了解保留策略和保留标签Learn about retention policies and retention labels

Microsoft 365 安全性与合规性许可指南Microsoft 365 licensing guidance for security & compliance.

对于大多数组织,数据量和数据复杂性每天都在增加 — 包括电子邮件、文档、即时消息等。有效管理或管理此类信息非常重要,因为要:For most organizations, the volume and complexity of their data is increasing daily—email, documents, instant messages, and more. Effectively managing or governing this information is important because you need to:

  • 主动遵守规定至少必须在一段时间内保留内容的行业法规和内部策略:例如,《萨班斯-奥克斯利法案》规定,必须保留特定类型的内容七年。Comply proactively with industry regulations and internal policies that require you to retain content for a minimum period of time—for example, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act might require you to retain certain types of content for seven years.

  • 降低发生诉讼或出现安全漏洞的风险:通过永久删除不再需要保留的旧内容。Reduce your risk in the event of litigation or a security breach by permanently deleting old content that you're no longer required to keep.

  • 帮助组织有效共享知识并提高敏捷性:通过确保用户仅处理与自己相关的最新内容。Help your organization to share knowledge effectively and be more agile by ensuring that your users work only with content that's current and relevant to them.

你配置的保留设置可以帮助你实现所有这些目标。管理内容通常需要执行以下两项操作:Retention settings that you configure can help you achieve all these goals. Managing content commonly requires two actions:

  • 保留 内容,这样除非保留期到期,否则无法永久删除内容。Retaining content so that it can't be permanently deleted before the end of the retention period.

  • 在保留期到期时永久 删除 内容。Deleting content permanently at the end of the retention period.

通过这两项保留操作,可以配置保留设置来实现以下结果:With these two retention actions, you can configure retention settings for the following outcomes:

  • 仅保留:永久或在指定的时间段内保留内容。Retain-only: Retain content forever or for a specified period of time.
  • 仅删除:在指定的时间段后删除内容。Delete-only: Delete content after a specified period of time.
  • 保留后删除:在指定的时间段内保留内容后删除内容。Retain and then delete: Retain content for a specified period of time and then delete it.

这些保留设置应用于在适当位置上的内容,如果你出于合规性原因需要保留内容,它们可以为你节省创建和配置附加存储的额外开销。另外,无需实现自定义流程来复制和同步此数据。These retention settings work with content in place that saves you the additional overheads of creating and configuring additional storage when you need to retain content for compliance reasons. In addition, you don't need to implement customized processes to copy and synchronize this data.

保留设置如何应用于在适当位置上的内容How retention settings work with content in place

分配有保留设置的内容保留在它的原始位置上。用户可以继续使用其文档或邮件,就像没有发生任何变动一样。但如果他们编辑或删除了包含在保留策略中的内容,则会自动保留一份内容的副本。When content has retention settings assigned to it, that content remains in its original location. People can continue to work with their documents or mail as if nothing's changed. But if they edit or delete content that's included in the retention policy, a copy of the content is automatically retained.

  • 对于 SharePoint 和 OneDrive 网站:副本保留在 保留 库中。For SharePoint and OneDrive sites: The copy is retained in the Preservation Hold library.

  • 对于 Exchange 邮箱:副本保留在“可恢复项”文件夹中。For Exchange mailboxes: The copy is retained in the Recoverable Items folder.

  • 对于 Teams 和 Yammer 消息:副本保留在 Exchange“可恢复项”文件夹内名为“SubstrateHolds”的隐藏文件夹中。For Teams and Yammer messages: The copy is retained in a hidden folder named SubstrateHolds as a subfolder in the Exchange Recoverable Items folder.

备注

保留库占用的存储不计入网站的存储配额。在对 SharePoint 和 Microsoft 365 组使用保留设置时,你可能需要增加存储空间。The Preservation Hold library consumes storage that isn't exempt from a site's storage quota. You might need to increase your storage when you use retention settings for SharePoint and Microsoft 365 groups.

这些安全位置和保留内容对大部分用户不可见。在大多数情况下,用户甚至不需要知道他们的内容遵循保留设置。These secure locations and the retained content are not visible to most people. In most cases, people do not even need to know that their content is subject to retention settings.

若要详细了解保留设置如何用于不同的工作负载,请参阅以下文章:For more detailed information about how retention settings work for different workloads, see the following articles:

保留策略和保留标签Retention policies and retention labels

可以使用保留策略和带有标签策略的保留标签来为内容分配保留设置。You can use both retention policies and retention labels with label policies to assign your retention settings to content.

使用保留策略可以在网站或邮箱级别为内容分配相同的保留设置,使用保留标签可以在项(文件夹、文档、电子邮件)级别分配保留设置。Use a retention policy to assign the same retention settings for content at a site or mailbox level, and use a retention label to assign retention settings at an item level (folder, document, email).

例如,如果某 SharePoint 网站中的所有文档都应保留 5 年,那么使用保留策略比将相同的保留标签应用于此网站中的所有文档更高效。但是,如果该网站中的一些文档应保留 5 年,另一些文档应保留 10 年,那么保留策略就无法实现这一点。如果需要在项级别指定保留设置,请使用保留标签。For example, if all documents in a SharePoint site should be retained for 5 years, it's more efficient to do this with a retention policy than apply the same retention label to all documents in that site. However, if some documents in that site should be retained for 5 years and others retained for 10 years, a retention policy wouldn't be able to do this. When you need to specify retention settings at the item level, use retention labels.

与保留策略不同,如果内容移动到 Microsoft 365 租户内的不同位置,保留标签的保留设置会随着内容移动而移动。另外,保留标签具有保留策略不支持的以下功能:Unlike retention policies, retention settings from retention labels travel with the content if it’s moved to a different location within your Microsoft 365 tenant. In addition, retention labels have the following capabilities that retention policies don't support:

  • 除了根据内容年限或上次修改时间计算保留期之外,还可以从内容被标记时或根据事件开始计算保留期。Options to start the retention period from when the content was labeled or based on an event, in addition to the age of the content or when it was last modified.

  • 使用可训练的分类器来标识要标记的内容。Use trainable classifiers to identify content to label.

  • 为 SharePoint 文档应用默认标签。Apply a default label for SharePoint documents.

  • 支持处置评审 ,以在永久删除内容前评审内容。Support disposition review to review the content before it's permanently deleted.

  • 将内容标记为记录作为标签设置的一部分,并对在保留期结束时删除的内容始终都有 处置证明 。Mark the content as a record as part of the label settings, and always have proof of disposition when content is deleted at the end of its retention period.

保留策略Retention policies

可以将保留策略应用于以下位置:Retention policies can be applied to the following locations:

  • Exchange 电子邮件Exchange email
  • SharePoint 网站SharePoint site
  • OneDrive 账户OneDrive accounts
  • Microsoft 365 组Microsoft 365 Groups
  • Skype for BusinessSkype for Business
  • Exchange 公用文件夹Exchange public folders
  • Teams 通道消息Teams channel messages
  • Teams 聊天Teams chats
  • yammer 社区消息Yammer community messages
  • Yammer 私信Yammer private messages

可以非常高效地将一个策略应用于多个位置,也可以应用于特定的位置或用户。You can very efficiently apply a single policy to multiple locations, or to specific locations or users.

对于保留期的开始,你可以选择内容创建的时间,或者上次修改内容的时间(仅支持文件和 SharePoint、OneDrive 和 Microsoft 365 组位置)。For the start of the retention period, you can choose when the content was created or, supported only for files and the SharePoint, OneDrive, and Microsoft 365 Groups locations, when the content was last modified.

项目从保留策略所指定的容器中继承保留设置。Items inherit the retention settings from their container specified in the retention policy. 如果当策略配置为保留内容之后将它们移动到该容器之外,则该项目的副本将保留在工作负载的安全位置。If they are then moved outside that container when the policy is configured to retain content, a copy of that item is retained in the workload's secured location. 然而,保留设置不会随着内容在新的位置而一起移动。However, the retention settings don't travel with the content in its new location. 如果需要,请使用保留标签而不是保留策略。If that's required, use retention labels instead of retention policies.

保留标签Retention labels

对于需要不同保留设置的不同类型的内容,可以使用保留标签。Use retention labels for different types of content that require different retention settings. 例如:For example:

  • 至少必须保留一段时间的税务表单。Tax forms that need to be retained for a minimum period of time.

  • 达到特定年限后必须永久删除的新闻材料。Press materials that need to be permanently deleted when they reach a specific age.

  • 必须在保留一段时间后永久删除的竞争性研究。Competitive research that needs to be retained for a specific period and then permanently deleted.

  • 必须标记为记录以免被编辑或删除的工作签证。Work visas that must be marked as a record so that they can't be edited or deleted.

在所有这些情况下,可以使用保留标签在项(文档或电子邮件)级别应用保留设置来实现管理控制。In all these cases, retention labels let you apply retention settings for governance control at the item level (document or email).

使用保留标签,你可以:With retention labels, you can:

  • 允许组织中的人员将保留标签手动应用于 Outlook 和 Outlook 网页版、OneDrive、SharePoint​​ 和 Microsoft 365 组中的内容。Enable people in your organization to apply a retention label manually to content in Outlook and Outlook on the web, OneDrive, SharePoint, and Microsoft 365 groups. 用户通常最了解自己处理的内容的类型,因此他们可以对内容进行分类,并应用适当的保留设置。Users often know best what type of content they're working with, so they can classify it and have the appropriate retention settings applied.

  • 将保留标签自动应用于 符合特定条件的内容,如内容包含:Apply retention labels to content automatically if it matches specific conditions, such as when the content contains:

    • 特定类型敏感信息。Specific types of sensitive information.
    • 与所创建的查询匹配的特定关键字。Specific keywords that match a query you create.
    • 可训练分类器的模式匹配。Pattern matches for a trainable classifier.
  • 从内容被标记时开始计算保留期,适用于 SharePoint 网站和 OneDrive 帐户中的文档,以及除日历项外的电子邮件项。Start the retention period from when the content was labeled for documents in SharePoint sites and OneDrive accounts, and to email items with the exception of calendar items. 如果你将具有此配置的保留标签应用于日历项,保留期从日历项发送时开始计算。If you apply a retention label with this configuration to a calendar item, the retention period starts from when it is sent.

  • 从事件发生时开始计算保留期,如员工离开组织或合同到期。Start the retention period when an event occurs, such as employees leave the organization, or contracts expire.

  • 将默认保留标签应用于 SharePoint 中的文档库、文件夹或文档集,以让存储在该位置的所有文档都继承默认保留标签。Apply a default retention label to a document library, folder, or document set in SharePoint, so that all documents that are stored in that location inherit the default retention label.

此外,保留标签支持跨 Microsoft 365 应用和服务对电子邮件和文档实施记录管理Additionally, retention labels support records management for email and documents across Microsoft 365 apps and services. 可使用保留标签将项目标记为记录。You can use a retention label to mark items as a record. 如果发生这种情况,而内容仍保留在 Microsoft 365 中,则标签会对内容进行进一步的限制,这可能是监管原因所致。When this happens and the content remains in Microsoft 365, the label places further restrictions on the content that might be needed for regulatory reasons. 有关详细信息,请参阅比较对允许或阻止的操作的限制For more information, see Compare restrictions for what actions are allowed or blocked.

如果内容被移动到 Microsoft 365 之外,则保留标签将不会继续存在,这一点与敏感度标签是不同的。Retention labels, unlike sensitivity labels, do not persist if the content is moved outside Microsoft 365.

租户支持的保留标签数没有限制。There is no limit to the number of retention labels that are supported for a tenant. 但是,租户支持的最大策略数为 10,000,其中包括应用标签的策略(保留标签策略和自动应用保留策略)以及保留策略。However, 10,000 is the maximum number of policies that are supported for a tenant and these include the policies that apply the labels (retention label policies and auto-apply retention policies), as well as retention policies.

对内容分类但不执行任何操作Classifying content without applying any actions

虽然保留标签的主要用途是保留或删除内容,但也可以在使用保留标签时不启用任何保留或其他操作。Although the main purpose of retention labels is to retain or delete content, you can also use retention labels without turning on any retention or other actions. 在这种情况下,可以简单地将保留标签用作文本标签,而不强制执行任何操作。In this case, you can use a retention label simply as a text label, without enforcing any actions.

例如,可以创建并应用名为“稍后评审”且不含任何操作的保留标签,稍后使用此标签来查找相应内容。For example, you can create and apply a retention label named "Review later" with no actions, and then use that label to find that content later.

将设置标记为仅分类

将保留标签用作 DLP 策略中的条件Using a retention label as a condition in a DLP policy

对于 SharePoint 中的文档,可以将保留标签指定为数据丢失防护 (DLP) 策略中的条件。You can specify a retention label as a condition in a data loss prevention (DLP) policy for documents in SharePoint. 例如,配置一个 DLP 策略,以防在组织外部共享应用了指定保留标签的文档。For example, configure a DLP policy to prevent documents from being shared outside the organization if they have a specified retention label applied to it.

有关详细信息,请参阅将保留标签用作 DLP 策略中的条件For more information, see Using a retention label as a condition in a DLP policy.

保留标签和应用它们的策略Retention labels and policies that apply them

保留标签是独立的可重用的构建基块。Retention labels are independent, reusable building blocks. 保留标签策略的主要目的是对一组保留标签进行分组,并指定要显示标签的位置。The primary purpose of a retention label policy is to group a set of retention labels and specify the locations where you want those labels to appear. 然后,管理员和用户可以将这些标签应用于这些位置中的内容。Then, admins and users can apply those labels to content in those locations.

标签、标签策略和位置的关系图

在你发布保留标签后,它们包含在保留标签策略中,以供管理员和用户选择:When you publish retention labels, they're included in a retention label policy that make them available for admins and users to select:

  • 一个保留标签可以包含在多个保留标签策略中。A single retention label can be included in many retention label policies.

  • 保留标签策略指定了保留标签的发布位置。Retention label policies specify the locations to publish the retention labels.

  • 一个位置也可以包含在多个保留标签策略中。A single location can also be included in many retention label policies.

除了保留标签策略之外,还可以创建一个或多个自动应用策略,每个策略都有一个保留标签。In addition to retention label policies, you can also create one or more auto-apply policies, each with a single retention label. 如果使用此策略,当满足你在策略中指定的条件时,保留标签就会自动应用。With this policy, a retention label is automatically applied when conditions that you specify in the policy are met.

保留标签策略和位置Retention label policies and locations

不同类型的保留标签可发布到不同位置,具体视保留标签用途而定。Different types of retention labels can be published to different locations, depending on what the retention label does.

如果保留标签是…If the retention label is… 可以将标签策略应用于…Then the label policy can be applied to…
发布给管理员和最终用户Published to admins and end users
Exchange、SharePoint、OneDrive、Microsoft 365 组Exchange, SharePoint, OneDrive, Microsoft 365 Groups
根据敏感信息类型或可训练的分类器自动应用Auto-applied based on sensitive information types or trainable classifiers
Exchange(仅全部邮箱)、SharePoint 和 OneDriveExchange (all mailboxes only), SharePoint, OneDrive
根据查询自动应用Auto-applied based on a query
Exchange、SharePoint、OneDrive、Microsoft 365 组Exchange, SharePoint, OneDrive, Microsoft 365 Groups

在 Exchange 中,自动应用保留标签只会应用于新发送的邮件(传输中的数据),而不是应用于邮箱中当前的所有项(静态数据)。In Exchange, auto-apply retention labels are applied only to messages newly sent (data in transit), not to all items currently in the mailbox (data at rest). 此外,用于敏感信息类型和可训练的分类器的自动应用保留标签应用于所有邮箱;你无法选择特定的邮箱。Also, auto-apply retention labels for sensitive information types and trainable classifiers apply to all mailboxes; you can't select specific mailboxes.

Exchange 公用文件夹、Skype、Teams 和 Yammer 消息不支持保留标签。Exchange public folders, Skype, Teams and Yammer messages do not support retention labels. 若要保留并从这些位置中删除内容,请改用保留策略。To retain and delete contain from these locations, use retention policies instead.

一次只能分配一个保留标签Only one retention label at a time

电子邮件或文档一次只能分配有一个保留标签:An email or document can have only a single retention label assigned to it at a time:

  • 对于管理员或最终用户手动分配的保留标签,用户可删除或更改所分配的保留标签。For retention labels assigned manually by admins or end users, people can remove or change the retention label that's assigned.

  • 如果内容已分配有自动应用标签,可以将此标签替换为发布的保留标签。If content has an auto-apply label assigned, this label can be replaced by a published retention label.

  • 如果内容已分配有发布的保留标签,无法将此标签替换为自动应用标签。If content has a published retention label assigned, an auto-apply label cannot replace it.

  • 若有多个规则要分配自动应用标签,且内容满足多个规则的条件,那么分配的是最早的(按创建日期)规则的保留标签。If there are multiple rules that assign an auto-apply label and content meets the conditions of multiple rules, the retention label for the oldest rule (by date created) is assigned.

要了解使用默认标签时的所有结果,请参阅将默认保留标签应用于 SharePoint 库、文件夹或文档集中的所有内容部分中的信息。To understand all outcomes when you use a default label, see the information in the Applying a default retention label to all content in a SharePoint library, folder, or document set section.

监视保留标签Monitoring retention labels

在 Microsoft 365 合规中心,使用 “数据分类” > “概述” 来监视保留标签在租户中的使用方式,并确定已标记项目的位置。From the Microsoft 365 compliance center, use Data classification > Overview to monitor how your retention labels are being used in your tenant, and identify where your labeled items are located. 有关详细信息(包括重要先决条件),请参阅了解你的数据 - 数据分类概述For more information, including important prerequisites, see Know your data - data classification overview.

然后,你可以通过使用内容资源管理器活动资源管理器来深入了解详细信息。You can then drill down into details by using content explorer and activity explorer.

提示

请考虑使用其他的一些数据分类见解(如可训练分类器和敏感信息类型),帮助你识别可能需要保留或删除的内容,或者作为记录进行管理的内容。Consider using some of the other data classification insights, such as trainable classifiers and sensitive info types, to help you identify content that you might need to retain or delete, or manage as records.

Office 365 安全与合规中心的保留标签概述信息与 “信息管理政策” > “仪表板” 中的概述信息相同,更加详细的信息可以在 “信息管理政策” > “标签活动资源管理器” 中找到。The Office 365 Security & Compliance Center has the equivalent overview information for retention labels from Information governance > Dashboard, and more detailed information from Information governance > Label activity explorer. 有关从较旧版本的管理中心监视保留标签的更多信息,请参阅以下文档:For more information about monitoring retention labels from this older admin center, see the following documentation:

使用“内容搜索”来查找所有带有特定保留标签的内容Using Content Search to find all content with a specific retention label

在将保留标签应用到内容后(无论是由用户应用还是自动应用),你都可以通过内容搜索来查找已经应用特定保留标签的所有项目。After retention labels are applied to content, either by users or auto-applied, you can use content search to find all items that have a specific retention label applied.

创建内容搜索时,选择“保留标签”条件,然后输入完整的保留标签名称或标签名称的一部分,并使用通配符。When you create a content search, choose the Retention label condition, and then enter the complete retention label name or part of the label name and use a wildcard. 有关详细信息,请参阅适用于内容搜索的关键字查询和搜索条件For more information, see Keyword queries and search conditions for Content Search.

保留标签条件

比较保留策略和保留标签的功能Compare capabilities for retention policies and retention labels

请使用下表来帮助你根据功能确定是使用保留策略还是保留标签。Use the following table to help you identify whether to use a retention policy or retention label, based on capabilities.

功能Capability 保留策略Retention policy 保留标签Retention label
保留设置可以是“保留后删除”、“仅保留”或“仅删除”Retention settings that can retain and then delete, retain-only, or delete-only Yes Yes
支持的工作负载:Workloads supported:
- Exchange- Exchange
- SharePoint- SharePoint
- OneDrive- OneDrive
- Microsoft 365 组- Microsoft 365 groups
- Skype for Business- Skype for Business
- Teams- Teams
- Yammer- Yammer

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

是,但公用文件夹除外Yes, except public folders
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
自动应用保留Retention applied automatically Yes Yes
基于条件应用保留Retention applied based on conditions
- 敏感信息类型、KQL 查询、可训练的分类器- sensitive info types, KQL queries, trainable classifiers
No Yes
手动应用保留Retention applied manually No Yes
对最终用户显示 UIUI presence for end users No Yes
在内容移动时仍继续应用在内容上Persists if the content is moved No 是,在您的 Microsoft 365 租户中Yes, within your Microsoft 365 tenant
将项声明为记录Declare item as a record No Yes
从内容被标记或事件发生时开始计算保留期Start the retention period when labeled or based on an event No Yes
处置评审Disposition review No Yes
最长 7 年的处置证明Proof of disposition for up to 7 years No 是,当项被声明为记录时Yes, when item is declared a record
审核管理员活动Audit admin activities Yes Yes
识别遵循保留设置的项:Identify items subject to retention:
- 内容搜索- Content Search
- 数据分类页、内容资源管理器、活动资源管理器- Data classification page, content explorer, activity explorer

No
No

必需Yes
Yes

请注意,可以同时将保留策略和保留标签用作互补的保留方法。Note that you can use both retention policies and retention labels as complementary retention methods. 例如:For example:

  1. 你创建并配置一个保留策略,以便在自最后一次修改内容起 5 年后自动删除内容,同时你将此策略应用于所有 OneDrive 帐户。You create and configure a retention policy that automatically deletes content five years after it's last modified, and apply the policy to all OneDrive accounts.

  2. 你创建并配置一个保留标签来永久保留内容,同时你将此标签添加到发布到所有 OneDrive 帐户的标签策略中。You create and configure a retention label that keeps content forever and add this to a label policy that you publish to all OneDrive accounts. 你向用户解释如何将此标签手动应用于特定文档,这些文档应排除在 5 年未修改后自动删除范围之外。You explain to users how to manually apply this label to specific documents that should be excluded from automatic deletion if not modified after five years.

若要详细了解保留策略和保留标签是如何协同工作的,以及如何确定它们的合并结果,请参阅下一部分,其中介绍了保留原则和优先级。For more information about how retention policies and retention labels work together and how to determine their combined outcome, see the next section that explains the principles of retention and what takes precedence.

保留原则或优先级The principles of retention, or what takes precedence?

内容可能(甚至可能性很高)应用有多个保留策略和保留标签,每个策略和标签都有不同的操作(保留、删除或保留后删除)和保留期。It's possible or even likely that content might have several retention policies and retention labels applied to it, each with a different action (retain, delete, or retain and then delete) and retention period. 优先级What takes precedence?

概括来说,可以确定的是,保留始终优先于删除,然后是最长保留期胜出。At a high level, you can be assured that retention always takes precedence over deletion, and then the longest retention period wins.

不过,此复杂问题还需要考虑其他几个因素,所以请使用以下流来理解优先级顺序自上而下的结果:如果结果由第一个级别决定,则无需进入下一级别,依此类推。However, there are a few more factors to throw into the mix, so use the following flow to understand the outcome where each level acts as a tie-breaker from top to bottom: If the outcome is determined by the first level, there's no need to progress to the next level, and so on. 只有当结果无法由当前级别的规则确定时,流才会向下移动到下一个级别,以确定保留设置的优先级结果。Only if the outcome can't be determined by the rules for the level does the flow move down to the next level to determine the outcome for which retention settings take precedence.

保留原则关系图

有关四种不同级别的说明:Explanation for the four different levels:

  1. 保留优先于删除。Retention wins over deletion. 如果某保留策略配置为在 3 年后删除 Exchange 电子邮件,但另一保留策略配置为将 Exchange 电子邮件保留 5 年后再删除。Suppose that one retention policy is configured to delete Exchange email after three years, but another retention policy is configured to retain Exchange email for five years and then delete it. 达到 3 年的内容将被删除并隐藏,但仍保留在“可恢复项目”文件夹中,然后在达到 5 年后被永久删除。Any content that reaches three years old will be deleted and hidden from the users' view, but still retained in the Recoverable Items folder until the content reaches five years old, when it is permanently deleted.

  2. 优选最长的保留期。The longest retention period wins. 如果内容遵循多个在不同时间段内保留内容的保留设置,内容会一直保留到最长保留期结束。If content is subject to multiple retention settings that retain content for different periods of time, the content will be retained until the end of the longest retention period.

  3. 显式包含优先于隐式包含。Explicit inclusion wins over implicit inclusion. 这意味着:This means:

    1. 如果具有保留设置的保留标签是由用户手动分配给项(如 Exchange 电子邮件或 OneDrive 文档),此保留标签优先于在站点或邮箱级别分配的保留策略,同时也优先于向文档库分配的默认保留标签。If a retention label with retention settings is manually assigned by a user to an item, such as an Exchange email or OneDrive document, that retention label takes precedence over both a retention policy assigned at the site or mailbox level and a default retention label assigned to the document library. 例如,如果显式保留标签配置为将内容保留 10 年,但分配给此站点的保留策略配置为只将内容保留 5 年,则保留标签优先。For example, if the explicit retention label is configured to retain content for ten years, but a retention policy assigned to the site is configured to retain content for only five years, the retention label takes precedence.

    2. 如果保留策略包含特定位置(如特定用户的邮箱或 OneDrive 帐户),此保留策略优先于应用于所有用户邮箱或 OneDrive 帐户(而不是包含具体用户邮箱)的其他保留策略。If a retention policy includes a specific location, such as a specific user's mailbox or OneDrive account, that retention policy takes precedence over another retention policy that applies to all users' mailboxes or OneDrive accounts but doesn't specifically include that user's mailbox.

  4. 最短删除期优先。The shortest deletion period wins. 同样,如果内容遵循多个删除内容而无保留期的保留设置,内容会在最短保留期结束时删除。Similarly, if content is subject to multiple retention settings that delete content without a retention period, that content will be deleted at the end of the shortest retention period.

最后,保留策略或保留标签无法永久删除任何保留用于电子数据展示的内容。Finally, a retention policy or retention label cannot permanently delete any content that's on hold for eDiscovery. 当保留解除时,此内容重新符合工作负载的安全位置中的清除过程的条件。When that hold is released, the content again becomes eligible for the cleanup process in the secured locations for the workload.

使用保存锁来限制对策略的更改Use Preservation Lock to restrict changes to policies

某些组织可能需要遵从由监管机构定义的规则,如美国证券交易委员会 (SEC) 规则 17a-4,该规则要求在启用保留策略之后,不得关闭该策略或降低其限制。Some organizations might need to comply with rules defined by regulatory bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Rule 17a-4, which requires that after a policy for retention is turned on, it cannot be turned off or made less restrictive.

保存锁可确保组织符合此类监管要求,因为它可以锁定保留策略或保留标签策略,因此任何人(包括管理员)都无法关闭该策略、删除该策略或降低其限制性。Preservation Lock ensures your organization can meet such regulatory requirements because it locks a retention policy or retention label policy so that no one—including an administrator—can turn off the policy, delete the policy, or make it less restrictive.

在创建保留策略或保留标签策略后应用保存锁。You apply Preservation Lock after the retention policy or retention label policy is created. 有关更多信息和说明,请参阅 使用保存锁来限制对保留策略和保留标签策略的更改For more information and instructions, see Use Preservation Lock to restrict changes to retention policies and retention label policies.

发布保留策略Releasing a policy for retention

如果你的保留策略没有保留锁,你可以随时删除你的策略,这将有效地关闭之前应用的保留设置。Providing your policies for retention don't have a Preservation Lock, you can delete your policies at any time, which effectively turns off the previously applied retention settings. 你也可以保留该策略,但将位置状态更改为关闭。You can also keep the policy but change the location status to off.

当你执行上述任一操作时,保留在保存库中的任何 SharePoint 或 OneDrive 内容都不会立即永久删除。When you do either of these actions, any SharePoint or OneDrive content that's being retained in the Preservation Hold library is not immediately and permanently deleted. 相反,为了防止意外的数据丢失,我们设置了 30 天的宽限期。在此期间,相应策略的内容不会在保留库中到期,所以你可以根据需要从其中还原任何内容。Instead, to help prevent inadvertent data loss, there is a 30-day grace period, during which content expiration for that policy does not happen in the Preservation Hold library, so that you can restore any content from there, if needed. 此外,在宽限期内无法手动删除此内容。Additionally, you can't manually delete this content during the grace period.

你可以在宽限期内将位置状态更改为启用,并且不会删除该策略的内容。You can change the location status back to on during the grace period, and no content will be deleted for that policy.

SharePoint 和 OneDrive 中的此 30 天宽限期对应于 Exchange 中的 30 天延迟保留。This 30-day grace period in SharePoint and OneDrive corresponds to the 30-day delay hold in Exchange. 有关详细信息,请参阅管理延迟保留的邮箱For more information, see Managing mailboxes on delay hold.

审核保留配置Auditing retention configuration

启用审核后,管理员针对保留政策和保留标签的操作会被保存到审核日志中。Administrator actions for retention policies and retention labels are saved to the audit log when auditing is enabled. 例如,创建、配置或删除保留政策或标签时会创建审核事件。For example, an audit event is created when a retention policy or label is created, configured, or deleted. 如需完整的列表,请参阅保留策略和保留标签活动For the full list, see Retention policy and retention label activities.

用于保留策略和保留标签的 PowerShell cmdletPowerShell cmdlets for retention policies and retention labels

若要使用保留 cmdlet,必须先连接到 Office 365 安全与合规中心 PowerShellTo use the retention cmdlets, you must first connect to the Office 365 Security & Compliance Center PowerShell. 然后,使用以下任何 cmdlet:Then, use any of the following cmdlets:

何时使用保留策略和保留标签或电子数据展示保留When to use retention policies and retention labels or eDiscovery holds

虽然保留设置和电子文件展示案列创建的保留都可以防止数据被永久删除,它们是针对不同情况设计的。Although retention settings and holds that you create with an eDiscovery case can both prevent data from being permanently deleted, they are designed for different scenarios. 为了帮助你了解差异并决定使用哪个,请使用以下指南:To help you understand the differences and decide which to use, use the following guidance:

  • 在保留策略和保留标签中指定的保留设置旨在用于长期信息管理策略,以保留或删除符合法规要求的数据。Retention settings that you specify in retention policies and retention labels are designed for a long-term information governance strategy to retain or delete data for compliance requirements. 通常范围很广,主要重点是位置和内容,而不是单个用户。The scope is usually broad with the main focus being the location and content rather than individual users. 保留期的开始和结束是可配置的,可以选择自动删除内容,无需其他管理员干预。The start and end of the retention period is configurable, with the option to automatically delete content without additional administrator intervention.

  • 电子数据展示保留(核心电子数据展示或高级电子数据展示案例)的设计期限有限,可以保存数据以进行法律调查。Holds for eDiscovery (either Core eDiscovery or Advanced eDiscovery cases) are designed for a limited duration to preserve data for a legal investigation. 范围是特定的,重点是已识别用户拥有的内容。The scope is specific with the focus being content owned by identified users. 保留期的开始和结束是不可配置的,但取决于单个管理员的操作,如果保留被释放,则无法选择自动删除内容。The start and end of the preservation period isn't configurable but dependent on individual administrator actions, without an option to automatically delete content when the hold is released.

比较保留与电子数据展示保留的摘要:Summary to compare retention with holds:

注意事项Consideration 保留Retention 电子数据展示保留eDiscovery holds
业务需求:Business need: 合规性Compliance 法律Legal
时间范围:Time scope: 长期Long-term 短期Short-term
焦点:Focus: 广泛、基于内容Broad, content-based 特定、基于用户Specific, user-based
开始和结束日期可配置:Start and end date configurable: Yes No
内容删除:Content deletion: 是(可选)Yes (optional) No
管理开销:Administrative overheads: Low High

如果内容遵循保留设置和电子数据展示保留,则保存电子数据展示保留的内容始终具有优先权。If content is subject to both retention settings and an eDiscovery hold, preserving content for the eDiscovery hold always takes precedence. 这样,保留原则扩展到电子数据展示保留,因为它们保留数据,直到管理员手动释放保留为止。In this way, the principles of retention expand to eDiscovery holds because they preserve data until an administrator manually releases the hold. 但是,尽管有此优先顺序,但不要将电子数据展示保留用于长期信息治理。However, despite this precedence, don't use eDiscovery holds for long-term information governance. 如果担心自动删除数据,则可以将保留设置配置为永久保留项目,或将处置审查与保留标签一起使用。If you are concerned about automatic deletion of data, you can configure retention settings to retain items forever, or use disposition review with retention labels.

如果你使用的是旧的电子数据展示工具来保留数据,请参阅以下资源:If you are using older eDiscovery tools to preserve data, see the following resources:

使用保留策略和保留标签,而不是旧功能Use retention policies and retention labels instead of older features

如果需要在 Microsoft 365 中主动保留或删除内容来实现信息管理,建议使用保留策略和保留标签,而不是以下旧功能。If you need to proactively retain or delete content in Microsoft 365 for information governance, we recommend that you use retention policies and retention labels instead of the following older features.

如果当前使用这些旧功能,可以继续将它们与保留策略和保留标签并行使用。If you currently use these older features, they will continue to work side-by-side with retention policies and retention labels. 但我们建议今后使用保留策略和保留标签。However, we recommend that going forward, you use retention policies and retention labels instead. 它们为你提供了在 Microsoft 365 中集中管理内容保留和删除的单一机制。They provide you with a single mechanism to centrally manage both retention and deletion of content across Microsoft 365.

Exchange Online 中的早期功能:Older features from Exchange Online:

SharePoint 和 OneDrive 中的早期功能:Older features from SharePoint and OneDrive:

如果已将 SharePoint 网站配置为应用保留列表或库的内容的内容类型策略或信息管理策略,则这些策略会在保留策略生效时被忽略。If you have configured SharePoint sites for content type policies or information management policies to retain content for a list or library, those policies are ignored while a retention policy is in effect.

后续步骤Next steps

如果已准备好创建保留策略,请参阅创建和配置保留策略If you are ready to create retention policies, see Create and configure retention policies.

若要创建和应用保留标签,请执行以下操作:To create and apply retention labels: