负责执行各种功能。These two teams are responsible for various functions throughout the adoption effort.

  • 云采用团队: 此团队负责技术解决方案、业务对齐、项目管理和所采用的解决方案的操作。Cloud adoption team: This team is accountable for technical solutions, business alignment, project management, and operations for solutions that are adopted.
  • 云管理团队: 若要平衡云采用团队,云治理团队致力于确保采用的解决方案卓越。Cloud governance team: To balance the cloud adoption team, a cloud governance team is dedicated to ensuring excellence in the solutions that are adopted. 云调控团队负责平台成熟度、平台操作、管理和自动化。The cloud governance team is accountable for platform maturity, platform operations, governance, and automation.

此经过验证的方法被视为 MVP,因为它可能不是可持续的。This proven approach is considered an MVP because it might not be sustainable. 每个团队都佩戴了许多头衔,如负责人、有 责任、咨询、通知 (RACI) 图表中所述。Each team is wearing many hats, as outlined in the responsible, accountable, consulted, informed (RACI) charts.

以下部分介绍了一个完全配备的、经过验证的组织结构,以及将适当的结构与你的组织对齐的方法。The following sections describe a fully staffed, proven organizational structure along with approaches to aligning the appropriate structure to your organization.

中心 IT 团队Central IT team

中心 IT 团队

作为采用规模,云治理团队可能会不断地与多个云采用团队的创新流程保持同步。As adoption scales, the cloud governance team might struggle to keep pace with the flow of innovation from multiple cloud adoption teams. 对于具有较高遵从性、操作或安全要求的环境,尤其如此。This is especially true in environments that have heavy compliance, operations, or security requirements. 在此阶段,公司经常将云责任转移到现有的中心 IT 团队。At this stage, it is common for companies to shift cloud responsibilities to an existing central IT team. 如果该团队可以重新评估工具、流程和人员以更好地支持云采用规模,则包括中心 IT 团队可以增加重要价值。If that team can reassess tools, processes, and people to better support cloud adoption at scale, then including the central IT team can add significant value. 从操作、自动化、安全性和管理的行业专家,到实现中心 IT 团队的现代化,从而推动了有效的运营创新。Bringing in subject matter experts from operations, automation, security, and administration to modernize the central IT team can drive effective operational innovations.

遗憾的是,中心 IT 团队阶段可以是组织成熟度的最危险阶段之一。Unfortunately, the central IT team phase can be one of the riskiest phases of organizational maturity. 中心 IT 团队必须具有强大的增长思维方式。The central IT team must come to the table with a strong growth mindset. 如果团队将云视为增加和调整的机会,则可以在整个过程中提供巨大价值。If the team views the cloud as an opportunity to grow and adapt, then it can provide great value throughout the process. 但是,如果中心 IT 团队查看云采用,主要是其现有模型面临的威胁,则中心 IT 团队会成为云采用团队及其支持的业务目标的障碍。But if the central IT team views cloud adoption primarily as a threat to their existing model, then the central IT team becomes an obstacle to the cloud adoption teams and the business objectives they support. 一些中心 IT 团队花费了数月甚至数年的时间来尝试强制云与本地方法保持一致,只会产生负面结果。Some central IT teams have spent months or even years attempting to force the cloud into alignment with on-premises approaches, with only negative results. 云不需要在中心 IT 团队中进行任何更改,但需要进行重大更改。The cloud doesn't require that everything change within the central IT team, but it does require significant change. 如果在中心 IT 团队内普遍变化的阻力,这一成熟度就会迅速成为文化对立模式。If resistance to change is prevalent within the central IT team, this phase of maturity can quickly become a cultural antipattern.

云采用计划在很大程度上专注于平台即服务 (PaaS) 、DevOps 或其他需要较少操作支持的解决方案在此成熟阶段中的价值更小。Cloud adoption plans heavily focused on platform as a service (PaaS), DevOps, or other solutions that require less operations support are less likely to see value during this phase of maturity. 相反,这些类型的解决方案最有可能是通过尝试集中影响或阻止的。On the contrary, these types of solutions are the most likely to be hindered or blocked by attempts to centralize IT. 更高级别的成熟度(如云开发 (CCoE) )更有可能为这些类型的转换工作提供积极的结果。A higher level of maturity, like a cloud center of excellence (CCoE), is more likely to yield positive results for those types of transformational efforts. 若要了解集中式 IT 在云和 CCoE 之间的区别,请参阅 云卓越中心To understand the differences between centralized IT in the cloud and a CCoE, see Cloud center of excellence.

战略协调Strategic alignment

战略协调

随着云采用的投资增长,并实现业务价值,业务利益干系人通常会越来越多。As the investment in cloud adoption grows and business values are realized, business stakeholders often become more engaged. 如下图所示,定义的云策略团队将这些业务利益干系人对齐,以最大程度地提高云采用投资实现的价值。A defined cloud strategy team, as the following image illustrates, aligns those business stakeholders to maximize the value realized by cloud adoption investments.

当成熟度发生有机时,这是由 IT 打头阵的云采用工作引起的,而战略协调通常是在监管或中心 IT 团队之前。When maturity happens organically, as a result of IT-led cloud adoption efforts, strategic alignment is usually preceded by a governance or central IT team. 如果由业务来推动云采用工作,则关注操作模型和组织往往会更早发生。When cloud adoption efforts are lead by the business, the focus on operating model and organization tends to happen earlier. 应尽可能在过程中及早定义业务成果和云策略团队。Whenever possible, business outcomes and the cloud strategy team should both be defined early in the process.

操作对齐方式Operational alignment

操作对齐方式

利用云采用工作实现业务价值需要稳定的操作。Realizing business value from cloud adoption efforts requires stable operations. 云中的操作可能需要新的工具、过程或技能。Operations in the cloud might require new tools, processes, or skills. 当需要稳定 IT 操作来实现业务成果时,添加定义的云操作团队非常重要,如下所示。When stable IT operations are required to achieve business outcomes, it's important to add a defined cloud operations team, as shown here.

云操作可由现有 IT 操作角色提供。Cloud operations can be delivered by the existing IT operations roles. 但将云操作委派给 IT 运营以外的其他方并不少见。But it's not uncommon for cloud operations to be delegated to other parties outside of IT operations. 托管服务提供商、DevOps 团队和业务单位它通常承担与云操作相关的责任,其中包含 IT 运营部门提供的支持和 guardrails。Managed service providers, DevOps teams, and business unit IT often assume the responsibilities associated with cloud operations, with support and guardrails provided by IT operations. 这对于专注于 DevOps 或 PaaS 部署的云采用工作越来越常见。This is increasingly common for cloud adoption efforts that focus heavily on DevOps or PaaS deployments.

云卓越中心Cloud center of excellence

云卓越 (CCoE)

在成熟的最高状态下,云的优秀中心团队围绕新式的云优先操作模型。At the highest state of maturity, a cloud center of excellence aligns teams around a modern cloud-first operating model. 此方法提供集中式 IT 功能,如管理、安全、平台和自动化。This approach provides centralized IT functions like governance, security, platform, and automation.

此结构与上述中心 IT 团队结构之间的主要区别是对自助服务和 democratization 的关注。The primary difference between this structure and the central IT team structure above is a strong focus on self-service and democratization. 此结构中的团队通过尽可能多地委托控制来组织。The teams in this structure organize with the intent of delegating control as much as possible. 将调控和合规性做法与云本机解决方案进行协调可以创建 guardrails 和保护机制。Aligning governance and compliance practices to cloud-native solutions creates guardrails and protection mechanisms. 与中心 IT 团队模型不同,云本机方法可最大程度地提高创新性并将运营开销降到最低。Unlike the central IT team model, the cloud-native approach maximizes innovation and minimizes operational overhead. 若要采用此模型,将需要从业务和 IT 的领导中获得现代化 IT 流程的共同协议。For this model to be adopted, mutual agreement to modernize IT processes will be required from business and IT leadership. 此模型不太可能出现有机,通常需要执行支持。This model is unlikely to occur organically and often requires executive support.

后续步骤Next steps

在符合组织结构成熟度的某个阶段后,可以使用 RACI 图表 来协调每个团队的责任和责任。After aligning to a certain stage of organizational structure maturity, you can use RACI charts to align accountability and responsibility across each team.