IComparable<T>.CompareTo(T) 方法

定义

将当前实例与同一类型的另一个对象进行比较,并返回一个整数,该整数指示当前实例在排序顺序中的位置是位于另一个对象之前、之后还是与其位置相同。

public:
 int CompareTo(T other);
public int CompareTo (T other);
public int CompareTo (T? other);
abstract member CompareTo : 'T -> int
Public Function CompareTo (other As T) As Integer

参数

other
T

与此实例进行比较的对象。

返回

Int32

一个值,指示要比较的对象的相对顺序。 返回值的含义如下:

含义
小于零 此实例在排序顺序中位于 other 之前。
此实例在排序顺序中的位置与 other 相同。
大于零 此实例在排序顺序中位于 other 之后。

示例

下面的代码示例演示了简单Temperature对象的实现IComparable<T>。 此示例使用Temperature对象键创建字符串SortedList<TKey,TValue>集合,并将多个温度和字符串对添加到序列外的列表。 在对方法的调用 Add 中, SortedList<TKey,TValue> 集合使用 IComparable<T> 实现对列表项进行排序,然后按温度上升的顺序显示列表条目。

#using <System.dll>

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

public ref class Temperature: public IComparable<Temperature^> {

protected:
   // The underlying temperature value.
   Double m_value;

public:
   // Implement the generic CompareTo method with the Temperature class 
   // as the Type parameter. 
   virtual Int32 CompareTo( Temperature^ other ) {
   
      // If other is not a valid object reference, this instance 
      // is greater.
      if (other == nullptr) return 1;
      
      // The temperature comparison depends on the comparison of the
      // the underlying Double values. 
      return m_value.CompareTo( other->m_value );
   }

       // Define the is greater than operator.
    bool operator>=  (Temperature^ other)
    {
       return CompareTo(other) >= 0;
    }
    
    // Define the is less than operator.
    bool operator<  (Temperature^ other)
    {
       return CompareTo(other) < 0;
    }
    
       // Define the is greater than or equal to operator.
    bool operator>  (Temperature^ other)
    {
       return CompareTo(other) > 0;
    }
    
    // Define the is less than or equal to operator.
    bool operator<=  (Temperature^ other)
    {
       return CompareTo(other) <= 0;
    }

   property Double Celsius {
      Double get() {
         return m_value + 273.15;
      }
   }

   property Double Kelvin {
      Double get() {
         return m_value;
      }
      void set( Double value ) {
         if (value < 0)
            throw gcnew ArgumentException("Temperature cannot be less than absolute zero.");
         else
            m_value = value;
      }
   }

   Temperature(Double kelvins) {
      this->Kelvin = kelvins;
   }
};

int main() {
   SortedList<Temperature^, String^>^ temps = 
      gcnew SortedList<Temperature^, String^>();

   // Add entries to the sorted list, out of order.
   temps->Add(gcnew Temperature(2017.15), "Boiling point of Lead");
   temps->Add(gcnew Temperature(0), "Absolute zero");
   temps->Add(gcnew Temperature(273.15), "Freezing point of water");
   temps->Add(gcnew Temperature(5100.15), "Boiling point of Carbon");
   temps->Add(gcnew Temperature(373.15), "Boiling point of water");
   temps->Add(gcnew Temperature(600.65), "Melting point of Lead");

   for each( KeyValuePair<Temperature^, String^>^ kvp in temps )
   {
      Console::WriteLine("{0} is {1} degrees Celsius.", kvp->Value, kvp->Key->Celsius);
   }
}
/* The example displays the following output:
      Absolute zero is 273.15 degrees Celsius.
      Freezing point of water is 546.3 degrees Celsius.
      Boiling point of water is 646.3 degrees Celsius.
      Melting point of Lead is 873.8 degrees Celsius.
      Boiling point of Lead is 2290.3 degrees Celsius.
      Boiling point of Carbon is 5373.3 degrees Celsius.
*/
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Temperature : IComparable<Temperature>
{
    // Implement the generic CompareTo method with the Temperature
    // class as the Type parameter.
    //
    public int CompareTo(Temperature other)
    {
        // If other is not a valid object reference, this instance is greater.
        if (other == null) return 1;

        // The temperature comparison depends on the comparison of
        // the underlying Double values.
        return m_value.CompareTo(other.m_value);
    }

    // Define the is greater than operator.
    public static bool operator >  (Temperature operand1, Temperature operand2)
    {
       return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) > 0;
    }

    // Define the is less than operator.
    public static bool operator <  (Temperature operand1, Temperature operand2)
    {
       return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) < 0;
    }

    // Define the is greater than or equal to operator.
    public static bool operator >=  (Temperature operand1, Temperature operand2)
    {
       return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) >= 0;
    }

    // Define the is less than or equal to operator.
    public static bool operator <=  (Temperature operand1, Temperature operand2)
    {
       return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) <= 0;
    }

    // The underlying temperature value.
    protected double m_value = 0.0;

    public double Celsius
    {
        get
        {
            return m_value - 273.15;
        }
    }

    public double Kelvin
    {
        get
        {
            return m_value;
        }
        set
        {
            if (value < 0.0)
            {
                throw new ArgumentException("Temperature cannot be less than absolute zero.");
            }
            else
            {
                m_value = value;
            }
        }
    }

    public Temperature(double kelvins)
    {
        this.Kelvin = kelvins;
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        SortedList<Temperature, string> temps =
            new SortedList<Temperature, string>();

        // Add entries to the sorted list, out of order.
        temps.Add(new Temperature(2017.15), "Boiling point of Lead");
        temps.Add(new Temperature(0), "Absolute zero");
        temps.Add(new Temperature(273.15), "Freezing point of water");
        temps.Add(new Temperature(5100.15), "Boiling point of Carbon");
        temps.Add(new Temperature(373.15), "Boiling point of water");
        temps.Add(new Temperature(600.65), "Melting point of Lead");

        foreach( KeyValuePair<Temperature, string> kvp in temps )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} degrees Celsius.", kvp.Value, kvp.Key.Celsius);
        }
    }
}
/* This example displays the following output:
      Absolute zero is -273.15 degrees Celsius.
      Freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius.
      Boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius.
      Melting point of Lead is 327.5 degrees Celsius.
      Boiling point of Lead is 1744 degrees Celsius.
      Boiling point of Carbon is 4827 degrees Celsius.
*/
open System
open System.Collections.Generic

type Temperature(kelvins: double) =
    // The underlying temperature value.
    let mutable kelvins = kelvins

    do 
        if kelvins < 0. then
            invalidArg (nameof kelvins) "Temperature cannot be less than absolute zero."

    // Define the is greater than operator.
    static member op_GreaterThan (operand1: Temperature, operand2: Temperature) =
        operand1.CompareTo operand2 > 0

    // Define the is less than operator.
    static member op_LessThan (operand1: Temperature, operand2: Temperature) =
        operand1.CompareTo operand2 < 0

    // Define the is greater than or equal to operator.
    static member op_GreaterThanOrEqual (operand1: Temperature, operand2: Temperature) =
        operand1.CompareTo operand2 >= 0

    // Define the is less than or equal to operator.
    static member op_LessThanOrEqual (operand1: Temperature, operand2: Temperature) =
        operand1.CompareTo operand2 <= 0

    member _.Celsius =
        kelvins - 273.15

    member _.Kelvin
        with get () =
            kelvins
        and set (value) =
            if value < 0. then
                invalidArg (nameof value) "Temperature cannot be less than absolute zero."
            else
                kelvins <- value

    // Implement the generic CompareTo method with the Temperature
    // class as the Type parameter.
    member _.CompareTo(other: Temperature) =
        // If other is not a valid object reference, this instance is greater.
        match box other with
        | null -> 1
        | _ ->
            // The temperature comparison depends on the comparison of
            // the underlying Double values.
            kelvins.CompareTo(other.Kelvin)

    interface IComparable<Temperature> with
        member this.CompareTo(other) = this.CompareTo other

let temps = SortedList()

// Add entries to the sorted list, out of order.
temps.Add(Temperature 2017.15, "Boiling point of Lead")
temps.Add(Temperature 0., "Absolute zero")
temps.Add(Temperature 273.15, "Freezing point of water")
temps.Add(Temperature 5100.15, "Boiling point of Carbon")
temps.Add(Temperature 373.15, "Boiling point of water")
temps.Add(Temperature 600.65, "Melting point of Lead")

for kvp in temps do
    printfn $"{kvp.Value} is {kvp.Key.Celsius} degrees Celsius."

//  This example displays the following output:
//       Absolute zero is -273.15 degrees Celsius.
//       Freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius.
//       Boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius.
//       Melting point of Lead is 327.5 degrees Celsius.
//       Boiling point of Lead is 1744 degrees Celsius.
//       Boiling point of Carbon is 4827 degrees Celsius.
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Temperature
    Implements IComparable(Of Temperature)

    ' Implement the generic CompareTo method with the Temperature class 
    ' as the type parameter. 
    '
    Public Overloads Function CompareTo(ByVal other As Temperature) As Integer _
        Implements IComparable(Of Temperature).CompareTo

        ' If other is not a valid object reference, this instance is greater.
        If other Is Nothing Then Return 1
        
        ' The temperature comparison depends on the comparison of the
        ' the underlying Double values. 
        Return m_value.CompareTo(other.m_value)
    End Function
    
    ' Define the is greater than operator.
    Public Shared Operator >  (operand1 As Temperature, operand2 As Temperature) As Boolean
       Return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) > 0
    End Operator
    
    ' Define the is less than operator.
    Public Shared Operator <  (operand1 As Temperature, operand2 As Temperature) As Boolean
       Return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) < 0
    End Operator

    ' Define the is greater than or equal to operator.
    Public Shared Operator >=  (operand1 As Temperature, operand2 As Temperature) As Boolean
       Return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) >= 0
    End Operator
    
    ' Define the is less than operator.
    Public Shared Operator <=  (operand1 As Temperature, operand2 As Temperature) As Boolean
       Return operand1.CompareTo(operand2) <= 0
    End Operator

    ' The underlying temperature value.
    Protected m_value As Double = 0.0

    Public ReadOnly Property Celsius() As Double
        Get
            Return m_value - 273.15
        End Get
    End Property

    Public Property Kelvin() As Double
        Get
            Return m_value
        End Get
        Set(ByVal Value As Double)
            If value < 0.0 Then 
                Throw New ArgumentException("Temperature cannot be less than absolute zero.")
            Else
                m_value = Value
            End If
        End Set
    End Property

    Public Sub New(ByVal kelvins As Double)
        Me.Kelvin = kelvins 
    End Sub
End Class

Public Class Example
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Dim temps As New SortedList(Of Temperature, String)

        ' Add entries to the sorted list, out of order.
        temps.Add(New Temperature(2017.15), "Boiling point of Lead")
        temps.Add(New Temperature(0), "Absolute zero")
        temps.Add(New Temperature(273.15), "Freezing point of water")
        temps.Add(New Temperature(5100.15), "Boiling point of Carbon")
        temps.Add(New Temperature(373.15), "Boiling point of water")
        temps.Add(New Temperature(600.65), "Melting point of Lead")

        For Each kvp As KeyValuePair(Of Temperature, String) In temps
            Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} degrees Celsius.", kvp.Value, kvp.Key.Celsius)
        Next
    End Sub
End Class

' The example displays the following output:
'      Absolute zero is -273.15 degrees Celsius.
'      Freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius.
'      Boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius.
'      Melting point of Lead is 327.5 degrees Celsius.
'      Boiling point of Lead is 1744 degrees Celsius.
'      Boiling point of Carbon is 4827 degrees Celsius.
'

注解

CompareTo 提供强类型比较方法,用于对泛型集合对象的成员进行排序。 因此,通常不会直接从开发人员代码调用它。 相反,它由方法(如 List<T>.Sort()Add)自动调用。

此方法只是一个定义,必须由特定类或值类型实现才能生效。 “返回值”部分中指定的比较的含义 (“前面”、“在同一位置发生”,“遵循) 取决于特定实现。

根据定义,任何对象都比较大于 null,两个 null 引用相互比较相等。

实施者说明

对于对象 A、B 和 C,以下内容必须为 true: A.CompareTo ( 返回零需要 A) 。

如果 A.CompareTo (B) 返回零,则需要 B.CompareTo (A) 才能返回零。

如果 A.CompareTo (B) 返回零,并且 B.CompareTo (C) 返回零,则需要 A.CompareTo (C) 返回零。

如果 A.CompareTo (B) 返回除零以外的值,则需要 B.CompareTo (A) 才能返回相反符号的值。

如果 A.CompareTo (B) 返回x的值不等于零,并且 B.CompareTo (C) 返回与同一个符号x的值y,则需要 A.CompareTo (C) 返回与和y相同的符号x的值。

调用方说明

使用该方法 CompareTo(T) 确定类实例的排序。

适用于

另请参阅