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设想云迁移的业务理由Build a business justification for cloud migration

云迁移可以通过云转换工作产生前期投资回报 (ROI)。Cloud migrations can generate early return on investment (ROI) from cloud transformation efforts. 但使用有形、相关成本和回报来开发清晰的业务理由可能是一个复杂的过程。But developing a clear business justification with tangible, relevant costs and returns can be a complex process. 本文将帮助你考虑创建与云迁移结果相协调的财务模型所需的数据。This article will help you think about what data you need to create a financial model that aligns with cloud migration outcomes. 首先,让我们揭示有关云迁移的几种谬论,使组织能够避免一些常见错误。First, let's dispel a few myths about cloud migration, so your organization can avoid some common mistakes.

揭示云迁移的谬论Dispelling cloud migration myths

误区:云始终更便宜Myth: The cloud is always cheaper

通常认为,在云中运行数据中心的成本始终比本地操作多。It's commonly believed that operating a datacenter in the cloud is always cheaper than operating one on-premises. 尽管此假设通常为 true,但并不总是如此。While this assumption might generally be true, it's not always the case. 有时云运营成本会更高。Sometimes cloud operating costs are higher. 这些较高的成本通常是由于成本不佳、系统体系结构没有对齐、进程复制、异常系统配置或更大的人员成本导致的。These higher costs are often caused by poor cost governance, misaligned system architectures, process duplication, atypical system configurations, or greater staffing costs. 幸运的是,您可以缓解其中许多问题,以创造初期的投资回报。Fortunately, you can mitigate many of these problems to create early ROI. 按照 生成业务理由 中的指南,可以帮助你检测并避免这些 misalignments。Following the guidance in Build the business justification can help you detect and avoid these misalignments. Dispelling 此处所述的其他误解也可以提供帮助。Dispelling the other myths described here can help too.

误区:一切都应该进入云Myth: Everything should go into the cloud

事实上,某些业务驱动因素可能会导致选择混合解决方案。In fact, some business drivers might lead you to choose a hybrid solution. 在您完成业务模式之前,可以根据 数字场地文章中的说明,完成第一轮量化分析的智能。Before you finalize a business model, it's smart to complete a first-round quantitative analysis, as described in the digital estate articles. 有关合理化所涉及的单个定量驱动程序的详细信息,请参阅 5 个合理化的 RsFor more information about the individual quantitative drivers involved in rationalization, see the five Rs of rationalization. 每种方法将使用可轻松获取的库存数据以及简要的量化分析,来识别可能在云中造成更高成本的工作负荷或应用程序。Either approach will use easily obtained inventory data and a brief quantitative analysis to identify workloads or applications that could result in higher costs in the cloud. 这些方法还可以识别混合解决方案必需的依赖项或流量模式。These approaches could also identify dependencies or traffic patterns that would necessitate a hybrid solution.

误区:镜像我的本地环境有助于在云中节省资金Myth: Mirroring my on-premises environment will help me save money in the cloud

在数字场地规划期间,企业不闻所未闻检测超过50% 的已预配环境的未使用容量。During digital estate planning, it's not unheard of for businesses to detect unused capacity of more than 50% of the provisioned environment. 如果在云中预配了资产以与当前的设置相匹配,则很难实现成本节约。If assets are provisioned in the cloud to match current provisioning, cost savings are hard to realize. 请考虑减小已部署资产的大小,使之与使用模式(而不是预配模式)一致。Consider reducing the size of the deployed assets to align with usage patterns rather than provisioning patterns.

误区:服务器成本驱动云迁移的业务案例Myth: Server costs drive business cases for cloud migration

有时,此假设为 true。Sometimes this assumption is true. 对于某些公司而言,减少与服务器相关的持续资本性支出非常重要。For some companies, it's important to reduce ongoing capital expenses related to servers. 但这取决于若干因素。But it depends on several factors. 使用5年到8年硬件刷新周期的公司不太可能看到云迁移的快速回报。Companies with a five-year to eight-year hardware refresh cycle are unlikely to see fast returns on their cloud migration. 采用标准化或强制更新周期的公司可能很快会实现收支平衡。Companies with standardized or enforced refresh cycles can hit a break-even point quickly. 在这两种情况下,其他费用可能是表明迁移合理性的财务触发器。In either case, other expenses might be the financial triggers that justify the migration. 下面是一些在公司采用仅限服务器或仅限 VM 的成本视图时经常被忽略的成本示例:Here are a few examples of costs that are commonly overlooked when companies take a server-only or VM-only view of costs:

  • 虚拟化、服务器和中间件的软件成本可能会很大。Costs of software for virtualization, servers, and middleware can be extensive. 云提供商消除了其中的一些成本。Cloud providers eliminate some of these costs. 用于降低虚拟化成本的云提供商的两个示例是 Azure 混合权益Azure 预订 计划。Two examples of a cloud provider reducing virtualization costs are the Azure Hybrid Benefit and Azure Reservations programs.
  • 中断造成的业务损失很快就会超出硬件或软件的成本。Business losses caused by outages can quickly exceed hardware or software costs. 如果你当前的数据中心不稳定,请与企业合作,以量化中断所造成的影响,从而降低了商机成本或实际的业务成本。If your current datacenter is unstable, work with the business to quantify the impact of outages in terms of opportunity costs or actual business costs.
  • 环境成本也很重要。Environmental costs can also be significant. 对于美国普通系列,家庭是最大的投资和预算的最高成本。For the average American family, a home is the biggest investment and the highest cost in the budget. 对于数据中心也是如此。The same is often true for datacenters. 不动产、设备和公用设施成本代表了本地成本的相当大一部分。Real estate, facilities, and utility costs represent a fair portion of on-premises costs. 当数据中心停用后,可以利用这些功能,或者你的业务可能会完全从这些成本中释放。When datacenters are retired, those facilities can be repurposed, or your business could potentially be released from these costs entirely.

误区:操作费用模型优于资本支出模型Myth: An operating expense model is better than a capital expense model

会计成果 一文中所述,操作费用模型可能是一件好事。As explained in the fiscal outcomes article, an operating expense model can be a good thing. 但有些行业会对运营支出产生负面影响。But some industries view operating expenditures negatively. 下面是几个示例,这些示例将与与运营费用对话相关的会计和业务单元触发更紧密的集成:Here are a few examples that would trigger tighter integration with the accounting and business units regarding the operating expense conversation:

  • 当业务将资本资产视为企业评估的驱动程序时,资本支出降低可能会产生负面结果。When a business sees capital assets as a driver for business valuation, capital expense reductions could be a negative outcome. 尽管这不是通用标准,但在零售、制造和建筑行业中,这种情绪最常见。Though it's not a universal standard, this sentiment is most commonly seen in the retail, manufacturing, and construction industries.
  • 专用权益公司或寻求资本流入的公司可能会考虑运营费用增加,这是一个消极的结果。A private equity firm or a company that's seeking capital influx might consider operating expense increases as a negative outcome.
  • 如果业务侧重于提高销售利润率或降低销售 (售销售成本) ,则运营费用可能会产生负面结果。If a business focuses heavily on improving sales margins or reducing cost of goods sold (COGS), operating expenses could be a negative outcome.

与资本支出相比,企业更有可能看到操作费用更有利。Businesses are more likely to see operating expense as more favorable than capital expense. 例如,尝试改善现金流、减少资本投资或降低资产控股的企业可能会很好地收到此方法。For example, this approach might be well received by businesses that are trying to improve cash flow, reduce capital investments, or decrease asset holdings.

在提供侧重于从资本支出转换为运营费用的业务理由之前,请了解哪种方式更适合你的业务。Before you provide a business justification that focuses on a conversion from capital expense to operating expense, understand which is better for your business. 记帐和采购通常有助于将消息与财务目标保持一致。Accounting and procurement can often help align the message to financial objectives.

误区:迁移到云类似于翻转交换机Myth: Moving to the cloud is like flipping a switch

迁移是一种人工密集型的技术转换。Migrations are a manually intense technical transformation. 在制定业务理由(尤其是时间敏感的理由)时,请考虑以下几个方面,这些问题可能会增加迁移资产所需的时间:When developing a business justification, especially justifications that are time sensitive, consider the following aspects that could increase the time it takes to migrate assets:

  • 带宽限制: 当前数据中心和云提供商之间的带宽量会在迁移期间驱动时间线。Bandwidth limitations: The amount of bandwidth between the current datacenter and the cloud provider will drive timelines during migration.
  • 测试时间线: 使用业务测试应用程序以确保准备情况和性能可能会很耗时。Testing timelines: Testing applications with the business to ensure readiness and performance can be time consuming. 与超级用户和测试过程配合至关重要。Aligning power users and testing processes is critical.
  • 迁移时间表: 实现迁移所需的时间和工作量可能会增加成本,并导致延迟。Migration timelines: The amount of time and effort required to implement the migration can increase costs and cause delays. 分配员工或合同合作伙伴也可以延迟该过程。Allocating employees or contracting partners can also delay the process. 计划应考虑到这些分配。The plan should account for these allocations.

技术和文化方面的障碍可能会减慢云的采用。Technical and cultural impediments can slow cloud adoption. 如果时间是业务理由的一个重要方面,则最佳缓解措施是进行适当的规划。When time is an important aspect of the business justification, the best mitigation is proper planning. 在规划期间,有两种方法可帮助减轻时间线风险:During planning, two approaches can help mitigate timeline risks:

  • 投入时间和精力来了解技术采用限制。Invest the time and energy in understanding technical adoption constraints. 虽然迅速移动可能会很高,但务必要考虑现实时间时限。Though pressure to move quickly might be high, it's important to account for realistic timelines.
  • 如果出现文化障碍或人物障碍,他们将产生比技术限制更严重的影响。If cultural or people impediments arise, they'll have more serious effects than technical constraints. 云采用可以带来革新,从而实现所需的转换。Cloud adoption creates change, which produces the desired transformation. 遗憾的是,人们有时会害怕改变,并且可能需要额外的支持才能与计划进行协调。Unfortunately, people sometimes fear change and might need additional support to align with the plan. 确定团队的主要人员,他们不是在早期进行更改和联系。Identify key people on the team who are opposed to change and engage them early.

为了最大程度地做好就绪工作并缓解时间线风险,请严格根据业务价值和业务成果安排首席利益干系人。To maximize readiness and mitigation of timeline risks, prepare executive stakeholders by firmly aligning business value and business outcomes. 帮助这些利益干系人理解转换所带来的更改。Help those stakeholders understand the changes that will come with the transformation. 从一开始就明确观点并规定现实的期望。Be clear and set realistic expectations from the beginning. 当人或技术降低此过程的速度时,就可以更轻松地登记执行支持。When people or technologies slow the process, it will be easier to enlist executive support.

构建业务理由Build the business justification

以下过程定义了一种用于制定云迁移业务理由的方法。The following process defines an approach to developing the business justification for cloud migrations. 有关计算和财务条款的详细信息,请参阅有关 财务模型的文章。For more information about the calculations and financial terms, see the article on financial models.

从最高层面看,业务理由的公式非常简单。At the highest level, the formula for business justification is simple. 但填充公式所需的细微数据点可能很难对齐。But the subtle data points required to populate the formula can be difficult to align. 在基本级别上,业务理由侧重于投资回报 (投资回报) 与建议的技术更改相关联。On a basic level, the business justification focuses on the return on investment (ROI) associated with the proposed technical change. ROI 的通用公式为:The generic formula for ROI is:

投资回报等于 (从投资中获得收益减去投资成本) 除以投资成本

我们可以解包此公式,为公式右侧的输入变量获取特定于迁移的公式视图。We can unpack this equation to get a migration-specific view of the formulas for the input variables on the right side of the equation. 本文的剩余部分提供了需要考虑的一些注意事项。The remaining sections of this article offer some considerations to take into account.

特定于迁移的初始投资Migration-specific initial investment

  • 云提供商提供了计算器来估算云投资。Cloud providers offer calculators to estimate cloud investments. Microsoft 提供 Azure 定价计算器Microsoft provides the Azure pricing calculator.
  • 一些云提供程序还提供了成本增量计算器。Some cloud providers also offer cost-delta calculators. Microsoft 提供 Azure 总拥有成本) 计算器 (TCOMicrosoft provides the Azure total cost of ownership (TCO) calculator.
  • 对于更精致的成本结构,请考虑使用 数字场地规划 练习。For more refined cost structures, consider a digital estate planning exercise.
  • 估算迁移成本。Estimate the cost of migration.
  • 估算任何预期培训机会的成本。Estimate the cost of any expected training opportunities. Microsoft Learn 或许能够帮助减轻这些成本。Microsoft Learn might be able to help mitigate those costs.
  • 在某些公司上,可能需要在初始成本中包括现有员工投资所需的时间。At some companies, the time invested by existing staff members might need to be included in the initial costs. 请咨询财务办公室获取相关指导。Consult the finance office for guidance.
  • 与财务办公室讨论有关验证的任何附加成本或杂费。Discuss any additional costs or burden costs with the finance office for validation.

特定于迁移的收入增量Migration-specific revenue deltas

此方面通常被战略家就为迁移创建业务理由。This aspect is often overlooked by strategists creating a business justification for migration. 在某些领域,云可以削减成本。In some areas, the cloud can cut costs. 但任何转换的最终目的都是随着时间的推移获得更好的结果。But the ultimate goal of any transformation is to yield better results over time. 请考虑下游效果,以了解长期收入改进。Consider the downstream effects to understand long-term revenue improvements. 目前不能使用的迁移后,你的企业将能够使用哪些新技术?What new technologies will be available to your business after the migration that can't be used today? 对传统技术的依赖阻碍了哪些项目或业务目标?What projects or business objectives are blocked by dependencies on legacy technologies? 哪些程序处于暂停状态,为技术提供了较高的资本支出?What programs are on hold, pending high capital expenditures for technology?

考虑到云解锁的机会后,与企业合作,计算出这些机会带来的收入增加。After you consider the opportunities unlocked by the cloud, work with the business to calculate the revenue increases that could come from those opportunities.

特定于迁移的成本增量Migration-specific cost deltas

计算提议的迁移产生的任何成本变化。Calculate any changes to costs that will come from the proposed migration. 有关成本增量的类型的详细信息,请参阅 财务模型 一文。See the financial models article for details about the types of cost deltas. 云提供商通常为成本增量计算提供工具。Cloud providers often offer tools for cost-delta calculations. Azure 总拥有成本 (TCO) 计算器是一个示例。The Azure total cost of ownership (TCO) calculator is one example.

云迁移可能降低的成本的其他示例:Other examples of costs that might be reduced by a cloud migration:

  • 数据中心终止或降低 (环境成本) Datacenter termination or reduction (environmental costs)
  • 降低能耗 (环境成本) Reduction in power consumed (environmental costs)
  • 机架端接 (物理资产恢复) Rack termination (physical asset recovery)
  • 硬件刷新回避 (降低成本) Hardware refresh avoidance (cost avoidance)
  • 软件续订可避免 (运营成本降低或降低成本) Software renewal avoidance (operational cost reduction or cost avoidance)
  • 供应商整合 (运营成本降低,并可能导致软成本降低) Vendor consolidation (operational cost reduction and potential soft-cost reduction)

如果 ROI 成果让人意外When ROI results are surprising

如果云迁移的 ROI 与你的期望不符,你可能需要重新访问本文开头列出的常见误解。If the ROI for a cloud migration doesn't match your expectations, you might want to revisit the common myths listed at the beginning of this article.

但请务必了解,成本节省并非总是可行。But it's important to understand that a cost savings isn't always possible. 有些应用程序在云中运行的成本比本地更高。Some applications cost more to operate in the cloud than on-premises. 在分析中,这些应用程序可能会使结果严重偏离。These applications can significantly skew results in an analysis.

当投资回报低于20% 时,请考虑使用 数字场地规划 练习,特别注意 合理化When the ROI is below 20%, consider a digital estate planning exercise, paying specific attention to rationalization. 在量化分析期间,请查看每个应用程序以查找对结果进行扭曲的工作负荷。During quantitative analysis, review each application to find workloads that skew the results. 从计划中删除这些工作负荷可能有意义。It might make sense to remove those workloads from the plan. 如果使用情况数据可用,请考虑减小 VM 的大小,使其与使用情况匹配。If usage data is available, consider reducing the size of VMs to match usage.

如果 ROI 仍不符合预期,请向 Microsoft 销售代表求助,或者咨询经验丰富的合作伙伴If the ROI is still misaligned, seek help from your Microsoft sales representative or engage an experienced partner.

后续步骤Next steps