SortedList<TKey,TValue>.IDictionary.Add(Object, Object) 方法

定义

IDictionary 中添加一个带有所提供的键和值的元素。Adds an element with the provided key and value to the IDictionary.

 virtual void System.Collections.IDictionary.Add(System::Object ^ key, System::Object ^ value) = System::Collections::IDictionary::Add;
void IDictionary.Add (object key, object value);
Sub Add (key As Object, value As Object) Implements IDictionary.Add

参数

key
Object

用作要添加的元素的键的 ObjectThe Object to use as the key of the element to add.

value
Object

用作要添加的元素的键的 ObjectThe Object to use as the value of the element to add.

实现

异常

keynullkey is null.

key 属于不能分配给 IDictionary 的键类型 TKey 的类型。key is of a type that is not assignable to the key type TKey of the IDictionary.

-or- value 属于不能分配给 IDictionary 的值类型 TValue 的类型。value is of a type that is not assignable to the value type TValue of the IDictionary.

-or- IDictionary 中已存在具有相同键的元素。An element with the same key already exists in the IDictionary.

示例

下面的代码示例演示如何SortedList<TKey,TValue> System.Collections.IDictionary通过接口访问类。The following code example shows how to access the SortedList<TKey,TValue> class through the System.Collections.IDictionary interface. 此代码示例使用字符串键SortedList<TKey,TValue>创建一个空的字符串,并IDictionary.Add使用方法来添加一些元素。The code example creates an empty SortedList<TKey,TValue> of strings with string keys and uses the IDictionary.Add method to add some elements. 该示例演示当尝试IDictionary.Add添加重复的ArgumentException键时,或在提供了错误数据类型的键或值时,该方法将引发。The example demonstrates that the IDictionary.Add method throws an ArgumentException when attempting to add a duplicate key, or when a key or value of the wrong data type is supplied.

此代码示例演示如何使用System.Collections.IDictionary接口的其他几个成员。The code example demonstrates the use of several other members of the System.Collections.IDictionary interface.

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create a new sorted list of strings, with string keys,
        // and access it using the IDictionary interface.
        //
        IDictionary openWith = new SortedList<string, string>();

        // Add some elements to the sorted list. There are no 
        // duplicate keys, but some of the values are duplicates.
        // IDictionary.Add throws an exception if incorrect types
        // are supplied for key or value.
        openWith.Add("txt", "notepad.exe");
        openWith.Add("bmp", "paint.exe");
        openWith.Add("dib", "paint.exe");
        openWith.Add("rtf", "wordpad.exe");
        try
        {
            openWith.Add(42, new Example());
        }
        catch (ArgumentException ex)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("An exception was caught for " + 
                "IDictionary.Add. Exception message:\n\t{0}\n",
                ex.Message);
        }

        // The Add method throws an exception if the new key is 
        // already in the sorted list.
        try
        {
            openWith.Add("txt", "winword.exe");
        }
        catch (ArgumentException)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("An element with Key = \"txt\" already exists.");
        }

        // The Item property is another name for the indexer, so you 
        // can omit its name when accessing elements. 
        Console.WriteLine("For key = \"rtf\", value = {0}.", 
            openWith["rtf"]);

        // The indexer can be used to change the value associated
        // with a key.
        openWith["rtf"] = "winword.exe";
        Console.WriteLine("For key = \"rtf\", value = {0}.", 
            openWith["rtf"]);

        // If a key does not exist, setting the indexer for that key
        // adds a new key/value pair.
        openWith["doc"] = "winword.exe";

        // The indexer returns null if the key is of the wrong data 
        // type.
        Console.WriteLine("The indexer returns null" 
            + " if the key is of the wrong type:");
        Console.WriteLine("For key = 2, value = {0}.", 
            openWith[2]);

        // The indexer throws an exception when setting a value
        // if the key is of the wrong data type.
        try
        {
            openWith[2] = "This does not get added.";
        }
        catch (ArgumentException)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("A key of the wrong type was specified" 
                + " when assigning to the indexer.");
        }

        // Unlike the default Item property on the SorteList class
        // itself, IDictionary.Item does not throw an exception
        // if the requested key is not in the sorted list.
        Console.WriteLine("For key = \"tif\", value = {0}.", 
            openWith["tif"]);

        // Contains can be used to test keys before inserting 
        // them.
        if (!openWith.Contains("ht"))
        {
            openWith.Add("ht", "hypertrm.exe");
            Console.WriteLine("Value added for key = \"ht\": {0}", 
                openWith["ht"]);
        }

        // IDictionary.Contains returns false if the wrong data
        // type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine("openWith.Contains(29.7) returns {0}",
            openWith.Contains(29.7));

        // When you use foreach to enumerate sorted list elements
        // with the IDictionary interface, the elements are retrieved
        // as DictionaryEntry objects instead of KeyValuePair objects.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( DictionaryEntry de in openWith )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}, Value = {1}", 
                de.Key, de.Value);
        }

        // To get the values alone, use the Values property.
        ICollection icoll = openWith.Values;

        // The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        // with the type that was specified for values,
        // even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        // typed.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string s in icoll )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Value = {0}", s);
        }

        // To get the keys alone, use the Keys property.
        icoll = openWith.Keys;

        // The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        // with the type that was specified for keys,
        // even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        // typed.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string s in icoll )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}", s);
        }

        // Use the Remove method to remove a key/value pair. No
        // exception is thrown if the wrong data type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine("\nRemove(\"dib\")");
        openWith.Remove("dib");

        if (!openWith.Contains("dib"))
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Key \"dib\" is not found.");
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

An exception was caught for IDictionary.Add. Exception message:
        The value "42" is not of type "System.String" and cannot be used in this generic collection.
Parameter name: key

An element with Key = "txt" already exists.
For key = "rtf", value = wordpad.exe.
For key = "rtf", value = winword.exe.
The indexer returns null if the key is of the wrong type:
For key = 2, value = .
A key of the wrong type was specified when assigning to the indexer.
For key = "tif", value = .
Value added for key = "ht": hypertrm.exe
openWith.Contains(29.7) returns False

Key = txt, Value = notepad.exe
Key = bmp, Value = paint.exe
Key = dib, Value = paint.exe
Key = rtf, Value = winword.exe
Key = doc, Value = winword.exe
Key = ht, Value = hypertrm.exe

Value = notepad.exe
Value = paint.exe
Value = paint.exe
Value = winword.exe
Value = winword.exe
Value = hypertrm.exe

Key = txt
Key = bmp
Key = dib
Key = rtf
Key = doc
Key = ht

Remove("dib")
Key "dib" is not found.
 */
Imports System.Collections
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example
    
    Public Shared Sub Main() 

        ' Create a new sorted list of strings, with string keys,
        ' and access it using the IDictionary interface.
        '
        Dim openWith As IDictionary = _
            New sortedList(Of String, String)
        
        ' Add some elements to the sorted list. There are no 
        ' duplicate keys, but some of the values are duplicates.
        ' IDictionary.Add throws an exception if incorrect types
        ' are supplied for key or value.
        openWith.Add("txt", "notepad.exe")
        openWith.Add("bmp", "paint.exe")
        openWith.Add("dib", "paint.exe")
        openWith.Add("rtf", "wordpad.exe")
        Try
            openWith.Add(42, New Example())
        Catch ex As ArgumentException
            Console.WriteLine("An exception was caught for " & _
                "IDictionary.Add. Exception message:" & vbLf _
                & vbTab & ex.Message & vbLf)
        End Try
        
        ' The Add method throws an exception if the new key is 
        ' already in the sorted list.
        Try
            openWith.Add("txt", "winword.exe")
        Catch 
            Console.WriteLine("An element with Key = ""txt"" already exists.")
        End Try

        ' The Item property is the default property, so you 
        ' can omit its name when accessing elements. 
        Console.WriteLine("For key = ""rtf"", value = {0}.", _
            openWith("rtf"))
        
        ' The default Item property can be used to change the value
        ' associated with a key.
        openWith("rtf") = "winword.exe"
        Console.WriteLine("For key = ""rtf"", value = {0}.", _
            openWith("rtf"))
        
        ' If a key does not exist, setting the default Item property
        ' for that key adds a new key/value pair.
        openWith("doc") = "winword.exe"

        ' The default Item property returns Nothing if the key
        ' is of the wrong data type.
        Console.WriteLine("The default Item property returns Nothing" _
            & " if the key is of the wrong type:")
        Console.WriteLine("For key = 2, value = {0}.", _
            openWith(2))

        ' The default Item property throws an exception when setting
        ' a value if the key is of the wrong data type.
        Try
            openWith(2) = "This does not get added."
        Catch 
            Console.WriteLine("A key of the wrong type was specified" _
                & " when setting the default Item property.")
        End Try

        ' Unlike the default Item property on the SortedList class
        ' itself, IDictionary.Item does not throw an exception
        ' if the requested key is not in the sorted list.
        Console.WriteLine("For key = ""tif"", value = {0}.", _
            openWith("tif"))

        ' Contains can be used to test keys before inserting 
        ' them.
        If Not openWith.Contains("ht") Then
            openWith.Add("ht", "hypertrm.exe")
            Console.WriteLine("Value added for key = ""ht"": {0}", _
                openWith("ht"))
        End If

        ' IDictionary.Contains returns False if the wrong data 
        ' type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine("openWith.Contains(29.7) returns {0}", _
            openWith.Contains(29.7))

        ' When you use foreach to enumerate sorted list elements
        ' with the IDictionary interface, the elements are retrieved
        ' as DictionaryEntry objects instead of KeyValuePair objects.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each de As DictionaryEntry In openWith
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}, Value = {1}", _
                de.Key, de.Value)
        Next 

        ' To get the values alone, use the Values property.
        Dim icoll As ICollection = openWith.Values
        
        ' The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        ' with the type that was specified for sorted list values,
        ' even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        ' typed.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each s As String In  icoll
            Console.WriteLine("Value = {0}", s)
        Next s

        ' To get the keys alone, use the Keys property.
        icoll = openWith.Keys
        
        ' The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        ' with the type that was specified for sorted list keys,
        ' even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        ' typed.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each s As String In  icoll
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}", s)
        Next s

        ' Use the Remove method to remove a key/value pair. No
        ' exception is thrown if the wrong data type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf + "Remove(""dib"")")
        openWith.Remove("dib")
        
        If Not openWith.Contains("dib") Then
            Console.WriteLine("Key ""dib"" is not found.")
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'An exception was caught for IDictionary.Add. Exception message:
'        The value "42" is not of type "System.String" and cannot be used in this generic collection.
'Parameter name: key
'
'An element with Key = "txt" already exists.
'For key = "rtf", value = wordpad.exe.
'For key = "rtf", value = winword.exe.
'The default Item property returns Nothing if the key is of the wrong type:
'For key = 2, value = .
'A key of the wrong type was specified when setting the default Item property.
'For key = "tif", value = .
'Value added for key = "ht": hypertrm.exe
'openWith.Contains(29.7) returns False
'
'Key = txt, Value = notepad.exe
'Key = bmp, Value = paint.exe
'Key = dib, Value = paint.exe
'Key = rtf, Value = winword.exe
'Key = doc, Value = winword.exe
'Key = ht, Value = hypertrm.exe
'
'Value = notepad.exe
'Value = paint.exe
'Value = paint.exe
'Value = winword.exe
'Value = winword.exe
'Value = hypertrm.exe
'
'Key = txt
'Key = bmp
'Key = dib
'Key = rtf
'Key = doc
'Key = ht
'
'Remove("dib")
'Key "dib" is not found.
' 

注解

你还可以使用Item[Object]属性来添加新元素,方法是设置字典中不存在的键的值; myCollection["myNonexistentKey"] = myValue例如。You can also use the Item[Object] property to add new elements by setting the value of a key that does not exist in the dictionary; for example, myCollection["myNonexistentKey"] = myValue. 但是,如果字典中已存在指定的键,则设置Item[Object]属性会覆盖旧值。However, if the specified key already exists in the dictionary, setting the Item[Object] property overwrites the old value. 与此Add相反,方法不会修改现有元素。In contrast, the Add method does not modify existing elements.

此方法对于未排序的n数据是 O ()运算, n其中Count是。This method is an O(n) operation for unsorted data, where n is Count. 如果在列表的末尾添加n新元素,则它是一个 O (log)操作。It is an O(log n) operation if the new element is added at the end of the list. 如果插入操作导致大小调整,则操作为 On()。If insertion causes a resize, the operation is O(n).

适用于

另请参阅