GC.KeepAlive(Object) 方法

定义

引用指定对象,使其从当前例程开始到调用此方法的那一刻为止均不符合进行垃圾回收的条件。References the specified object, which makes it ineligible for garbage collection from the start of the current routine to the point where this method is called.

public:
 static void KeepAlive(System::Object ^ obj);
public static void KeepAlive (object obj);
static member KeepAlive : obj -> unit
Public Shared Sub KeepAlive (obj As Object)

参数

obj
Object

要引用的对象。The object to reference.

示例

下面的代码示例在其 Main 方法的开头创建一个对象,并在调用 KeepAlive 方法时再次引用该对象。The following code example creates an object at the beginning of its Main method and does not refer to the object again until the end, when the KeepAlive method is called. 尽管对 CollectWaitForPendingFinalizers 方法的调用,对象仍会在 Main 方法的30秒持续时间内保持不变。The object persists for the 30-second duration of the Main method, despite calls to the Collect and WaitForPendingFinalizers methods.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Threading;
using namespace System::Runtime::InteropServices;

// A simple class that exposes two static Win32 functions.
// One is a delegate type and the other is an enumerated type.
public ref class MyWin32
{
public:

   // An enumerated type for the control messages sent to the handler routine.
   enum class CtrlTypes
   {
      CTRL_C_EVENT = 0,
      CTRL_BREAK_EVENT, CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT, CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT = 5,
      CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT
   };

   delegate Boolean HandlerRoutine(    // A delegate type to be used as the Handler Routine for SetConsoleCtrlHandler.
   CtrlTypes CtrlType );

   // Declare the SetConsoleCtrlHandler function as external and receiving a delegate.

   [DllImport("Kernel32")]
   static Boolean SetConsoleCtrlHandler( HandlerRoutine^ Handler, Boolean Add );
};

public ref class MyApp
{
private:

   // A private static handler function in the MyApp class.
   static Boolean Handler( MyWin32::CtrlTypes CtrlType )
   {
      String^ message = "This message should never be seen!";
      
      // A switch to handle the event type.
      switch ( CtrlType )
      {
         case MyWin32::CtrlTypes::CTRL_C_EVENT:
            message = "A CTRL_C_EVENT was raised by the user.";
            break;

         case MyWin32::CtrlTypes::CTRL_BREAK_EVENT:
            message = "A CTRL_BREAK_EVENT was raised by the user.";
            break;

         case MyWin32::CtrlTypes::CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT:
            message = "A CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT was raised by the user.";
            break;

         case MyWin32::CtrlTypes::CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT:
            message = "A CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT was raised by the user.";
            break;

         case MyWin32::CtrlTypes::CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT:
            message = "A CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT was raised by the user.";
            break;
      }
      
      // Use interop to display a message for the type of event.
      Console::WriteLine( message );
      return true;
   }


public:
   static void Test()
   {
      
      // Use interop to set a console control handler.
      MyWin32::HandlerRoutine^ hr = gcnew MyWin32::HandlerRoutine( Handler );
      MyWin32::SetConsoleCtrlHandler( hr, true );
      
      // Give the user some time to raise a few events.
      Console::WriteLine( "Waiting 30 seconds for console ctrl events..." );
      
      // The Object hr is not referred to again.
      // The garbage collector can detect that the object has no
      // more managed references and might clean it up here while
      // the unmanaged SetConsoleCtrlHandler method is still using it.
      // Force a garbage collection to demonstrate how the hr
      // object will be handled.
      GC::Collect();
      GC::WaitForPendingFinalizers();
      GC::Collect();
      Thread::Sleep( 30000 );
      
      // Display a message to the console when the unmanaged method
      // has finished its work.
      Console::WriteLine( "Finished!" );
      
      // Call GC::KeepAlive(hr) at this point to maintain a reference to hr.
      // This will prevent the garbage collector from collecting the
      // object during the execution of the SetConsoleCtrlHandler method.
      GC::KeepAlive( hr );
   }

};

int main()
{
   MyApp::Test();
}

using System;
using System.Threading;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

// A simple class that exposes two static Win32 functions.
// One is a delegate type and the other is an enumerated type.
public class MyWin32 
{
    // Declare the SetConsoleCtrlHandler function 
    // as external and receiving a delegate.   
    [DllImport("Kernel32")] 
    public static extern Boolean SetConsoleCtrlHandler(HandlerRoutine Handler, 
        Boolean Add);

    // A delegate type to be used as the handler routine 
    // for SetConsoleCtrlHandler.
    public delegate Boolean HandlerRoutine(CtrlTypes CtrlType);

    // An enumerated type for the control messages 
    // sent to the handler routine.
    public enum CtrlTypes 
    {
        CTRL_C_EVENT = 0,
        CTRL_BREAK_EVENT,
        CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT,   
        CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT = 5,
        CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT
    }
}

public class MyApp 
{
    // A private static handler function in the MyApp class.
    static Boolean Handler(MyWin32.CtrlTypes CtrlType)
    {
        String message = "This message should never be seen!";

        // A switch to handle the event type.
        switch(CtrlType)
        {
            case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_C_EVENT:
                message = "A CTRL_C_EVENT was raised by the user.";
                break;
            case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_BREAK_EVENT:
                message = "A CTRL_BREAK_EVENT was raised by the user.";
                break;
            case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT:   
                message = "A CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT was raised by the user.";
                break;
            case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT:
                message = "A CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT was raised by the user.";
                break;
            case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT:
                message = "A CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT was raised by the user.";
                break;
        }

        // Use interop to display a message for the type of event.
        Console.WriteLine(message);

        return true;
    }

    public static void Main()
    {         

        // Use interop to set a console control handler.
        MyWin32.HandlerRoutine hr = new MyWin32.HandlerRoutine(Handler);
        MyWin32.SetConsoleCtrlHandler(hr, true);

        // Give the user some time to raise a few events.
        Console.WriteLine("Waiting 30 seconds for console ctrl events...");

        // The object hr is not referred to again.
        // The garbage collector can detect that the object has no
        // more managed references and might clean it up here while
        // the unmanaged SetConsoleCtrlHandler method is still using it.      
        
        // Force a garbage collection to demonstrate how the hr
        // object will be handled.
        GC.Collect();
        GC.WaitForPendingFinalizers();
        GC.Collect();
        
        Thread.Sleep(30000);

        // Display a message to the console when the unmanaged method
        // has finished its work.
        Console.WriteLine("Finished!");

        // Call GC.KeepAlive(hr) at this point to maintain a reference to hr. 
        // This will prevent the garbage collector from collecting the 
        // object during the execution of the SetConsoleCtrlHandler method.
        GC.KeepAlive(hr);   
        Console.Read();
    }
}
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Runtime.InteropServices

' A simple class that exposes two static Win32 functions.
' One is a delegate type and the other is an enumerated type.

Public Class MyWin32

   ' Declare the SetConsoleCtrlHandler function as external 
   ' and receiving a delegate.   
   <DllImport("Kernel32")> _
   Public Shared Function SetConsoleCtrlHandler(ByVal Handler As HandlerRoutine, _
         ByVal Add As Boolean) As Boolean
   End Function


   ' A delegate type to be used as the handler routine 
   ' for SetConsoleCtrlHandler.
   Delegate Function HandlerRoutine(ByVal CtrlType As CtrlTypes) As [Boolean]

   ' An enumerated type for the control messages 
   ' sent to the handler routine.

   Public Enum CtrlTypes
      CTRL_C_EVENT = 0
      CTRL_BREAK_EVENT
      CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT
      CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT = 5
      CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT
   End Enum
End Class

Public Class MyApp

   ' A private static handler function in the MyApp class.
   Shared Function Handler(ByVal CtrlType As MyWin32.CtrlTypes) As [Boolean]
      Dim message As [String] = "This message should never be seen!"

      ' A select case to handle the event type.
      Select Case CtrlType
         Case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_C_EVENT
            message = "A CTRL_C_EVENT was raised by the user."
         Case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_BREAK_EVENT
            message = "A CTRL_BREAK_EVENT was raised by the user."
         Case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT
            message = "A CTRL_CLOSE_EVENT was raised by the user."
         Case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT
            message = "A CTRL_LOGOFF_EVENT was raised by the user."
         Case MyWin32.CtrlTypes.CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT
            message = "A CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT was raised by the user."
      End Select

      ' Use interop to display a message for the type of event.
      Console.WriteLine(message)

      Return True
   End Function


   Public Shared Sub Main()
      ' Use interop to set a console control handler.
      Dim hr As New MyWin32.HandlerRoutine(AddressOf Handler)
      MyWin32.SetConsoleCtrlHandler(hr, True)

      ' Give the user some time to raise a few events.
      Console.WriteLine("Waiting 30 seconds for console ctrl events...")

      ' The object hr is not referred to again.
      ' The garbage collector can detect that the object has no
      ' more managed references and might clean it up here while
      ' the unmanaged SetConsoleCtrlHandler method is still using it.      
      ' Force a garbage collection to demonstrate how the hr
      ' object will be handled.
      GC.Collect()
      GC.WaitForPendingFinalizers()
      GC.Collect()

      Thread.Sleep(30000)

      ' Display a message to the console when the unmanaged method
      ' has finished its work.
      Console.WriteLine("Finished!")

      ' Call GC.KeepAlive(hr) at this point to maintain a reference to hr. 
      ' This will prevent the garbage collector from collecting the 
      ' object during the execution of the SetConsoleCtrlHandler method.
      GC.KeepAlive(hr)
      Console.Read()
   End Sub
End Class

注解

KeepAlive 方法的目的是确保存在对某个对象的引用,而该对象存在于垃圾回收器过早回收的风险。The purpose of the KeepAlive method is to ensure the existence of a reference to an object that is at risk of being prematurely reclaimed by the garbage collector. 这种情况的常见情况是,在托管代码或数据中没有对该对象的引用,但该对象仍在非托管代码(如 Windows Api、非托管 Dll 或使用 COM 的方法)中使用。A common scenario where this might happen is when there are no references to the object in managed code or data, but the object is still in use in unmanaged code such as Windows APIs, unmanaged DLLs, or methods using COM.

此方法引用 obj 参数,使该对象不符合从例程开始到调用此方法的点的垃圾回收。This method references the obj parameter, making that object ineligible for garbage collection from the start of the routine to the point, in execution order, where this method is called. obj 必须可用的指令范围的结尾(而不是开始)对此方法进行编码。Code this method at the end, not the beginning, of the range of instructions where obj must be available.

KeepAlive 方法不执行任何操作,并且不会对作为参数传递的对象的生存期进行扩展,因此不会产生副作用。The KeepAlive method performs no operation and produces no side effects other than extending the lifetime of the object passed in as a parameter.

适用于