Control.KeyDown 事件

定义

在控件有焦点的情况下按下键时发生。Occurs when a key is pressed while the control has focus.

public:
 event System::Windows::Forms::KeyEventHandler ^ KeyDown;
public event System.Windows.Forms.KeyEventHandler KeyDown;
member this.KeyDown : System.Windows.Forms.KeyEventHandler 
Public Custom Event KeyDown As KeyEventHandler 

示例

下面的代码示例使用 KeyDown 事件确定输入到控件中的字符的类型。The following code example uses the KeyDown event to determine the type of character entered into the control.

   // Boolean flag used to determine when a character other than a number is entered.
private:
   bool nonNumberEntered;

   // Handle the KeyDown event to determine the type of character entered into the control.
   void textBox1_KeyDown( Object^ /*sender*/, System::Windows::Forms::KeyEventArgs^ e )
   {
      // Initialize the flag to false.
      nonNumberEntered = false;

      // Determine whether the keystroke is a number from the top of the keyboard.
      if ( e->KeyCode < Keys::D0 || e->KeyCode > Keys::D9 )
      {
         // Determine whether the keystroke is a number from the keypad.
         if ( e->KeyCode < Keys::NumPad0 || e->KeyCode > Keys::NumPad9 )
         {
            // Determine whether the keystroke is a backspace.
            if ( e->KeyCode != Keys::Back )
            {
               // A non-numerical keystroke was pressed.
               // Set the flag to true and evaluate in KeyPress event.
               nonNumberEntered = true;
            }
         }
      }
      //If shift key was pressed, it's not a number.
      if (Control::ModifierKeys == Keys::Shift) {
         nonNumberEntered = true;
      }
   }

   // This event occurs after the KeyDown event and can be used to prevent
   // characters from entering the control.
   void textBox1_KeyPress( Object^ /*sender*/, System::Windows::Forms::KeyPressEventArgs^ e )
   {
      // Check for the flag being set in the KeyDown event.
      if ( nonNumberEntered == true )
      {         // Stop the character from being entered into the control since it is non-numerical.
         e->Handled = true;
      }
   }
// Boolean flag used to determine when a character other than a number is entered.
private bool nonNumberEntered = false;

// Handle the KeyDown event to determine the type of character entered into the control.
private void textBox1_KeyDown(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.KeyEventArgs e)
{
    // Initialize the flag to false.
    nonNumberEntered = false;

    // Determine whether the keystroke is a number from the top of the keyboard.
    if (e.KeyCode < Keys.D0 || e.KeyCode > Keys.D9)
    {
        // Determine whether the keystroke is a number from the keypad.
        if (e.KeyCode < Keys.NumPad0 || e.KeyCode > Keys.NumPad9)
        {
            // Determine whether the keystroke is a backspace.
            if(e.KeyCode != Keys.Back)
            {
                // A non-numerical keystroke was pressed.
                // Set the flag to true and evaluate in KeyPress event.
                nonNumberEntered = true;
            }
        }
    }
    //If shift key was pressed, it's not a number.
    if (Control.ModifierKeys == Keys.Shift) {
        nonNumberEntered = true;
    }
}

// This event occurs after the KeyDown event and can be used to prevent
// characters from entering the control.
private void textBox1_KeyPress(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.KeyPressEventArgs e)
{
    // Check for the flag being set in the KeyDown event.
    if (nonNumberEntered == true)
    {
        // Stop the character from being entered into the control since it is non-numerical.
        e.Handled = true;
    }
}

 ' Boolean flag used to determine when a character other than a number is entered.
 Private nonNumberEntered As Boolean = False


 ' Handle the KeyDown event to determine the type of character entered into the control.
 Private Sub textBox1_KeyDown(sender As Object, e As System.Windows.Forms.KeyEventArgs) _
      Handles textBox1.KeyDown
     ' Initialize the flag to false.
     nonNumberEntered = False
   
     ' Determine whether the keystroke is a number from the top of the keyboard.
     If e.KeyCode < Keys.D0 OrElse e.KeyCode > Keys.D9 Then
         ' Determine whether the keystroke is a number from the keypad.
         If e.KeyCode < Keys.NumPad0 OrElse e.KeyCode > Keys.NumPad9 Then
             ' Determine whether the keystroke is a backspace.
             If e.KeyCode <> Keys.Back Then
                 ' A non-numerical keystroke was pressed. 
                 ' Set the flag to true and evaluate in KeyPress event.
                 nonNumberEntered = True
             End If
         End If
     End If
     'If shift key was pressed, it's not a number.
     If Control.ModifierKeys = Keys.Shift Then
         nonNumberEntered = true
     End If
 End Sub


 ' This event occurs after the KeyDown event and can be used 
 ' to prevent characters from entering the control.
 Private Sub textBox1_KeyPress(sender As Object, e As System.Windows.Forms.KeyPressEventArgs) _
     Handles textBox1.KeyPress
     ' Check for the flag being set in the KeyDown event.
     If nonNumberEntered = True Then
         ' Stop the character from being entered into the control since it is non-numerical.
         e.Handled = True
     End If
 End Sub

下面的代码示例演示了引发 KeyDownKeyUpKeyPress 事件的顺序,以及如何在这些事件上注册事件处理程序。The following code example demonstrates the order of raising the KeyDown, KeyUp, KeyPress events, and how to register event handlers on them.

public partial class Form2 : Form
{
    public Form2()
    {
        InitializeComponent();
        textBox2.Multiline = true;
        textBox2.ScrollBars = ScrollBars.Both;

        //Setup events that listens on keypress
        textBox1.KeyDown += TextBox1_KeyDown;
        textBox1.KeyPress += TextBox1_KeyPress;
        textBox1.KeyUp += TextBox1_KeyUp;
    }

    // Handle the KeyUp event to print the type of character entered into the control.
    private void TextBox1_KeyUp(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
    {
        textBox2.AppendText( $"KeyUp code: {e.KeyCode}, value: {e.KeyValue}, modifiers: {e.Modifiers}" + "\r\n");
    }

    // Handle the KeyPress event to print the type of character entered into the control.
    private void TextBox1_KeyPress(object sender, KeyPressEventArgs e)
    {
        textBox2.AppendText( $"KeyPress keychar: {e.KeyChar}" + "\r\n");
    }

    // Handle the KeyDown event to print the type of character entered into the control.
    private void TextBox1_KeyDown(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
    {
        textBox2.AppendText( $"KeyDown code: {e.KeyCode}, value: {e.KeyValue}, modifiers: {e.Modifiers}" + "\r\n");
    }
}
Public Class Form2

    ' Handle the KeyDown event to print the type of character entered into the control.
    Private Sub TextBox1_KeyDown(sender As Object, e As KeyEventArgs) Handles TextBox1.KeyDown
        TextBox2.AppendText($"KeyDown code: {e.KeyCode}, value: {e.KeyValue}, modifiers: {e.Modifiers}" + vbCrLf)
    End Sub

    ' Handle the KeyPress event to print the type of character entered into the control.
    Private Sub TextBox1_KeyPress(sender As Object, e As KeyPressEventArgs) Handles TextBox1.KeyPress
        TextBox2.AppendText($"KeyPress keychar: {e.KeyChar}" + vbCrLf)
    End Sub

    ' Handle the KeyUp event to print the type of character entered into the control.
    Private Sub TextBox1_KeyUp(sender As Object, e As KeyEventArgs) Handles TextBox1.KeyUp
        TextBox2.AppendText($"KeyUp code: {e.KeyCode}, value: {e.KeyValue}, modifiers: {e.Modifiers}" + vbCrLf)
    End Sub

End Class

注解

键事件按以下顺序发生:Key events occur in the following order:

  1. KeyDown

  2. KeyPress

  3. KeyUp

若要仅在窗体级别处理键盘事件,而不允许其他控件接收键盘事件,请将窗体的 KeyPress 事件处理方法中的 KeyPressEventArgs.Handled 属性设置为 trueTo handle keyboard events only at the form level and not enable other controls to receive keyboard events, set the KeyPressEventArgs.Handled property in your form's KeyPress event-handling method to true. 某些键(如 TAB、RETURN、ESC 和箭头键)会自动由控件处理。Certain keys, such as the TAB, RETURN, ESC, and arrow keys are handled by controls automatically. 若要使这些键引发 KeyDown 事件,必须重写窗体上每个控件中的 IsInputKey 方法。To have these keys raise the KeyDown event, you must override the IsInputKey method in each control on your form. 用于重写 IsInputKey 的代码需要确定是否按下了一个特殊键,并将值返回 trueThe code for the override of the IsInputKey would need to determine if one of the special keys is pressed and return a value of true. 您可以处理 PreviewKeyDown 事件,并将 IsInputKey 属性设置为 true,而不是重写 IsInputKey 方法。Instead of overriding the IsInputKey method, you can handle the PreviewKeyDown event and set the IsInputKey property to true. 有关代码示例,请参阅 PreviewKeyDown 事件。For a code example, see the PreviewKeyDown event.

有关处理事件的详细信息,请参阅处理和引发事件For more information about handling events, see Handling and Raising Events.

适用于

另请参阅