List<T>.Add(T) List<T>.Add(T) List<T>.Add(T) List<T>.Add(T) Method

定义

将对象添加到 List<T> 的结尾处。Adds an object to the end of the List<T>.

public:
 virtual void Add(T item);
public void Add (T item);
abstract member Add : 'T -> unit
override this.Add : 'T -> unit
Public Sub Add (item As T)

参数

item
T T T T

要添加到 List<T> 末尾的对象。The object to be added to the end of the List<T>. 对于引用类型,该值可以为 nullThe value can be null for reference types.

实现

示例

备注

本文中的一些 C# 示例在 Try.NET 内联代码运行程序和演练环境中运行。Some of the C# examples in this article run in the Try.NET inline code runner and playground. 选择“运行” 按钮(若有),在交互式窗口中运行示例。When present, select the Run button to run an example in an interactive window. 执行代码后,可通过再次选择“运行”来修改它并运行已修改的代码 。Once you execute the code, you can modify it and run the modified code by selecting Run again. 已修改的代码要么在交互窗口中运行,要么编译失败时,交互窗口将显示所有 C# 编译器错误消息。The modified code either runs in the interactive window or, if compilation fails, the interactive window displays all C# compiler error messages.

下面的示例演示如何在中List<T>添加、移除和插入简单的业务对象。The following example demonstrates how to add, remove, and insert a simple business object in a List<T>.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
// Simple business object. A PartId is used to identify the type of part 
// but the part name can change. 
public class Part : IEquatable<Part>
    {
        public string PartName { get; set; }
       
        public int PartId { get; set; }

        public override string ToString()
        {
            return "ID: " + PartId + "   Name: " + PartName;
        }
        public override bool Equals(object obj)
        {
            if (obj == null) return false;
            Part objAsPart = obj as Part;
            if (objAsPart == null) return false;
            else return Equals(objAsPart);
        }
        public override int GetHashCode()
        {
            return PartId;
        }
        public bool Equals(Part other)
        {
            if (other == null) return false;
            return (this.PartId.Equals(other.PartId));
        }
    // Should also override == and != operators.

    }
public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create a list of parts.
        List<Part> parts = new List<Part>();

        // Add parts to the list.
        parts.Add(new Part() {PartName="crank arm", PartId=1234});
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "chain ring", PartId = 1334 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "regular seat", PartId = 1434 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "banana seat", PartId = 1444 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "cassette", PartId = 1534 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "shift lever", PartId = 1634 });

        // Write out the parts in the list. This will call the overridden ToString method
        // in the Part class.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach (Part aPart in parts)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(aPart);
        }

      
        // Check the list for part #1734. This calls the IEquatable.Equals method
        // of the Part class, which checks the PartId for equality.
        Console.WriteLine("\nContains(\"1734\"): {0}",
        parts.Contains(new Part {PartId=1734, PartName="" }));

        // Insert a new item at position 2.
        Console.WriteLine("\nInsert(2, \"1834\")");
        parts.Insert(2, new Part() { PartName = "brake lever", PartId = 1834 });

        
        //Console.WriteLine();
        foreach (Part aPart in parts)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(aPart);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nParts[3]: {0}", parts[3]);

        Console.WriteLine("\nRemove(\"1534\")");

        // This will remove part 1534 even though the PartName is different,
        // because the Equals method only checks PartId for equality.
        parts.Remove(new Part(){PartId=1534, PartName="cogs"});

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach (Part aPart in parts)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(aPart);
        }
        Console.WriteLine("\nRemoveAt(3)");
        // This will remove the part at index 3.
        parts.RemoveAt(3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach (Part aPart in parts)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(aPart);
        }

            /*
  
             ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
             ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
             ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
             ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
             ID: 1534   Name: cassette
             ID: 1634   Name: shift lever

             Contains("1734"): False

             Insert(2, "1834")
             ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
             ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
             ID: 1834   Name: brake lever
             ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
             ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
             ID: 1534   Name: cassette
             ID: 1634   Name: shift lever

             Parts[3]: ID: 1434   Name: regular seat

             Remove("1534")

             ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
             ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
             ID: 1834   Name: brake lever
             ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
             ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
             ID: 1634   Name: shift lever

             RemoveAt(3)

             ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
             ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
             ID: 1834   Name: brake lever
             ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
             ID: 1634   Name: shift lever


         */

    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic

' Simple business object. A PartId is used to identify the type of part 
' but the part name can change. 
Public Class Part
    Implements IEquatable(Of Part)
    Public Property PartName() As String
        Get
            Return m_PartName
        End Get
        Set(value As String)
            m_PartName = Value
        End Set
    End Property
    Private m_PartName As String

    Public Property PartId() As Integer
        Get
            Return m_PartId
        End Get
        Set(value As Integer)
            m_PartId = Value
        End Set
    End Property
    Private m_PartId As Integer

    Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
        Return "ID: " & PartId & "   Name: " & PartName
    End Function
    Public Overrides Function Equals(obj As Object) As Boolean
        If obj Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        End If
        Dim objAsPart As Part = TryCast(obj, Part)
        If objAsPart Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        Else
            Return Equals(objAsPart)
        End If
    End Function
    Public Overrides Function GetHashCode() As Integer
        Return PartId
    End Function
    Public Overloads Function Equals(other As Part) As Boolean _
        Implements IEquatable(Of Part).Equals
        If other Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        End If
        Return (Me.PartId.Equals(other.PartId))
    End Function
    ' Should also override == and != operators.

End Class
Public Class Example
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' Create a list of parts.
        Dim parts As New List(Of Part)()

        ' Add parts to the list.
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "crank arm", _
             .PartId = 1234 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "chain ring", _
             .PartId = 1334 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "regular seat", _
             .PartId = 1434 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "banana seat", _
             .PartId = 1444 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "cassette", _
             .PartId = 1534 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "shift lever", _
             .PartId = 1634 _
        })



        ' Write out the parts in the list. This will call the overridden ToString method
        ' in the Part class.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each aPart As Part In parts
            Console.WriteLine(aPart)
        Next


        ' Check the list for part #1734. This calls the IEquatable.Equals method
        ' of the Part class, which checks the PartId for equality.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Contains(""1734""): {0}", parts.Contains(New Part() With { _
             .PartId = 1734, _
             .PartName = "" _
        }))

        ' Insert a new item at position 2.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Insert(2, ""1834"")")
        parts.Insert(2, New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "brake lever", _
             .PartId = 1834 _
        })


        'Console.WriteLine();
        For Each aPart As Part In parts
            Console.WriteLine(aPart)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Parts[3]: {0}", parts(3))

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Remove(""1534"")")

        ' This will remove part 1534 even though the PartName is different,
        ' because the Equals method only checks PartId for equality.
        parts.Remove(New Part() With { _
             .PartId = 1534, _
             .PartName = "cogs" _
        })

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each aPart As Part In parts
            Console.WriteLine(aPart)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "RemoveAt(3)")
        ' This will remove part at index 3.
        parts.RemoveAt(3)

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each aPart As Part In parts
            Console.WriteLine(aPart)
        Next
    End Sub
    '
    '        This example code produces the following output:
    '        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
    '        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
    '        ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
    '        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
    '        ID: 1534   Name: cassette
    '        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever
    '
    '        Contains("1734"): False
    '
    '        Insert(2, "1834")
    '        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
    '        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
    '        ID: 1834   Name: brake lever
    '        ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
    '        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
    '        ID: 1534   Name: cassette
    '        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever
    '
    '        Parts[3]: ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
    '
    '        Remove("1534")
    '
    '        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
    '        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
    '        ID: 1834   Name: brake lever
    '        ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
    '        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
    '        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever
    '   '
    '        RemoveAt(3)
    '
    '        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
    '        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
    '        ID: 1834   Name: brake lever
    '        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
    '        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever
    '        

End Class

// Simple business object. A PartId is used to identify the type of part  
// but the part name can change.  
[<CustomEquality; NoComparison>]
type Part = { PartId : int ; mutable PartName : string } with
    override this.GetHashCode() = hash this.PartId
    override this.Equals(other) =
        match other with
        | :? Part as p -> this.PartId = p.PartId
        | _ -> false
    override this.ToString() = sprintf "ID: %i   Name: %s" this.PartId this.PartName

[<EntryPoint>]
let main argv = 
    // We refer to System.Collections.Generic.List<'T> by its type 
    // abbreviation ResizeArray<'T> to avoid conflicts with the F# List module.    
    // Note: In F# code, F# linked lists are usually preferred over
    // ResizeArray<'T> when an extendable collection is required.
    let parts = ResizeArray<_>()
    parts.Add({PartName = "crank arm" ; PartId = 1234})
    parts.Add({PartName = "chain ring"; PartId = 1334 })
    parts.Add({PartName = "regular seat"; PartId = 1434 })
    parts.Add({PartName = "banana seat"; PartId = 1444 })
    parts.Add({PartName = "cassette"; PartId = 1534 })
    parts.Add({PartName = "shift lever"; PartId = 1634 })

    // Write out the parts in the ResizeArray.  This will call the overridden ToString method
    // in the Part type
    printfn ""
    parts |> Seq.iter (fun p -> printfn "%O" p)

    // Check the ResizeArray for part #1734. This calls the IEquatable.Equals method 
    // of the Part type, which checks the PartId for equality.    
    printfn "\nContains(\"1734\"): %b" (parts.Contains({PartId=1734; PartName=""}))
    
    // Insert a new item at position 2.
    printfn "\nInsert(2, \"1834\")"
    parts.Insert(2, { PartName = "brake lever"; PartId = 1834 })

    // Write out all parts
    parts |> Seq.iter (fun p -> printfn "%O" p)

    printfn "\nParts[3]: %O" parts.[3]

    printfn "\nRemove(\"1534\")"
    // This will remove part 1534 even though the PartName is different, 
    // because the Equals method only checks PartId for equality.
    // Since Remove returns true or false, we need to ignore the result
    parts.Remove({PartId=1534; PartName="cogs"}) |> ignore

    // Write out all parts
    printfn ""
    parts |> Seq.iter (fun p -> printfn "%O" p)

    printfn "\nRemoveAt(3)"
    // This will remove the part at index 3.
    parts.RemoveAt(3)

    // Write out all parts
    printfn ""
    parts |> Seq.iter (fun p -> printfn "%O" p)

    0 // return an integer exit code

下面的示例演示了List<T>泛型类的多个属性和方法, Add包括方法。The following example demonstrates several properties and methods of the List<T> generic class, including the Add method. 无参数构造函数用于创建容量为0的字符串列表。The parameterless constructor is used to create a list of strings with a capacity of 0. 显示属性, 然后使用方法添加多个项。 Add CapacityThe Capacity property is displayed, and then the Add method is used to add several items. 将列出这些项, 并再次Capacity Count显示属性和属性, 以显示容量已根据需要增加。The items are listed, and the Capacity property is displayed again, along with the Count property, to show that the capacity has been increased as needed.

其他属性和方法用于搜索、插入和删除列表中的元素, 最后还用于清除列表。Other properties and methods are used to search for, insert, and remove elements from the list, and finally to clear the list.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

void main()
{
    List<String^>^ dinosaurs = gcnew List<String^>();

    Console::WriteLine("\nCapacity: {0}", dinosaurs->Capacity);

    dinosaurs->Add("Tyrannosaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Amargasaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Mamenchisaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Deinonychus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Compsognathus");

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs )
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\nCapacity: {0}", dinosaurs->Capacity);
    Console::WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs->Count);

    Console::WriteLine("\nContains(\"Deinonychus\"): {0}",
        dinosaurs->Contains("Deinonychus"));

    Console::WriteLine("\nInsert(2, \"Compsognathus\")");
    dinosaurs->Insert(2, "Compsognathus");

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs )
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    Console::WriteLine("\ndinosaurs[3]: {0}", dinosaurs[3]);

    Console::WriteLine("\nRemove(\"Compsognathus\")");
    dinosaurs->Remove("Compsognathus");

    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ dinosaur in dinosaurs )
    {
        Console::WriteLine(dinosaur);
    }

    dinosaurs->TrimExcess();
    Console::WriteLine("\nTrimExcess()");
    Console::WriteLine("Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs->Capacity);
    Console::WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs->Count);

    dinosaurs->Clear();
    Console::WriteLine("\nClear()");
    Console::WriteLine("Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs->Capacity);
    Console::WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs->Count);
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Capacity: 0

Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus

Capacity: 8
Count: 5

Contains("Deinonychus"): True

Insert(2, "Compsognathus")

Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Compsognathus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus

dinosaurs[3]: Mamenchisaurus

Remove("Compsognathus")

Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus

TrimExcess()
Capacity: 5
Count: 5

Clear()
Capacity: 5
Count: 0
 */
List<string> dinosaurs = new List<string>();

Console.WriteLine("\nCapacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity);

dinosaurs.Add("Tyrannosaurus");
dinosaurs.Add("Amargasaurus");
dinosaurs.Add("Mamenchisaurus");
dinosaurs.Add("Deinonychus");
dinosaurs.Add("Compsognathus");
Console.WriteLine();
foreach(string dinosaur in dinosaurs)
{
    Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
}

Console.WriteLine("\nCapacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity);
Console.WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs.Count);

Console.WriteLine("\nContains(\"Deinonychus\"): {0}",
    dinosaurs.Contains("Deinonychus"));

Console.WriteLine("\nInsert(2, \"Compsognathus\")");
dinosaurs.Insert(2, "Compsognathus");

Console.WriteLine();
foreach(string dinosaur in dinosaurs)
{
    Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
}

// Shows accessing the list using the Item property.
Console.WriteLine("\ndinosaurs[3]: {0}", dinosaurs[3]);

Console.WriteLine("\nRemove(\"Compsognathus\")");
dinosaurs.Remove("Compsognathus");

Console.WriteLine();
foreach(string dinosaur in dinosaurs)
{
    Console.WriteLine(dinosaur);
}

dinosaurs.TrimExcess();
Console.WriteLine("\nTrimExcess()");
Console.WriteLine("Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity);
Console.WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs.Count);

dinosaurs.Clear();
Console.WriteLine("\nClear()");
Console.WriteLine("Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity);
Console.WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs.Count);

/* This code example produces the following output:

Capacity: 0

Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus

Capacity: 8
Count: 5

Contains("Deinonychus"): True

Insert(2, "Compsognathus")

Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Compsognathus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus

dinosaurs[3]: Mamenchisaurus

Remove("Compsognathus")

Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus

TrimExcess()
Capacity: 5
Count: 5

Clear()
Capacity: 5
Count: 0
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example

    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Dim dinosaurs As New List(Of String)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity)

        dinosaurs.Add("Tyrannosaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Amargasaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Mamenchisaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Deinonychus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Compsognathus")

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity)
        Console.WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs.Count)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Contains(""Deinonychus""): {0}", _
            dinosaurs.Contains("Deinonychus"))

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Insert(2, ""Compsognathus"")")
        dinosaurs.Insert(2, "Compsognathus")

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next
        ' Shows how to access the list using the Item property.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "dinosaurs(3): {0}", dinosaurs(3))
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Remove(""Compsognathus"")")
        dinosaurs.Remove("Compsognathus")

        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each dinosaur As String In dinosaurs
            Console.WriteLine(dinosaur)
        Next

        dinosaurs.TrimExcess()
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "TrimExcess()")
        Console.WriteLine("Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity)
        Console.WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs.Count)

        dinosaurs.Clear()
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Clear()")
        Console.WriteLine("Capacity: {0}", dinosaurs.Capacity)
        Console.WriteLine("Count: {0}", dinosaurs.Count)
    End Sub
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'Capacity: 0
'
'Tyrannosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Deinonychus
'Compsognathus
'
'Capacity: 8
'Count: 5
'
'Contains("Deinonychus"): True
'
'Insert(2, "Compsognathus")
'
'Tyrannosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Compsognathus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Deinonychus
'Compsognathus
'
'dinosaurs(3): Mamenchisaurus
'
'Remove("Compsognathus")
'
'Tyrannosaurus
'Amargasaurus
'Mamenchisaurus
'Deinonychus
'Compsognathus
'
'TrimExcess()
'Capacity: 5
'Count: 5
'
'Clear()
'Capacity: 5
'Count: 0

[<EntryPoint>]
let main argv = 
    // We refer to System.Collections.Generic.List<'T> by its type 
    // abbreviation ResizeArray<'T> to avoid conflict with the List module.    
    // Note: In F# code, F# linked lists are usually preferred over
    // ResizeArray<'T> when an extendable collection is required.
    let dinosaurs = ResizeArray<_>()
 
    // Write out the dinosaurs in the ResizeArray.
    let printDinosaurs() =
        printfn ""
        dinosaurs |> Seq.iter (fun p -> printfn "%O" p) 
 
    
    printfn "\nCapacity: %i" dinosaurs.Capacity
 
    dinosaurs.Add("Tyrannosaurus")
    dinosaurs.Add("Amargasaurus")
    dinosaurs.Add("Mamenchisaurus")
    dinosaurs.Add("Deinonychus")
    dinosaurs.Add("Compsognathus")
 
    printDinosaurs()
 
    printfn "\nCapacity: %i" dinosaurs.Capacity
    printfn "Count: %i" dinosaurs.Count
 
    printfn "\nContains(\"Deinonychus\"): %b" (dinosaurs.Contains("Deinonychus"))
 
    printfn "\nInsert(2, \"Compsognathus\")"
    dinosaurs.Insert(2, "Compsognathus")
 
    printDinosaurs()
 
    // Shows accessing the list using the Item property.
    printfn "\ndinosaurs[3]: %s" dinosaurs.[3]
 
    printfn "\nRemove(\"Compsognathus\")"
    dinosaurs.Remove("Compsognathus") |> ignore
 
    printDinosaurs()
 
    dinosaurs.TrimExcess()
    printfn "\nTrimExcess()"
    printfn "Capacity: %i" dinosaurs.Capacity
    printfn "Count: %i" dinosaurs.Count
 
    dinosaurs.Clear()
    printfn "\nClear()"
    printfn "Capacity: %i" dinosaurs.Capacity
    printfn "Count: %i" dinosaurs.Count
 
    0 // return an integer exit code
 
    (* This code example produces the following output:
 
Capacity: 0
 
Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus
 
Capacity: 8
Count: 5
 
Contains("Deinonychus"): true
 
Insert(2, "Compsognathus")
 
Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Compsognathus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus
 
dinosaurs[3]: Mamenchisaurus
 
Remove("Compsognathus")
 
Tyrannosaurus
Amargasaurus
Mamenchisaurus
Deinonychus
Compsognathus
 
TrimExcess()
Capacity: 5
Count: 5
 
Clear()
Capacity: 5
Count: 0
    *)

注解

List<T>接受null作为引用类型的有效值, 并允许重复元素。List<T> accepts null as a valid value for reference types and allows duplicate elements.

如果Count Capacity已为List<T> equals, 则通过自动重新分配内部数组, 并将现有元素复制到新数组, 然后再添加新元素。If Count already equals Capacity, the capacity of the List<T> is increased by automatically reallocating the internal array, and the existing elements are copied to the new array before the new element is added.

Count 如果Capacity小于, 则此方法为 O (1) 操作。If Count is less than Capacity, this method is an O(1) operation. 如果需要增加容量以容纳新元素, 则此方法将成为 O (n) 操作, 其中nCountIf the capacity needs to be increased to accommodate the new element, this method becomes an O(n) operation, where n is Count.

适用于

另请参阅